Studies on hospital LOS are needed to know the areas where hospital services must be reorganized and restructured to meet current and future demands . Few studies exist in published literatures that documented the LOS of surgical inpatients in Nigeria. The mean duration of hospital stay was 13.11 days among patients with post traumatic bowel injury in Ibadan, Nigeria . Only few studies have documented the length of stay of all surgical patients seen over a period of time. This study therefore aimed to determine the LOS among inpatients that had surgery in 2010 and to identify factors associated with prolonged stay at University College Hospital, Ibadan.
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hospital visit, home care and insurers may be physically and psychologically tiring for caregivers (Glajchen, 2009). During home care, caregivers arrange and manage home care experts, medical and food provisions. Caregivers may also manage medical emergencies. They assume the patient’s domestic responsibilities, run errands and thereby neglect social and work activities. Caregivers have been reported to experience persistent psychological distress and role adjustment difficulties up to 12 months after patient have completed treatment (Northouse, Templin, Mood et al., 1998; Mellon, Northouse & Weiss, 2006).
The University College Hospital Ibadan is a large tertiary care referral centre located in Ibadan, the capital city of Oyo State, in South West, Nigeria. Patients come from Ibadan, other parts of Oyo State and beyond. Approxi- mately 68% of the population of Nigeria live below the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) poverty line of 1.25 dollars per day . Patients are required to pay out-of-pocket for medical care, including RRT. The Na- tional Health Insurance is limited to a minority of em- ployees of the Federal Government as of now and does not include the cost of dialysis or kidney transplantation. According to the 2006 national census, Oyo State has a population of 5,580,894 and a growth rate of 3.35%. The population of children aged ≤ 14 years in Oyo state is 2,099,694, while that of children aged 5-14 years is 1,385,660. While Ibadan, the capital city, has a popula- tion of 2,560,573 with populations of children aged ≤ 14 years and those aged between 5-14 years in Ibadan 949,639 and 608,012 respectively [15-17].
This study analysed mycoses histopathologically diagnosed in the Department of Pathology University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria over a thirty-seven year period from January 1970 to December 2006. The slides of all the patients with fungal infections recorded in the surgical daybooks and autopsy reports of the department were retrieved and reviewed. Where the original slides had faded or could not be found, their paraffin blocks were retrieved and fresh slides made from them. Special stains such as Gomori’s methenamine silver stain and periodic acid Schiff stains were done where necessary to confirm the diagnosis.
This study was carried out at the University College Hospital, Ibadan the first centre in Nigeria to commence clinical Nuclear Medicine services. The Nuclear Medicine centre was commissioned in the year 2006 and at its inception, the imaging room is equipped with a Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) unit which comprises a single head Gamma Camera and its ancillary equipment through the support (Technical Cooperation Project) of the International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, Vienna Austria.
Cytoreductive abdominal surgery revealed a bulky copious mucinous gelatinous tumor filling the abdominal cavity making detailed examination and resection diffi- cult. Therefore, a sample was taken for cytopathological examination and it corroborated the previous finding of mucinous adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry was done at the Fuerth Teaching Hospital at the University of Erlangen (Germany). Staining with CDX2 showed strong positivity, confirming our suspicion of a primary colon tumor (Figure 1B).
the KUDP central hospital) was simple. Therefore, we fa- cilitated two different routes to KUDP admission: 1) a referral letter from clinicians and 2) a direct visit for the patient to the KUDP central hospital. All included pa- tients enrolled in KUDP using the latter route, which likely had advantages, including that experts could examine the patients directly and decide whether to en- roll them or not within a short period. Considering the Korean medical referral and insurance system, we would want to maintain those two separate routes to KUDP ad- mission, although we expect a gradual increase in en- rolled patients through a nationwide network from regional clinics. We classified patients into four categor- ies (I–IV). Category II, undiagnosed due to low aware- ness, consisted of undiagnosed patients who had received extensive diagnostic workup at other tertiary university-based medical centers. We enrolled these pa- tients in the “pilot” project to evaluate their rare disease diagnostic status within the current health care system and to develop a nation-wide network for successful and effective development of diagnostic pathway of the KUDP. Henceforth, we plan to exclude patients in cat- egory II from the main UDP project and refer them back to their local network hospital, along with guidelines for appropriate diagnostics. We also plan to expand the adult patients included in the program and focus on undiagnosed patients in categories III and IV, followed by related functional research studies.
This study has described the state of paediatric renal dialysis in the University College Hospital, Ibadan at the close of the 20 th Century. Dialysis is a life-saving procedure which if commenced early and appropriately delivered could sustain life till the underlying cause of kidney failure is handled or sorted out. This is not readily available in developing countries. At the beginning of the study period, PD was the only dialytic modality available to children in Ibadan, but its effectiveness was limited by non- availability of consumables, namely dialysates and PD catheters. Haemodialysis subsequently commenced in 1990, but was restricted to adults, only being extended to adolescents in 1996 - only 8 children benefitted from it over a 4-year period. HD was a rarity for children in Nigeria then. Of the 10 patients dialyzed at Ile-Ife, South- west Nigeria by Olowu and Adelusola  between 1994 and 2003, 7 underwent PD and 3 HD.
This study was approved by all Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) of participating hospitals, including Chungnam National University Hospital IRB. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01658020 and Clinical Research Information Service registry number KCT0000532. In Korea, there is no main approval IRB system in the case of multicenter study. Each participating hospital needs its own IRB approval. Therefore, this study protocol was approved by the individual IRBs of each hospital enrolling patients. All IRB names are listed as follows: Chungnam National University Hospital IRB, Chonbuk National University Hospital IRB, Chosun University Hospital IRB, CHA Bundang Medical Center IRB, Chungbuk National University Hospital IRB, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hos- pital IRB, Hanyang University Guri Hospital IRB, Asan Medi- cal Center IRB, Gachon University Gil Medical Center IRB, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul ST Mary’s Hospital IRB, Konyang University Hospital IRB, Gangneung Asan Hospital IRB, Kangwon National University Hospital IRB, Gyeongsang National University Hospital IRB, Kyunghee University Hospital IRB, Korea University Medical Center IRB, Dongguk University Gyeongju Hospital IRB, and Soonchunhyang University Hospital IRB. CNU-IRB file number is 2012-07-013. All patients provided written informed consent. All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Subjects and Methods: This study was carried out at Clinical Biochemistry Unit, Biochemistry Department, College of Medicine, Baghdad University, Iraq, during the period from November 2009 to July 2010. It included 33 infertile women with PCOS who were subdivided into; Group I (GI) involved 20 women who were studied on day 2-4 of their menstrual cycle and Group II (GII) which consisted of 13 women who were studied on 11-13 cycle day. Eighteen healthy fertile women were served as controls. Investigation included serum measurements of AMH, inhibin B, FSH, LH, E2, prolactin and free testosterone in PCOS and control women by using ELISA technique.
Results &Conclusion-- Thirty patients with unstable Intertrochanteric fracture were treated with TFN from June 2014 to August 2016. Mean age of the patients 65.07 years (35-92 years). Overall mean time of radiological fracture union was 15 weeks (range 13-18). Mean hospital stay was 13 days (range 12 to 18 days).The mean Modified Harris Hip Score of the TFN was 88.25.In our study, Patients with Unstable intertrochanteric fracture treated with trochanteric fixation nail had results that were comparable with that of other studies done elsewhere with good radiological and functional outcome.
Ben Bridgewater and Stuart Grant University Hospital of South Manchester, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre and the National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research. Graeme Hickey, Northwest Institute for BioHealth Informatics, University of Manchester and Nadeem Fazal National Clinical Audit Services Manager, University College London, National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research. The National Adult Cardiac Surgery audit has been developed and run by the Society for Cardiothoracic Surgery in GB and Ireland (SCTS) since 1977. It has been commissioned by the Healthcare Quality Improvement Partnership (HQIP). Data were collected at each unit (and we are very grateful for the support of the surgeons and database managers in each hospital) and collated at the Central Cardiac Audit Database (CCAD) which is part of the National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research (NICOR) at University College London. The analysis in this report was undertaken by Graeme Hickey at the University of Manchester. Graeme’s salary was kindly provided through a grant from Heart Research UK.
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age, and current smokers or ex-smokers with at least 10 pack-years of tobacco exposure. The prespeci ﬁ ed criteria of clinical control were de ﬁ ned by Soler-Cataluña et al. 12,13 A patient was considered controlled when clinically stable and with a low impact adjusted by level of disease sever- ity. Impact is related to the manifestations of the disease at the time of medical consultation and stability is related to the changes of the clinical status of the patient over time including the presence of exacerbations. A COPD exacer- bation was de ﬁ ned as of any one of the following: acute use of oral corticosteroids and/or a course of antibiotics, for lower respiratory symptoms or within 5 days of an unscheduled hospital admission/emergency department attendance for acute respiratory symptoms. In this analy- sis, we compared clinical characteristics between Asian and Western COPD patients. Asian patients were enrolled in Singapore and South Korea. Western patients were enrolled in Spain, Poland, Ireland, the United Kingdom, and Malta. The study was approved by the local Research and Ethics Committees of each participating research site (University Hospital Vall d ’ Hebron, Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Seoul St. Mary ’ s Hospital, Royal College of Surgeons, Singapore General Hospital, Hospital de Alta Resolución de Loja, Mater Dei Hospital, Hospital Comarcal de Laredo, Changi General Hospital, Primary Health-care Center Son Pisà, and Hospital Arnau de Vilanova) and all patients provided written informed consent. Also, this study is registered in European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance (EUPAS11656) and approved by Anonymised Data Ethics & Protocol Transparency Committee (ADEPT0115).
Enuresis is one of the obstinate problems of children that need utmost attention. By the ancient scholars it has been described as “Shaiyyamutra” having psychosomatic origin. However, Shaiyyamutra has been considered a problem for over 3000 years, it is seldom talked about sadly and comparatively little research has been done on the problem. Therefore, this open controlled study was planned keeping in mind the mental condition of parents as well as the children. For this 30 patient of both sexes were randomly selected from OPD and IPD of S.K Govt. Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Kurukshetra, Haryana and Associated Hospital of University College of Ayurved, Jodhpur, Rajasthan equally divided into two groups. In Group A 15 patients were treated with Shaiyyamutrahara tablet while in Group B 15 patients were treated with Placebo therapy for 45 days. Drug dose was calculated by Clark‟s rule. Follow up was done every fortnightly. Parents counseling were done in both groups. Statistically highly significant result is seen in group A patients. It is concluded that Shaiyyamutrahara tablet along with the instructions in Group A is highly effective to break down the pathogenesis as well as controlling the symptoms of Shaiyyamutra.
30 In Ireland, a random sample of 3,035 medical and surgical in-patients across 37 acute hospitals were reviewed between November 2006 and February 2007 by PA Consulting Group and Balance of Care Group (2007) for the HSE. The results of this study, though not focused on end-of-life, showed that 13% could have been treated outside an acute setting, 75% of elective survey patients were admitted earlier than necessary, 39% of day patients could have been treated in an alternative setting, and discharge planning was in evidence from the notes of 40% of patients. In response to this, the HSE introduced a Code of Practice for Integrated Discharge Planning in December 2008 with the overall purpose of reducing the average length of stay in hospitals to the OECD average. This code of practice provides a framework for care and case management and comprises a suite of national standards, recommended practices, forms, toolkits, key metrics and audit tools. In the UK, a recent study on end-of-life care by the National Audit Office (2008:7) reported: ‘Our detailed examination of patient records in one PCT [Primary Care Trust] found that 40 per cent of patients who died in hospital in October 2007 did not have medical needs which required them to be treated in hospital, and nearly a quarter of these had been in hospital for over a month. Alternative places of care for these patients identified by our work were equally split between home based alternatives (in the patient’s own home or a care home) and bed based care in a hospice. Local data suggest there was sufficient inpatient palliative care capacity to take many of the patients who died in hospital’.
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We performed a multi-center, cross-sectional study that analyzed women with multiple pregnancy in 2013. Each of the ten hospitals included in this study was a Grade 3 facility affiliated with a university. The hospitals were located in different regions of China, and they were among the first hospitals approved by the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China to establish local regional maternal- fetal medicine centers. The institutional review board of each facility approved our study. The ten hospitals were: First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Gulou Clinical Medical College of Nanjing Medical University, Obstetrical and Gynecological Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, Peking University First Hospital, Shandong Provincial Hospital of Shandong University, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Health Institute Affiliated to Tongji University, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Third Hospital Affiliated at GuangZhou Medical University, and Women’s Hospital School of Medicine at Zhejiang University.
The clinical study commenced in March 2010 and was completed in December 2011. Patients undergoing urolo- gical surgery in need of indwelling urethral catheter and more than 7 days of hospitalization were recruited. A total of 1,150 patients (869 male and 281 female), aged from 2 to 82 years, were accrued. Twenty-three hospitals participated in this clinical trial, and every hospital accrued 25 patients each to the control group and ther- apy group. All patients were operated due to urological diseases, including but not limited to urinary tract stones, tumors, prostatic hyperplasia, ureteral stenosis and hydronephrosis. Indwelling urethral catheter was neces- sary for patients requiring over 7 days of hospital stay. The midstream urine bacterial culture [15-17] was nega- tive at the time of inclusion in the study. Exclusion cri- teria of the study included patients with a long-term use of balloon catheter, intermittent self-catheterization, pre- vious treatment of percutaneous paracentetic suprapubic cyctostomy and UTI patients. Patients were randomized according to the order of surgical treatment. The odd
We analyzed 758 nonduplicate isolates of GNB collected from various specimens of patients admitted to ICUs at seven medical centers from January to December 2016. One partici- pating hospital submitted only 57 clinical isolates, whereas the other six hospitals submitted more than 100 each. These clinical isolates included A. baumannii complex (n = 138), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 137), P. aeruginosa (n = 128), Escherichia coli (n = 121), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 61), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 51), Serratia marcescens (n = 42), Proteus mirabilis (n = 38), Burkholderia cepacia (n = 19), Morganella morganii (n = 13), and Citrobacter freun- dii (n = 10) (Table 1). Sputum/endotracheal aspirates were the
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A total of 100 patients with EMS in the De- partment of Gynecology of Wuhan Children’s Hospital (Wuhan Maternal and Child Health- care Hospital), Tongji Medical College, Hua- zhong University of Science & Technology, Ch- ina, scheduled for laparoscopic surgery from January 2011 to December 2014 were recruit- ed into the study and randomly divided into a treatment group (n=50) and control group (n=50) using the random number table meth- od. Patients in the treatment group received additional GnRH-a treatment after laparoscop- ic surgery, while those in the control group underwent laparoscopic surgery alone.
pale imitations of i.v. treatments. Many of these new agents, especially signal transduction inhibitors or angiogenesis inhibitors, will be available only as oral treatments with an i.v. dosage form either impractical or inappropriate. Oral treatment will reduce the number of in- patient and out-patient hospital visits with their associated medical and nursing administrative costs, avoid the expense of disposables  (e.g. infusion equipment, pumps) and decrease the pharmacy workload. Chemotherapy costs account for only a small proportion of the direct cost of cancer care so it should be possible to set increased drug costs against the substantial savings that will be made elsewhere. Drug budgets are, however, easily identified and this process will be easier in some countries than in others. This article reviews the diagnostic aids, medium of choice for investigation both invasive and noninvasive, role, validation and prevalidation of salivary biomarkers,  drug delivery systems, metabolomics recent developments in oral chemotherapy, both of traditional cytotoxics and novel, targeted agents, from the viewpoint of patients, physicians, and health-care providers.