Upper echelon theory

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Upper Echelon Theory: Role of Community and Strategy

Upper Echelon Theory: Role of Community and Strategy

A central theme in management is determining how strategic decision-making allows one organization to perform better than another. Separating the strategies an organization pursues from those individuals that make strategic decisions can be a critical mistake. The top management of an organization exists to a large extent to make decisions regarding the path of the organization. A great deal of literature has focused its attention on both the CEO and top management teams (TMTs), and the role they play in an organization. Upper echelon theory (Hambrick and Mason, 1984) puts forward the idea that strategic decisions are connected to the background characteristics of an organization’s management. A TMT is a formulation of top-level managers and directors within a firm (Finkelstein and Hambrick, 1996) possessing specific expertise in areas that will enable an organization to make informed decisions. This expertise encapsulates the tangible and intangible knowledge and characteristics an individual possesses. According to Hambrick and Mason, individual characteristics and cognitions are developed by past experience, education, and personal values. Cognitions shaped by these, influence the way top managers analyze and respond to situations, and the strategy chosen for the organization (Kaplan, 2005).
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A Review of the Relationship between TMT Shared Cognition and Strategic Decision Making

A Review of the Relationship between TMT Shared Cognition and Strategic Decision Making

DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2017.710078 1102 American Journal of Industrial and Business Management enterprises to deal with various problems, and also puts forward new challenges for enterprise managers. In 1984, Hambrick and Mason put forward the theory of “Upper Echelons Theory”, which provided the theoretical basis and direction for the top management team [1]. Subsequently, many researchers analyzed the related issues of TMT based on different perspectives. The domestic research of the top management team began in 2000. At first, in view of the objective demo- graphic characteristics, domestic scholars explored the direct influence of TMT demographic characteristics and its heterogeneity, such as age, education back- ground, occupation experience, on business strategy and performance. But those studies did not yield consistent results. Zhou Jian, Li Xiaoqing, Yang Shuai (2015) believed that TMT is the main maker of enterprise strategic decisions, and enterprise strategy formulation process is essentially a cognitive integration process of top management team [2]. Reviewing the upper echelon theory, based on TMT cognitive perspective, this theory shows different cognitive basis, values and insight as well as their operation process among TMT members influence the strategic decision and performance (Hambrick, 1984) [1]. In the existing li- terature, however, few scholars examined the influence of TMT on corporate strategic decision and behavior from the perspective of cognitive dimension, and ignored the intermediate process of the relationship between TMT and organi- zational output.
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Impact of gender diversity on social and environmental
performance evidence from Malaysia

Impact of gender diversity on social and environmental performance evidence from Malaysia

To conclude, in line with the upper echelon theory, coupled with the gender-related culture of Malaysia – where women are more responsive to ethical and social issues that affect multipl[r]

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The Impact of Top Management Team Diversity on Firm Performance: A Study of Large Companies in Malaysia

The Impact of Top Management Team Diversity on Firm Performance: A Study of Large Companies in Malaysia

are likely to use to tell themselves, “has filtered its way up to the highest levels of firms, top management teams (Triandis, Kurowski, & Gelfand, 1994). As we entered the twenty-first century, diversity term is defined as a group characteristic that reflects the degree to which there are objective or subjective differences among managers (Van Knippenberg & Schippers, 2007). Generally, diversity of top management teams can be referring to demography factors such as gender, age, tenure, experiences, educational level, race, religion, styles and values which will impact on the decision-making process. This concept is concluded broadly by pioneer scholarly with the introduction of Upper Echelon theory (1984). Upper echelon theory, (Hambrick & Mason, 1984) posits that the characteristics of top management team which also included the group diversity traits as well and the top management team as a decision maker has an impact on firm performance. Research has shown that diversity can provide positive outcomes for the productivity of the organization ((Murtha, Lenway, & Bagozzi, 1998); (Bunderson & Sutcliffe, 2002); ;(E. Randel & Jaussi, 2003); (Zhang, Lowry, Zhou, & Fu, 2007)). On another glance of result, few scholarly concluded negative impact of top management team diversity on firm performance (Williams & O'Reilly III, 1998); (Goll, Sambharya, & Tucci, 2001); (Berman, West, & Richter Jr, 2002) ;(Mello & Ruckes, 2006) ;(Polzer, Caruso, & Brief, 2008). The mixed results on the outcomes, has opened the path to researcher to further explore diversity traits until it comes to a solid conclusion and close the gap that exists which can help the corporate world to identify the right mixture of diversity of top management team, how it converts to strategic choice and ultimately impact on firm
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Exfoliating Green Supply Chain & Logistics by Propelling Organizational Theories

Exfoliating Green Supply Chain & Logistics by Propelling Organizational Theories

systems into organizational learning theory for attaining holistic GSCM. 4.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The research methodology of this ‘Conceptual’ paper is qualitative in nature and anchored amongst the organizational theories centered on the concept of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM). The selection of organizational theories considered within the ambit of this paper was based on two aspects:

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Exemplary Practice: Inscribing Conduct Along Upper Canada's Early Frontier

Exemplary Practice: Inscribing Conduct Along Upper Canada's Early Frontier

The Niagara Constitution, dated January 11, 1800, published unveiled disgust for a deadly duel that had occurred just eight days previous, in which John Small, Upper Canada’s first Attorney General, shot and killed John White, Clerk of the Executive Council. It could be, as Halliday (1999:47) observes, that Small’s subsequent failure to win two elective offices, and his wife’s isolation by the upper crust (it was she who charged John to defend her honor), went beyond coincidence. It may be, though, that at least some of the growing antipathy to dueling expressed a sense that its honor code—its sine qua non—was eroding and in some cases missing altogether, transforming the dueling field from a place of honor into a place for hotheads to blow off steam. What seems to have stoked public ire over the Small/White duel was, above all, a trivial Mrs. Small’s role in starting the feud by insulting Mrs. White at a public gathering in 1799, and then insisting her husband defend her honor when she received insults in return from John White. Even if duels of the day still proceeded according to a code, and had honor at their core, the genesis of this one in a pointless cheap shot may have made the whole affair appear base. Chamberlain (2009) suggests a broader foundation for this interpretation of the Small/White duel in looking at the entry of middle classes into a practice that had been reserved for gentry, and the shift from a practice of honor to one whose “honor” aligned with party politics and journalism. From the standpoint of the honor code, whether one really supported dueling or not, a rising generation of climbers, pretenders, opportunists and hotheads must have looked particularly vile. The problem with such pretenders, from a gentry point of view, is that they have the class-defining relationship between deed and character exactly backward. The presumption is that just as a gentlemanly character is inclined toward gentlemanly deeds, so gentlemanly deeds point to a gentlemanly character. From the perspective of higher status, the difference of where deed points in each case is between a character that is of a gentleman, and one that is of someone who would pretend.
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Rough Filters in

Rough Filters in 𝐵𝐿 Algebras

Under such a view, lower and upper approximations are related to the interior and closure operators in topological spaces, the necessity and possibility operators in modal logic, and lower and upper approximations in interval structures. The set-oriented view focuses on the interpretation and characterization of members of rough sets. Both operator-oriented and set- oriented views are useful in the understanding and application of the theory of rough sets. Definition 2.4. For an approximation space U; θ, by a rough approximation in U; θ we mean a mapping Apr : P U → P U × P U defined for every X ∈ PU by AprX AprX; AprX, where
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Existence and Multiplicity Results for Second Order Nonlinear Differential Equations with Multivalued Boundary Conditions

Existence and Multiplicity Results for Second Order Nonlinear Differential Equations with Multivalued Boundary Conditions

The tool of investigation for this problem is lower and upper solution’s me- thod. This method provides a precious tool to get existence results for first and second order initial and boundary value problems. The method allows to generate monotone iterative techniques which provide constructive methods (amenable numerical treatment), to obtain solutions. The method was first in- troduced by Perron [1]. Later Nagumo [2] used upper and lower solutions to study second-order differential equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Since then many authors have used that method primarily in the context of sin- gle-valued differential equations with linear boundary conditions (Dirichlet, Neumann, Sturm-Liouville or periodic). Very recently, in 2017, combining lower and upper solutions method and theory of topological degree, Goli-Adjé [3] es- tablished existence and multiplicity results for the considered problem under Neumann-Steklov boundary value conditions. Shortly before, in 2013, Khatta- bi-Frigon-Ayyadi [4], by lower and upper solutions method and the fixed point index theory, obtained existence and multiplicity results for the problem under various boundary value conditions (Dirichlet, periodic or Neumann). Other au- thors have investigated the second-order differential equation with multivalued boundary conditions driven by maximal monotone operators, in this direction, see [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] and references therein. In [6] [7], the problems unify clas- sical problems of Dirichlet, periodic and Neumann and in [5] [8] [9] the prob- lems unify classical problems of Dirichlet, Neumann and Sturm-Louiville. To our knowledge, the lower and upper solutions method for differential inclusions formulation of problems of type (1) was initiated by Bader-Papageorgiou [5] in 2002. Soon after, in 2006, Staicub and Papageorgiou [9] extended the study of that problem to gradient systems with a discontinuous nonlinearity. In 2007, Kyritsi and Papageorgiou [8], in their book (see [8] the problem (5.111), p. 390) investigated the following single-valued version of the problem in Stai- cub-Papageorgiou [9]:
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ZRDOS Programmer's Guide pdf

ZRDOS Programmer's Guide pdf

Reset Drive Write Random with Zero Fill Return Current DMA Address ZRDOS1 Return Version number Set Warm Boot trap Reset Warm Boot trap.. console Buffer Get Console Status Return Versio[r]

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ZCPR3 and Z System Commands pdf

ZCPR3 and Z System Commands pdf

Useful to make sure files are identical, DIR Sorted current or declared directory files with sizes and disk space used and remaining are displayed on console with this command.. DFA Disp[r]

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Z System Tools ZDM pdf

Z System Tools ZDM pdf

The QI command allows the operator to read an input port and display the value at the The form of port- address.. this command is: Qla The value where a is a one byte port address in hex[r]

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Z System Debugger and Monitor pdf

Z System Debugger and Monitor pdf

byte value execute program with optional breakpoint obtain sum and difference of two hex numbers set up file control block to receive name to screen assembly list language mnemonics move[r]

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Redesign of Three Echelon Multi Commodity Distribution Network

Redesign of Three Echelon Multi Commodity Distribution Network

Fig. 12. Different cost between the current distribution network and solutions from proposed LRP. According to Fig. 12, we compare cost from solutions that derived from two types of solving (solving each zone individually and solving all zones simultaneously) with current distribution network. If the particular cost from proposed LRP is lower than the current one, the value will be minus. Fig. 12 reveals that most of different cost come from warehouse cost in Layer 1 of supply chain (both of fixed opening/closing cost and variable cost), especially, solution from solving all zones simultaneously. Furthermore, these results definitely confirm that the proposed solution method based on clustering technique can provide proper solution in reasonable computation time. Because all transportation cost of the 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd echelon is
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Download
			
			
				Download PDF

Download Download PDF

We now know that most US intelligence is gathered by signals intelligence using huge computers to trawl through the worlds’ telecommunications looking for selected key words using a complicated algorithm and dictionary system of key words and operated by the NSA (the National Security Agency). At that time hardly anyone had heard of the NSA despite the fact that it was the largest purchaser of computers on the planet. The days of intelligence gathered by James Bond characters or Human Intelligence (Humint) are long gone. What we didn’t know was that the US Base at Menwith Hill, with its field of radomes, was the largest NSA base on earth with many roles and function of which ECHELON was just one. It was and is involved in missile monitoring and guidance as well as satellite monitoring and control. But at that juncture all we had were jigsaw puzzle pieces and we had begun to build a model of a futuristic system of interceptions – the bulk of which as we know now, is in space. The fuller model could only be developed later as further jigsaw pieces fell into place.
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Using Row Reduced Echelon Form in Balancing Chemical Equations

Using Row Reduced Echelon Form in Balancing Chemical Equations

In this section, we use octave to reduce each of the matrices considered in the last section to row reduced echelon form. We remark that just as predicted by the theory, row exchanges does not change the outcome of row reduced echelon form. This means that if you interchange any of the row of each of the matrices in the four examples, the rref will be the same.

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Improving service part allocation at Liander’s multi echelon structure

Improving service part allocation at Liander’s multi echelon structure

From the calculations follows that the reasonable inventory level range per warehouse should become as small as possible. This can be done to set a lower and upper bound on the inventory level per warehouse. We make use of the four observations from the article of Alvarez et al. (2012a). These observations enable us to find upper and lower bounds on the inventory levels. The first three observations are aligned with our problem context (see appendix E for details). The article also shows why an increase of the stock level at one local warehouse causes an increase in waiting time at the other local warehouses. Lastly, Alvarez et al. concludes emperically between what stock level the optimal stock level of a local warehouse would be, given a proposed stock level of the central warehouse (see appendix E for details). Although the authors do not guarantee this empirical conclusion always holds, they did test its efficacy across scenarios of varied stock quantities (20 and 50 items) and varied number of local warehouses (8 and 16), in which all cases yielded the same solution by complete enumeration (Alvarez et al., 2012a). We assume the empirical conclusions Alvarez et al. draw also hold in our problem context, as our two- echelon inventory systems are comparable.
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Microtiming deviations in groove

Microtiming deviations in groove

The motor theory of speech perception In their 1985 paper on a revised motor theory of speech perception, Liberman & Mattingly (Liberman & Mattingly, 1985) marshal evidence for the idea that speech perception distinguishes motor commands, rather than auditory events. They make a claim a specialised phonetic module that prevents listeners from hearing speech signals as ordinary sound, but translates auditory patterns into perceptions of the underlying phonetic gestures. (Liberman & Mattingly, 1985) Thus, perception of the distinction of the syllable ba versus pa would not (in the motor theory) depend on a general auditory ability to perceive temporal disparity as such, as suggested by (Pisoni, 1977), but would indicate unmediated perception of a gesture involving relative timing of vocal tract opening and start of laryngeal vibration. (Lisker & Abramson, 1964) Liberman & Mattingly argue that, since the distal object of perception in speech is neuromuscular processes giving rise to the phonetic gesture, perception must be carried out by analogy with neuromuscular processes within the listener; that is, the phonetic module is characterised by a link between perception and production. (Liberman & Mattingly, 1985)
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FORECASTING STOCK MARKET USING SVM

FORECASTING STOCK MARKET USING SVM

Available Online at www.ijpret.com 196 theory of the structural risk minimization principle to estimate a function by minimizing an upper bound of the generalization error, SVM is shown to be very resistant to the over-fitting problem, eventually achieving a high generalization performance. Another key property of SVM is that training SVM is equivalent to solving a linearly constrained quadratic programming problem so that the solution of SVM is always unique and globally optimal, unlike neural networks training, which requires nonlinear optimization with the danger of getting stuck at local minima.
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Positive solutions of singular beam equations with the bending term

Positive solutions of singular beam equations with the bending term

Some classical tools such as fixed point theorems in cones [, –, , ], the method of lower and upper solutions [, ], and the monotone iterative method [, ] and the theory of critical point theory and variational methods [, , ] have been widely used to study beam equations.

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A Two-Echelon Supply Chain and Facility Location Problem

A Two-Echelon Supply Chain and Facility Location Problem

Consequently, Teo and Shu [12] studied a distribution network design problem integrating transportation and infinite horizon multi-echelon inventory cost function. They formulated a set-partitioning integer-programming model and solved by the column generation algorithm which arises pricing sub-problem. Finally, they showed that price sub- problem is NP- complete. Ko [13] described an integrated decision model to determine the location of distribution faculties. He proposed the hierarchy process and analyzed the survey data based on the location selection criteria and demonstrated the practical applicability of the research findings. Eroglu and Keskintürk [14] investigated a model for locating an economic facility to determine how many warehouse to set up, where to locate those warehouses. They proposed a genetic algorithm for the warehouse location problem and cities of Turkey are considered where the warehouses construct for minimizing the distribution costs. Sheng et al. [15] have investigated a transportation model with discontinuous piecewise linear cost function and proposed a genetic algorithm based on the matrix encoding which more efficient than previous algorithm.
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