Urban Agriculture and Sustainable Livelihoods

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Urbanization and Its Impacts to Food Systems and Environmental Sustainability in Urban Space: Evidence from Urban Agriculture Livelihoods in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Urbanization and Its Impacts to Food Systems and Environmental Sustainability in Urban Space: Evidence from Urban Agriculture Livelihoods in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

The symbiotic relations existing in nature observed to be economically and ecologically viable in terms of in- vestment attractions including housing development, greening the city and opening up of social services. Prin- cipally, urban expansion lowers the amount of land po- tential for periurban agriculture in the city growth proc- esses. The reduction of land for this sector appears to intensify poverty of smallholder farmers who depend on it as a livelihood strategy and increased environmental degradation. This suggests the need for urban planning institutions, after land declaration to establish a clear de- velopment conditions to safeguard urban agriculture forms which play a great part to ensure city greening, ecologi- cal conservations and food systems [1]. Food system in the context refers to process of households to have a sub- stantial amount of food which include low cost in its production sphere throughout the year. Each year, as the population increases in the city with climate change im- pacts on crop production, food prices and the amount of natural resources, which is going to sustain this popula- tion, to improve the quality of lives and to eliminate poverty remain finite and therefore increasing the chal- lenge of sustainable development achievements.
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Sustainable urban livelihoods: concepts and implications for policy

Sustainable urban livelihoods: concepts and implications for policy

Generally less significant in cities - although the widespread practice of ‘urban agriculture’ (Rakodi, 1993) means that for some urban residents land and livestock are important assets. As urban agriculture is often practised on marginal or illegally occupied land, this asset is frequently vulnerable to environmental contamination or the threat of eviction. In addition while natural resources and/or common property resources (such as rivers or forests) are generally less significant assets for urban poor residents, some natural resources are used in urban settings - rivers in particular - may be used as a source of water for washing and even drinking, and for livelihoods activities such as fishing or poultry rearing (DFID, 1998). In addition health impacts of the environment will have an indirect impact on human capital - clean, safe local environments may therefore be considered an asset.
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Community-Based Wastewater Farming and its Contribution to Livelihoods of the Urban Poor: Case of Nairobi, Kenya

Community-Based Wastewater Farming and its Contribution to Livelihoods of the Urban Poor: Case of Nairobi, Kenya

The high rate of pesticide application, coupled with a low level of knowledge about pesticide safety, calls for (1) research on the impacts on human beings and the environment, and also (2) technical capacity-building on the safe use of pesticides. Women were faced with security issues whenever their turn to access the irrigation water was at dawn or late in the evening, and as such they needed to spend part of their income hiring young men to water their crops. This indicates a need to consider gender issues when designing irrigation systems in urban areas. The farmers also faced the challenges of insecure land tenure and experienced various forms of conflict over resource use that threatens sustainability of their livelihoods from wastewater farming. There is a need to establish platforms and networks to form avenues for conflict resolution in wastewater farming, as well as holding dialogues on issues affecting farmers with government depart- ments such as Nairobi City Council and the mini- stries of agriculture and livestock. This includes involvement of stakeholders in the ongoing pro- cess of developing a national policy that incorpo- rates urban agriculture into urban land-use plan- ning. While farmers were often aware of the health risks emanating from biological contaminants, they had absolutely no knowledge about the presence of heavy metals and possible risks that these might bring. There is a need for testing, dissemination, and communication of appropriate, cost-effective, and sustainable technologies such as irrigation methods, stabilization ponds that minimize risks, and growing of high-value crops and plants (such as forestry products, ornamentals, and seed). Public and environmental risks associated with wastewater farming have been studied in the same sites and findings shared in various stakeholder forums as well as through publications such as Karanja, et al. (2010).
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SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS ACTIVITIES IN MADZIWA AREA OF ZIMBABWE

SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS ACTIVITIES IN MADZIWA AREA OF ZIMBABWE

Language well. The primary school teacher participants also indicated that they taught pupils who complemented their parents’ efforts in undertaking SLAs. The last stratum consisted of 10 secondary school teacher participants. Six out ten secondary school teachers were male, while four out ten secondary school teachers were female. In spite of the small sample of 10 secondary school teachers, just like the case in the primary school teachers, the sex distribution appeared to be in favour of male teachers because most female teachers tend to be deployed in urban area secondary schools where their spouses and families live. Ten out of ten secondary school teacher participants were married, although two out ten teachers were not staying together with their spouses. One out of 10 secondary school teachers was teaching History and Geography to Form 1 classes. Three out 10 secondary school teachers were teaching Mathematics, Accounts and English Language to Forms 3 and 4 classes. Six out of 10 secondary school teachers were teaching Commerce, Shona, Bible Knowledge, Agriculture, English Literature and Fashion and Fabrics to O’ Level classes. Five out 10 secondary school teachers were holders of first degrees such as Bachelor of Education in Science Education, Bachelor of Education in Shona, Bachelor of Education in Home Economics, Bachelor of Education in History, Bachelor of Education in Religious Studies, and Bachelor of Education in Mathematics. The other five out of 10 secondary school teachers were holders of a Diploma in Secondary Education. The foregoing qualifications are indicative of the degree to which the secondary school teacher participants were comfortable with being interviewed in English Language.
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Internet of Agriculture: Applying IoT to Improve Food and Farming Technology

Internet of Agriculture: Applying IoT to Improve Food and Farming Technology

Agribusinesses has the high values in bigdata, as it provides the unpredictable future business model in the field of agriculture. This will provide the great change among the public and private sector agribusiness. Bigdata obtained from various sources are gathered not only to know past events but also to predict the future needs. Angwin says about 'Dragnets' or unfiltered data collection which means "increasingly future-oriented and concerned about the predictive power of the information it gathers". In spite of many problems with data-driven farming, it is not negative and could be used efficiently by the farmers. There are some examples that make use of technology and the ideas of farmers to openly access the analytic tools with the stored data such as "ISOBlue", an open_source project. The other examples are "FarmLogs" and "Open age data Alliance". the open data is also provide by small group such as Global Open Data for Agriculture and Nutrition initiative (GODAN).These open source technology will provide the farmers with the available data for the future needs. These data tools are also for small non industrial farmers, user friendly softwares and public funded research, could pave the way for the creative use of Bigdata for small farms.
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On the Past and the Future of the Urban Agriculture Movement: Reflections in Tribute to Jac Smit

On the Past and the Future of the Urban Agriculture Movement: Reflections in Tribute to Jac Smit

toral researcher at the University of Pennsylvania at the time, he undertook an extensive desktop survey and a set of field visits (ultimately taking Jac to 16 countries on three continents). This initial contract allowed him to focus exclusively on urban agri- culture for several years — a focus he maintained for the remainder of his professional career. To foster attention to this new and growing area, Jac, together with Joe, founded the information and consulting organization, The Urban Agriculture Network (TUAN) in 1992, and remained its president until Joe took over the role in 2009. Among the multiple ways in which he advocated for the importance of urban agriculture (making plans, public speaking, advising researchers, dis- cussing with decision makers…), Jac’s most signifi- cant contribution to popularizing the topic may have been his work as an author. His first pub- lished article on the subject dates back to 1980 (Smit, 1980) — prehistoric times in terms of the urban agriculture movement. In 1992, he co- authored with Joe Nasr an article based on the early results from the UNDP-sponsored study (Smit & Nasr, 1992/1999), which was frequently cited by others starting to join the urban agriculture movement. This article provided the groundwork for the 1996 UNDP publication he co-authored with Annu Ratta and Joe Nasr, Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs, and Sustainable Cities (Smit, Ratta & Nasr, 1996). This book, for which Jac is best known internationally, helped to build recognition of and support for urban agriculture as a broad-based, multifaceted set of activities, ultimately anchoring it inexorably in the discourse on sustainability. The second, expanded edition of this book, written in 2000–01 but never published, is due to be released online at the end of 2010. 4
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Understanding the opportunities and constraints for low-income groups in the peri-urban interface: the contribution of livelihood frameworks

Understanding the opportunities and constraints for low-income groups in the peri-urban interface: the contribution of livelihood frameworks

There is increased recognition that the ways in which individuals and households achieve their basic needs are based on the management of a complex combination of capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources) and activities. Related to this is a more dynamic analysis of poverty which has been developed in recent years and which shows that people tend to move in and out of poverty, depending on how vulnerable they are to external shocks and stresses, and on how rapidly they can recover from such crises. The different types of strategies they adopt can be categorised as: income-earning strategies; expenditure-reducing strategies while striving to secure a given level of basic services; collective support strategies to address needs through kin, social and local networks; and external representation strategies in collaboration with, or through other institutions to bring resources and facilities to the settlement. These strategies depend on the availability of a number of different assets (or ‘capitals’). People who are not able to improve their livelihoods often fail to access, defend and capitalise on their existing assets and their vulnerability increases. A better understanding of the constraints and opportunities faced by different groups in gaining access to and in managing their assets is therefore an essential element of poverty reduction interventions. With this in mind, a number of frameworks have been developed, generally focusing on either rural or urban livelihoods. Section 2 briefly summarises their main features. The term peri-urban has also recently become widely used. This stems from the recognition that the management of natural resources in the region surrounding an urban centre is often of great importance to the livelihoods of many groups (for example farmers and fishing communities) and is equally crucial for the sustainable provision of these resources (for example freshwater and foodstuff) to the whole region, including its urban residents. The dynamic processes of socio- economic and environmental change which are usually a major element of the peri-urban interface are likely to have an impact on the opportunities and constraints faced by different groups in their access to assets and the construction of livelihood strategies. Based on the frameworks summarised in section 2, section 3 draws on the (admittedly limited) existing empirical literature and examines the relevance of the models to the construction of livelihoods in the peri-urban interface (PUI). Finally section 4 suggests ways in which elements of the different models can be usefully combined to improve their use as tools for research and policy-making in the context of the PUI.
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05sustainableagriculture.pdf

05sustainableagriculture.pdf

councils, the National Sustainable Agriculture Advi- sory Council (NSAAC) and the Agricultural Council on Environmental Quality (ACEQ) to oversee and coordinate sustainable agriculture p[r]

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The Benefits of Urban Parks, a Review of Urban Research

The Benefits of Urban Parks, a Review of Urban Research

Planning and design, including perceptions of green space, aesthetic values, the planning and design of green space. Public perceptions of different types of green space were also evaluated by (Tyrvainen, 2003), who used forest image evaluation (291 respondents) to determine whether aesthetic and ecological values can be combined in the management of urban forests in Helsinki, Finland. This study showed that pine and birch stands were most preferred. Urban design gives the city a comprehensible structure, to connect different scales and parts of the urban parks. Urban parks planning and design should aim to produce spaces which are attractive and accessible to people; guidance on how best to do this and appropriate tools are needed. Urban parks design should aim to enhance the ecological functions of urban parks habitats. Different models can be adopted and tools are potentially available to help evaluate how well they function. Aesthetic benefits relate to people experiencing different colors, structure, forms and densities of woody vegetation. Much of the aesthetic experience is subjective in nature and has impacts on people‟s mental and emotional state (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989).
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Badging for Sustainable Development: Applying EdTech Micro-credentials for advancing SDGs amongst Mountain and Pastoralist Societies

Badging for Sustainable Development: Applying EdTech Micro-credentials for advancing SDGs amongst Mountain and Pastoralist Societies

Not only are open badges (or micro-credentials) a potential breakthrough tool in education for sustainable development, they are ideally suited for mountain communities in Central Asia. This region became independent in 1991, and Central Asia’s oldest educational institutions date back only a few generations. Moreover, the educational system in most of the countries is crippled by lack of funding, corruption, and lack of teachers [111,115–116]. All of the countries have large portions of their populations geographically marginalized from most of the educational system (Figure 2), making them ideal candidates for ODL approaches. Furthermore, mountain pastoralists tend to have “a flexible, opportunistic approach to all aspects of livelihood” [76] and are thus ideal candidates for the “just-in-time” learning approach as facilitated by badged learning [123] (Figure 2). Many people in Central Asia’s mountain societies also tend to have cultural affinities with Western Millennials, whose preference for badging is shaking traditional HEIs. In terms of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, these two distinct and geographically distant groups nonetheless share several important features, including a short-term orientation, a combination of individualism and tribal identity, and a preference for indulgence over restraint, which tend to attract them to similar educational institutions and methods [118–119].
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Vol 4 No 4 (2014): Open Call Papers

Vol 4 No 4 (2014): Open Call Papers

U.S. food system, arguing that food must become central to planners’ responsibilities (Pothukuchi & Kaufman, 2000). They mapped multiple ways in which municipal planning affects and is affected by the food system (Pothukuchi & Kaufman, 1999). Since these writings, considerable shifts have occurred in the planning discipline. In 2007, the American Planning Association (APA) issued for- mal guidance to its members on including food planning as an element of local and regional plan- ning (APA, 2007), and a growing number of local governments across the U.S. have adopted official plans to guide their communities’ food systems to healthier futures (Neuner, Kelly, & Raja, 2011). Today, planning scholars in more traditional areas of planning such as growth management are taking note of the importance of food systems (Chapin, 2012), and, likewise, journals focused on food are exploring the possibilities and pitfalls of having planners engaged in food systems. Indeed, in 2011, the Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development published a special issue on planning for food systems that covered a wide array of top- ics ranging from development of new planning definitions, measures, and tools (Freedgood, Pierce-Quiñonez, & Meter, 2011) to planning for new food infrastructure such as food hubs (Horst, Ringstrom, Tyman, Ward, Werner, & Born, 2011). This reemerging interest by planners in rebuilding food systems gives us reason for both enthusiasm and pause. To the degree that planning practition- ers reflectively engage with community-led prac- tices of rebuilding food systems (such as those of rustbelt radicals), the profession can facilitate trans- formation in food systems and communities; con- versely, lack of reflective engagement can stultify innovation in rebuilding food systems even when food is on the planning table.
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REASONS FOR THE PARTICIPATION AND INVOLVEMENT OF CHILDREN IN SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS ACTIVITIES (SLAs) IN MADZIWA AREA OF ZIMBABWE

REASONS FOR THE PARTICIPATION AND INVOLVEMENT OF CHILDREN IN SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS ACTIVITIES (SLAs) IN MADZIWA AREA OF ZIMBABWE

Children undertake sustainable livelihoods activities (SLAs) for varied reasons. These reasons tend to vary according to circumstances. The current qualitative ethnographic paper examined reasons for the participation and involvement of children in SLAs. One hundred and ten (110) participants namely, 30 parents, 30 primary and 30 secondary school pupils and 10 primary and 10 secondary school pupils were selected using quota sampling. The data generation methods were in-depth face-to-face interviews and focus group discussions. Eleven measures to combat challenges associated with the participation and involvement of children in (SLAs) emerged from the study. Some of the reasons for the participation and involvement of children in SLAs that emerged from the study include food security, income generation; environmental management, self-reliance training, self-sufficiency training; and entrepreneurship training. The study‟s first conclusion for the reasons for the participation and involvement of children in SLAs in Madziwa area was that they were diverse and situation-specific. The other conclusion was that reasons for the participation and involvement of children in SLAs in Madziwa area were also found to be inextricably interwoven. The researcher proposed that participation and involvement of children in SLAs in Madziwa area should not be based on flimsy and unjustified reasons.The other suggestion from the study was that more research in the studied area needs to be carried out throughout the Zimbabwean provinces so as to build a sound and grounded knowledge base in the realm of the participation and involvement of children in SLAs.
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Grow your own food security? Integrating science and citizen science to estimate the contribution of own growing to UK food production

Grow your own food security? Integrating science and citizen science to estimate the contribution of own growing to UK food production

It is challenging to develop the datasets required to make these as- sessments, requiring an interdisciplinary approach spanning the use of remotely sensed Geographic Information Systems (GIS), fieldwork and citizen science data collection. This paper provides an overview of the methodologies we are using and the key findings to date. GIS is neces- sary to determine the area and location of allotments within the UK, and to analyze the areas of urban greenspace potentially suitable for allotment style own-growing. The fieldwork will establish how much of a given area of land own-growers use for food cultivation, the areas of land used for different crops and how this changes spatially across UK. This fieldwork will span the 2017 and 2018 growing seasons in ten UK cities (including: Edinburgh, Newcastle, Leeds, Liverpool, Nottingham, Leicester, Milton Keynes, Bristol, Cardiff, and Southampton) at 40 al- lotment sites in 200 individual plots. The final element necessary to es- timate own-grown food production is to understand the yield achieved by own-growers for typical UK fruit and vegetable crops. This is possi- bly the most challenging aspect of the work as it relies entirely on the own-growing community working with research scientists. However, without this we would be reliant upon yield data from the commercial horticultural sector (e.g., DEFRA Horticultural Statistics) which may
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Biotechnologyfor Sustainable Agriculture

Biotechnologyfor Sustainable Agriculture

The most important challenge in a developing country is food for its growing population. The world population is projected to reach 9 billion by 2050. The arable land area is fixed so some means has to be there to increase the productivity. There is a need to achieve sustainable agriculture that obtain higher yield, increase income without affecting the environment, make better use of water and is less dependent on pesticides and fertilizersand enhance nutritional value of the food.

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Learning Lessons from a REDD+ Initiative: Assessing the Implementation Process, Forest and Community Outcomes, and Impacts on Local Households in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Learning Lessons from a REDD+ Initiative: Assessing the Implementation Process, Forest and Community Outcomes, and Impacts on Local Households in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

REDD+ can be considered as a potential win–win solution by saving the environment and supporting local livelihoods (Angelsen & Atmadja, 2008; Brown, Seymour, & Peskett, 2008; Lawlor, Madeira, Blockhus, & Ganz, 2013; Poudyal et al., 2016). REDD+ projects have received attention not only for their potential as climate change mitigation (Leggett & Lovell, 2012) but also for their reputation as a relatively quick, easy, and low-cost way to slow climate change (Jagger et al., 2011). Hence, REDD+ attracts support from various non-governmental and international actors, as well as participants in carbon markets. REDD+ also receives support because of its potential to attract funding for the tropical forests biodiversity conservation and generate a new income for poor rural populations across the tropics (Jagger et al., 2011). For example, UN-REDD and the World Bank’s FCPF have strengthened REDD+ readiness
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Carbon Neutral Settlements: The role of solar energy

Carbon Neutral Settlements: The role of solar energy

Solar energy has a major role in moving towards carbon neutral settlements. Three different Australian settlement types are included in this research: urban villages, remote indigenous settlements and isolated mine site camps. This study contributes to a broader ARC research program by Curtin University and Murdoch University on Decarbonising Cities and Regions. A six-element model for carbon neutral human settlements was developed. This was subsequently upgraded to include food as a separate element. The process to achieve a carbon neutral settlement via an emissions reduction plan, following a life cycle analysis, was proposed in six steps. It was found that this planning method can enable new urban developments to achieve a ‘zero energy development’ but achieving a carbon neutral status would require additional measures that address the complete lifecycle of the development. Monitoring and data collection systems were installed in a minesite camp and the data used in a new modelling tool to evaluate different renewable energy systems to offset total lifecycle emissions. These systems were found to only reduce emissions below that of the existing gas-fired power generation somewhere between 2013 and 2018 when costs are expected to drop significantly. In the case of remote indigenous settlements the elements of this planning model were used to identify opportunities for sustainable livelihoods linked to renewable energy in the new carbon economy.
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Sustainable Management in Agriculture

Sustainable Management in Agriculture

In the modern economy, sustainable development of enterprises is impossible without effective sustainable management, which is extremely important for the development of agricultural enterprisers. Nevetheless, the issues of the environmental performance are also essential, because reducing the environmental impact of the production is increasingly necessary in today's world.Initially, this article describes the theoretical aspects, concepts and examples of interaction between the sustainable management, the environmental performance and sustainable supply chain management.Hereafter, in the article was investigated the practice of sustainable management used in the huge and small rural european enterprises and with the SWOT-analysis compared the approaches of their application.
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EVALUATING AGRICULTURE AS A SUSTAINABLE TOOL FOR POVERTY REDUCTION: THE EXPERIENCE OF ABAKALIKI URBAN, EBONYI STATE

EVALUATING AGRICULTURE AS A SUSTAINABLE TOOL FOR POVERTY REDUCTION: THE EXPERIENCE OF ABAKALIKI URBAN, EBONYI STATE

This research was carried out to assess Urban Agriculture as a sustainable tool in reducing poverty in Abakaliki urban of Ebonyi state. Specific objectives were outlined which includes; describing the socio- economic characteristics of urban farmers in the study area; identifying the various kinds of farming system practiced by the urban farmers in the study area; analyzing the farmers’ perceptions of the roles of Urban Agriculture in reducing poverty; Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to analyze the objectives. Data were collected from a total of eighty urban farmers randomly selected from the study area. Analysis of the data collected showed that Urban Agriculture was practiced mostly by women with 66.2%. Majority of the respondents (83.8%) were within the active age range of 21-50 years with 72.5% having one form of formal education or the other ranging from primary to tertiary education. Results of the analysis also revealed that majority (78.8%) of the respondents were married and 91.3% had households between 1-10 members. Majority (78.8%) of the respondents also had long farming experiences from 7 years and above and 93.7% used farm lands above 0.5 ha. The study further revealed that 73.7% of the respondents combined farming with other occupations, 57.5% earn below N50,000 annually from their farm income and 67.5% earn above N50,000 from both their farming activities and other economic activities. The results also showed that crop and livestock production were mostly practiced by the urban farmers with 86.3% into crop production and 62.5% into livestock production. About 61.3% of the respondents hired labourers to work for them and 70% produce at a semi-subsistence level. Residential compounds and vacant plots formed the major farming environments in the study area with 52.5% using their residential compounds and 43.8% using vacant plots. Also, the results of the five- point Likert scale showed that Urban Agriculture is perceived by the respondents as being able to give households better and stable access to food (4.67); provide extra income for the purchase of other necessities (4.71); help farmers to save (3.62); create employment opportunities for the urban poor (4.29); enable farmers to enjoy different diets at any time (4.23) and improve the general standard of living of farmers (4.72). Furthermore, the multiple regression analysis showed the effect of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents on their farm income. The coefficient of multiple determination (R 2 =
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Urban Agriculture, Waste Management and Food Security, Nepal

Urban Agriculture, Waste Management and Food Security, Nepal

Waste management is another challenge in urban areas. Though over 70% of the volume of the city waste is decomposable and recyclable in ground, it is not always in vogue amongst the people. Roads and other public places are full of garbage and the government is spending a lot of money to import chemical fertilizers. Practice of urban agriculture can solve this problem by large. Realizing these situations, a study was carried out in the urban areas of Dhulikhel and Pokhara to assess the status of urban agriculture; its contribution in food security, environmental management and family recreation etc. as experienced by its practitioners; and the efficient tools and techniques to practice it. This paper presents the outcomes of the study.
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Sustainable development : a model Indonesian SRI co operative : this research paper is presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of International Development, Massey University, New Zealand

Sustainable development : a model Indonesian SRI co operative : this research paper is presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of International Development, Massey University, New Zealand

Farmer membership soon passed 2,300. However it quickly became apparent that despite the adoption of organics and the co-operative’s own efforts, appropriate links and organisation were required. Until the establishment of the Gapoktan, farmers had remained subject to unfair marketing conditions. Invariably, this meant as reported by nearly all respondents lower prices for the sale of rice to Tengulak, (rice profiteers). Tengulak would employ various strategies to secure exclusive sales to them, such as low interest loans in times of need. Within such a context Emily Sutanto, director of Bloom Agro, (a social enterprise aimed at promoting sustainable agriculture) met Mr Saepul Bahri, the then leader and present chairman of the farmers group (Field notes). Assisted by Bloom Agro, a series of training programs and inspections followed to gain fair trade certification throughout the co- operative. In 2009 the co-operative was awarded the “Fair for Life” label by the Swiss based Institute for Marketecology (IMO) (Ubuddirect, 2014). SIMPATIK became the first rice growing co-operative in Indonesia with an internationally recognized organic and fair trade certificate and the first of its kind to export with its first shipment in 2009 to the U.S.A. through Bloom Agro’s Sunria brand. Demand quickly grew with support from Lotus foods, the U.S. importer, and the Cornell International Institute of Food Agriculture and Development (CIIFAD). By 2011 markets had
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