The Internet usage has grown rapidly during the last decade in almost every country in the world and in Jordan specifically; today millions of individuals are connected to the Internet and the Internet has become the backbone of the information economy. It was used for social, commercial, political, and personal interactions. This study aims to investigate the attitudes of students at The University of Jordan towards us- ing ICT (Information and Communication Technology). A semi-structured ques- tionnaire was used to collect the data for obtaining students attitudes on the amount of Internet usage, reasons for using the Internet, and how the Internet impacted on students’ life. The data analysis was done by using SPSS, version 17. 536 students from different faculties (medical, humanities, and scientific) of the University of Jordan participated in the study. The results indicated that most students access In- ternet before they attended university; there is a positive attitude towards Internet; and they used it mainly for social websites, chatting and information gathering. The slow speed of the Internet connection and the lack of adopting ICT in courses sylla- bus are some constraints facing the students.
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Students undergo a number of problems when taking an E-learning course. Some of these problems were ad- dressed by the University of Jordan’s students; such as lacking confidence and experience with the use of com- puters, lacking skills in commonly used applications, self-motivation and time-management. Some of them are not, i.e. like the language problems, privacy and security, and resistance to change. The researchers developed a small paper based survey and sent to students at The University of Jordan which considered of 240 students from different faculties distributed as shown in Figure 4.
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The main findings of the study can be summarized as follows: First, the results revealed good overall know- ledge among the clinical group regarding different as- pects of oral cancer compared to pre-clinical group. The commonest anatomic sites, clinical manifestations and risk factors were correctly identified by the majority of the participants in the clinical group. However, a rela- tively large percentage of the clinical group failed to identify lips, buccal mucosa and palate as potential sites for oral cancer development. Lack of knowledge regard- ing buccal mucosa is particularly worrisome since these cancers generally have poor prognosis . In addition, more than one-third of the participants in the clinical group failed to identify the frequent early lesions of oral cancer including the hard painless masses and mixed red-white lesions “erytholeukoplastic lesions” which might lead to delay in diagnosis that is associated with less-favourable outcome . For the risk factors of oral cancer, the clinical group showed better results com- pared to the previous studies that were conducted in Jordan both among dental students and recently gradu- ated medical and dental professionals [29, 30]. This might be related to intervention measures including im- proved dental education in light of the previous results of studies conducted in Jordan and globally. In addition, the rate of correct identification of smoking, alcohol consumption and HPV as risk factors for the disease was higher than the rates observed in some of the MENA countries among dentists and dental students, but in line with results of studies conducted in the Netherlands, Spain and Saudi Arabia [31, 32, 46–48].
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These positive findings may reflect the cultural norms in Jordan. Jordanian women generally hold more responsibili- ties regarding procreation, thus they seek more information regarding RH issues. This gender difference regarding RH knowledge should be taken into consideration when provid- ing health education to youth, in order to meet their needs. Positive findings related to attitudes toward RH were identified prior to the study intervention, in which almost all students agreed upon the extent of the benefits of family planning and that men and women have equal rights with regard to family planning decisions. The majority of the students did not favor early marriage and agreed that it has negative implications on the stability of the family. In addition, most of them disagree that the purpose of marriage
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The results of the study reflected a significant positive correlation between family monthly income and the average score of all subscales. This result is consistent with the study of Wei et al.  which found a signifi- cant correlation between Japanese university students’ monthly income and interpersonal relations sub domain. Similarly, Can et al.  showed a statistical significant difference between nursing students’ total HPLP and averages of all subscales and their level of income. In addition, a Turkish study by Hacıhasanoğlu et al.  re- vealed that the mean total score and sub scores increased as the level of income increase. Contrast results were found in the study of Hong . Now days, Jordan as other countries in the region is affected by the global economic slowdown, which in turn impact the living conditions of the families. Therefore, student from middle and poor classes cannot charge for practicing sport in club, and nourishing food. No statistical significant dif- ference was found between gender and the mean total score for HPLP. This result is similar to those obtained in previous studies  .
acetate–polyethylene glycol graft copolymer in the ratios of 57%– 33%–13%, respectively) was kindly provided by the BASF company (Ludwigshafen, Germany). Potassium Bromide (IR Spectroscopy grade) and methanol were provided by Fisher chemical, UK. Nylon membrane filters 0.45 µm were from Bonna-Agela Technologies, US. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) that ha 99.995% purification grade was supplied by the Jordanian Gas Co., Amman, Jordan. All the materials were used as provided without any modification.
schools include pharmacy, medicine, nursing, dentistry, and applied medical sciences. Students of different academic levels (juniors and seniors) were targeted. The students were approached with the survey during their scheduled elective course classes, via taking 10 minutes out of the class time (at the end of the class). The study protocol and obtaining of informed verbal consent were approved by the institutional review board committee at King Abdullah University Hos- pital, JUST. An informed verbal consent was obtained from individuals after explaining the purpose of the study and that the involvement was voluntary. Students were also informed that their responses would be anonymous and confidential. Graduate students were not included in the study.
Jordan’s mining sector is considered the cornerstone to the Jordanian economy. Many positive outlooks are looming with an increasing domestic added value along with in- vesting in other areas, such as oil shale, phosphate and uranium. There are many com- petitive elements of mining industry in Jordan which are identified with numerous viewpoints, for example, abundance of natural resources, cost-competitive location for mineral extraction and manufacturing and proximity to markets, large and highly skilled labors, infrastructure and solid administrative environment and political stabil- ity. These aspects will maximize the opportunities of this sector, like expansion for de- mand of building and decoration stones, mineral extraction products, glass manufac- ture from silica, mining and processing of copper, gold, zirconium and uranium; phosphate, limestone, dolomite, feldspar, clays, potash; oil shale extraction for direct combustion power plants; basalt extraction for fibber; zeolite mining for many applica- tion as fertilizers. In spite of that, it can be noticed that there are serious threats to fu- ture development of mining sector. These threats are related to restrictions and re- quirements of laws and regulations of the mining sector, in addition to environmental issues and unstable political situation in the region. Each one has its negative effect that should be taken into consideration by the government and private sectors for future development of mining sector in Jordan. To minimize the effects of these threats, the government of Jordan should update the laws and regulations that stimulate investment in this sector and reconsider many of these instructions with the aim to achieve sustai- nability of investment in the mining sector and improve Gross National Product of Jordan.
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sponsored by the College of Humanities and Social Sciences at Kennesaw State University and Barbara Jordan-Mickey Leland School of Public Affairs at Texas Southern University. This publication seeks articles from all disciplines of social science. The Review particularly welcomes manuscripts on the social, economic, political, and policy problems and issues of the African continent and the Diaspora as well as empirical and theoretical articles. Book reviewers are requested to submit articles on recent publications in related topics. Only papers not currently under review or previously published elsewhere can be considered. All submissions are blind refereed. Clarity and directness of presentation are required.
This investigation is made in 2017 , Saudi Female dental school students, encompassing Compared with Jordan, European, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, western Canadian and Greek dental schools a first, fourth and fifth-year student. First and second years are spent on Preparatory dental educational courses; dental courses are primarily given in, and clinical work in the fourth and fifth year. The schools follow a traditional lecture-based system, and tuition is mandatory for the students.
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General Positioning System (GPS), gyroscope and compass are the main purposes of uses for direction finding and tracking, consequently, several sensors are employed in mobile systems for that purpose. Augmented reality application is stimulated by the navigation feature in order to further developed and possible easily use or conveniently daily basis. The proposed project aims to make the University of Petra smart campus by developing guidance for wayfinding. The student, staff, or visitor will be able to find the required location by using the attractive and interesting integrated mobile AR app. According to Fraga-Lamas et al.  study, augmented reality is subjected to immense development, especially in navigation methods. Many researchers explored augmenting virtual objects methods like tracking and registration. Fuchsová et al.  stated that the tracking method in the construction of a precious AR system is an essential element. Many tracking methods are categorized into two classes: sensor-based and vision-based method. The vision- based method concludes the captured scene pose from the camera, a camera device is needed in order to acquire the required information for the tracking process. The main issue of this method is the ability of the system to conclude the relation between virtual objects and the real environment when slowly capturing image sequences . In the past, the vision- based method utilizes a marker of fiducials to support the system in analyzing the features through clarifying the conclusion to the related fiducials. Black square markers are used by the AR Toolkit library for the tracking procedure . Berkovich et al. , , ,  stated that several markers have been proposed. Due to the simplicity of markers, robust and fast augmented reality experience can be delivered by marker-based technique. A comparative survey of the performance of many marker-based techniques shows contrast . On the opposite side, the sensor-based tracking method depends on special sensors like initials or ultrasonic and camera indeed. Augmented is done to the scene captured through the camera after provided the environment information to the system by sensors. The previous method incorporates a GPS sensor and ultrasonic in order to obtain their position
However, the experience of loneliness is likewise unpleasant and distressing. Loneliness may also lead to people to submerge themselves into dependency relations, following direction, imitation, being like others, and striving for power and status (Peplau, L. 1982; Rokach A, Brock H.1997) Reading, watching TV, using the internet, social activities, attending parties, drinking, and also using drugs do not only signal loneliness, but these also may be some adaptive or maladaptive coping strategies university students use to overcome this unpleasant and distressing experience – loneliness (Yeh, M.2002) Researchers have indicated that adolescents experience more loneliness than any other age groups (Jones, W. Carver, M.1991) Late adolescence and early adulthood (i.e., university age) are especially high risk for experiencing loneliness (Deniz, M. Hamarta, E. Ari, R. 2005; Ponzetti, J. 1990; Cutrona, C. 1982) University is a transition period from being an adolescent to being an adult. It is a period for university students to seek and fulfil their sense of individuality and, at the same time, to seek and build close and social relationships with others. For many university students, this may be the first time they live away from their parents. They may move from the emotional and social support of their families. They leave home as well as their hometown friends. The separation of university students from their homes for the first time may create feelings of doubt, confusion, and anxiety, which the close companionship of residential halls may not totally prevent (Weiss, R.1993) Once entering the university, they need to re-evaluate their past relationships with parents, teachers, friends, and girlfriend/boyfriend. They begin to learn how to deal with the attachment and separation processes of interpersonal situations in normal psychological growth and begin to create their own unique self-image. Lack of social and emotional support for university students, may lead to the experience of social and emotional loneliness (Cutrona, C. 1982)
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THE SIGNATURE What is the signature? The signature is a graphic element comprised of two parts—a name- plate (typographic rendition) of the university/campus name and an underscore, accompanied by the UH seal. The UH M ¯anoa signature is shown here as an example. Sys- tem and campus signatures follow. Both vertical and horizontal formats of the signature are provided. The signature may also be used without the seal on communications where the seal cannot be clearly repro- duced, space is limited or there is another compelling reason to omit the seal.
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Oral hygiene is a significant factor in oral disease prevention. Given the educational level of university students, the concept of oral health, its importance, and practice are assumed to be easily understood and applied by them, irrespective of their discipline . It is presumed that mass media, dental staff and dental literature are the main sources of oral health information for the public . By maintaining oral health, dental health providers become role models for their patients. Dental students must acquire knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and practices which positively affect the oral health of their patients, families and colleagues from other disciplines .
Graffiti have received a great attention from scholars as they have been considered a vital cultural phenomenon for many years (Trahan, 2011; Divsalar & Nemati, 2012; Zakareviciute, 2014; Farnia, 2014; El-Nashar & Nayef; 2016). Although there are extensive contemporary researches on graffiti in many disciplines, such as linguistics, cultural studies, politics, art, and communication (Pietrosanti, 2010; Farnia, 2014; Oganda, 2015), there are few studies exploring graffiti on classrooms’ walls in higher education milieus (Farnia, 2014). To the best knowledge of the researchers, very few studies were done on the Jordanian context (e.g. Al-Haj Eid, 2008; Abu-Jaber, et al., 2012) and none was done on the Jordanian universities. Therefore, this study aims at analysing the content and communicative features of writings found on universities’ classrooms’ walls, corridors, and washrooms and their relation to the socio-cultural values of the society in order to explore how universities help students voice their attitudes and thoughts. The linguistic features that characterise these writings were also examined. Graffiti-writings, which were collected from the University of Jordan and the Hashemite University, were coded and analysed using the thematic content analysis technique (Braun & Clarke, 2006) and Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 1995). The analysis of the data has shown that graffiti serve different communicative language functions related to personal, social, national, religious, political, and taboo matters. The most salient linguistic features of these graffiti are simplicity and variation. It can be concluded that graffiti are distinctive and silent ways of communication, particularly in students’ society. The study will be of great importance to linguists, sociologists, educators, administrators, teachers and parents. It is enrichment to the available literature on linguistic studies.
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Kathleen L Kitto, Western Washington University, USA Ralf Klamma, RWTH Aachen University, Germany Anette Kolmos, University of Aalborg, Denmark Despo Ktoridou, University of Nicosia, Cyprus Narayanan Kulathuramaiyer, University Malaysia Sarawak Gerard Lachiver, Universite de Sherbrooke, Canada Alfonso Lago Ferreiro, University of Vigo, Spain
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policies that Europeanised national political systems, which in turn altered the domestic circumstances in which national actors formed their national preferences during subsequent rounds of negotiation. The British state struggled to anticipate, let alone control, these processes and in the end, was subtly transformed. Having therefore once been a reluctant ‘taker’ of policy determined in Brussels, the deep and politically painful Europeanization of national policy (Jordan 2002; 2003) eventually forced Britain to take positive steps to ‘shape’ EU policy in its own image. This gradual, temporal shift and the recursive interactions between different levels of governance, is difficult to squeeze into a simple top down model Second, the misfit concept may even blind the observer to the possibility that national policies may even be re-defined in response to adaptive pressure from the EU. In the case of UK environmental policy, some have convincingly argued (Lowe and Ward, 1998) that that the “British approach” was never as coherent or as logically set out as it is in section Two. They argue that it “came to be defined in reaction to the incursions of EC environmental policy.” They continue: in “emphasizing Britain’s distinctiveness… the differences with the Community’s approach were stressed to the point of caricature, and a coherence and
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We are very grateful to our program committee members who gave constructive and detailed reviews for each of the student papers. Some of our PC members also participated in the pre-submission mentoring program and immensely helped student authors with writing and presentation of their papers. We also thank researchers who agreed to mentor and provide expert feedback on the student papers. We thank our faculty advisers Bill Byrne and Jordan Boyd-Graber for their guidance. We also thank the ACL 2014 organizing committee – Daniel Marcu, Kristina Toutanova, Hua Wu, Alexander Koller, Miyao Yusuke, David Yarowsky and Priscilla Rassmussen for their constant support and suggestions. Finally, we thank all students for their submissions and participation in the SRW.
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Renewable energy technologies have been developing over the past years and have become more important. The use of energy from renewable sources is new in Jordan however, it is increasing. The state adopted and submitted a National Renewable Energy Action Plane with target the 2020. The National Energy Research Center has been established in Amman – Jordan for the purposes of research, development and training in the fields of new and renewable energy .
Table (10) shows that grade means of social intelligence with its three dimensions and the means of spiritual intelligence grades were higher than the hypothetical one, with a statistical significance less than 0.05. This implies that the level of both the social intelligence and the spiritual one was high for the students from Isra and Jordan universities; this result might be attributed to the high level of the spiritual and social intelligences students of the two universities have. In addition, the study was applied to an enlightened section of Jordanian Society, university students, who have sufficient mental awareness and high ability to deal and communicate with others. They also have the ability to create social relations with their peer students. It is noteworthy that university community differs from other communities by being a community that brings together the elite who aspire to be future leaders and builders of society.
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