The urbangroundwater has emerged as one of the world’s most challenging issues . The quality of available groundwater resources is being increasingly degraded by geogenic and anthropogenic activities  . Asian countries face serious water problems almost everywhere mainly due to explosive population growth, heavy seasonal rains, massive flooding, decreasing of water levels, mixing of waste water, etc. . In India, ground- water is used intensively for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes. Several land and water-based human activities are causing pollution of these precious resources. India is now the biggest user of groundwater for agriculture in the World . The most dramatic change in the groundwater scenario in India is that the share of tube wells in irrigated areas is rising tremendously. By now, tube wells have become the largest single source of irrigation water in India. Hence, groundwater has a high incidence of water quality problems such as increase in concentration levels of chemical species i.e. fluoride, iron, salinity, nitrate, arsenic, etc., may be due to minera- lization -. In the present work, the urbangroundwater quality of the most industrialized city of the coun- try, Raipur is presented. The variations and sources of contaminants and quality assessment of the groundwater are
Evaluating the effect of geothermal systems on subsurface environments requires appropriate monitoring and modeling tools. Recent availability of simple and reliable temperature measurement devices and the advancement of 3-D heat trans- port models facilitate investigations of subsurface heat trans- port at different scales. Fujii et al. (2007) proposed the devel- opment of suitability maps for the Chikushi Plain (western Japan) based on local geological and hydrogeological infor- mation for ground-coupled heat pump systems using field- survey data and numerical groundwater and heat transport models. Zhu et al. (2010) evaluated the case-specific poten- tial heat content in urban aquifers and quantified available ca- pacities for space heating. Nam and Ooka (2010) performed numerical simulation of ground heat and water transfer for groundwater heat pump system based on real-scale experi- ment. H¨andel et al. (2013) numerically assessed on a regional scale a future geothermal use of an unconsolidated shallow aquifer utilizing large open-loop groundwater heat pumps. Detailed groundwater temperature measurements in Cologne (Germany) and Winnipeg (Canada) reveal high subsurface temperature distributions in the centers of both cities and in- dicate a warming trend of up to 5 K. Such geothermal poten- tials are also observed in other cities such as Shanghai and Tokyo and can supply heating demand even for decades. Also Allen et al. (2003) propose that Northern European countries can utilize the urban heat island effect to generate low en- thalpy geothermal energy for space heating and cooling sys- tems (dual heating and cooling functions) in buildings, pro- vided a suitable aquifer underlies the urban area.
Rapidly growing, unplanned peri-urban areas are not served effectively by centralised systems and are characterised by a lack of infrastructure. At the same time the peri-urban interface is associated with both rural and urban features and consists of highly heterogeneous and rapidly changing socio-economic groups (Allen et al., 2006a). This diversity means that the needs of local populations and producers of water and sanitation services are also diverse and change over time. The identification of these needs can be more complex than in either urban or rural areas due to the particular mix of newcomers and long-established dwellers, and also because farming, residential and industrial land uses often coexist. Current practice, as proposed for example by Montgomery and Elimelech (2007), is to recommend a decentralised approach that relies on household water treatment and sanitation technology. Closas et al. (2012) also argue for a more integrated and sustained approach to water and sanitation in African cities using the principles of Integrated Urban Water Management, which can encourage innovative solutions to water supply problems. Montgomery and Elimelech (2007) illustrate the high child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa relative to other areas. Sources which meet their definition of ‘improved’ include a household connection, borehole, protected dug well, protected spring or rainwater collection. Improved sanitation includes connection to a sewer or septic tank, or VIP latrines.
element in human being and is of slight health concern, its existence in water constitutes an irritant (Achieng et al. 2017; Li 2016) noted that high TDS and EC can be ascribed to rainwater infiltration, ion exchange, sediment dissolution and evaporation. TDS level in water reliant on the chemical nature of the water and the aquifer mate- rials solubility through which the water is flowing. The high levels of TDS in the groundwater samples examined should be a great source of anxiety. It has been attested that high levels of TDS could lead to laxative effects and gastrointestinal irritations (Cao et al. 2016; Li et al. 2015). SO 4 2 − can formed artificially from runoff of fertilized
The methodology presented can be useful to quantify the origin of recharge in urban areas. However, the transfer from mixing ratios to recharge ratios is not straight forwards. In general, a flow model will be required to properly account for spatial and temporal variations. A preliminary analysis (assuming the measured wells are representative of the be- havior of the full aquifer) suggests that 22% of total recharge comes from the water supply network, 30% from wastewa- ter, 17% from Rainfall recharge in northern non urban area, 11% from Bes`os River, 20% from runoff infiltration, while seawater intrusion contribution is almost negligible. This has consequences in both the evaluation of groundwater bal- ances and in identifying the potential quality of groundwa- ter based upon the quality of water in the end-members (or recharge sources). This has important potential implications in groundwater management in urban areas.
By forcing agencies to work together, enforcement and monitoring activities can be rationalised and expertise combined. The federal Treasury could then appoint a committee of experts to select the best plan. Such procedures are also used by the European Union to disburse nearly 347 billion euro in grants via European Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds to finance infrastructure and socio-economic developments in its 27 member states (EC, 2006). An essential part of these grants are the ability to measure quality and results. Although groundwater developments are highly complex, the iterative process of data-gathering, decision-making, groundwater extraction and environmental protection has many similarities to industrial quality control. This management system is clearly described in the International Standardisation Organisation international quality management standard (ISO 9001:2000) which can also be applied to groundwater management (Von Storch, 2004). ISO 9001:2000 certification processes in Malaysia are usually conducted by the Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM), whose procedures are internationally recognised through cooperation with the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS) (SIRIM, 2007). The advantage of the grant system is that it leaves the current institutional landscape intact while giving the federal government the ability to direct water policy, without micro-managing it. This is an advantage, considering that the Economic Planning Unit or the Treasury cannot and should not know everything about water management. Although the grant procedures may seem complicated, the necessary quality control standards have already been developed and can be used.
Extrapolation of results: Contaminants of greatest concern along these shoreline sections, due to potential toxicity and eutrophication contributions, are SRP, ammonium, nitrate, Cl, chlorinated solvent and petroleum compounds (broad mix), and Se. The types and levels of contaminants will likely vary for other urban areas around Lake Simcoe, but the diffuse nature of urbangroundwater pollution, as revealed in this study and by others for streams (e.g., Shepherd et al. 2006, Roy and Bickerton 2012), suggests that a mix of potential contaminants is likely to exist along many of the urban shorelines of Lake Simcoe (and other Great Lakes). We have estimated the fraction of Lake Simcoe shore currently adjacent to urban areas at about 22%, based on digital cartographical data furnished by Natural Resources Canada (CanVec: Data Product Specifications, Edition 1.1). Much of this is residential, with limited industrial sites, but it also includes the cities of Barrie and Orillia. This study is directly relevant to these areas, but continued expansion of the urbanized shore areas is expected (Winter et al. 2007, Palmer et al. 2011); thus, the relevance of this study should only increase over time.
is trapped in the lake; evaporation results in the accumulation of solutes in the lake and lakebed. More conductive profiles in the northeast corner of Alkali Lake may suggest a zone of local downward vertical flux of low resistivity water. Nonetheless, Alkali Lake is mainly a groundwater discharge lake with a possible small groundwater recharge area in the northeast. The apparent flow pattern of groundwater under Wilson Lake towards Alkali Lake and similar ER values under the neighboring portions of each lake elucidated a hydraulic connection between them, where the flow direction is perpendicular to the regional hydraulic gradient. ER profiles in Gimlet Lake show much fresher groundwater underlying the lakebed than in the two other lakes. A stronger flushing capacity of the flow- through Gimlet Lake explains the weak solute accumulation in contrast to that observed in Wilson and Alkali Lakes. The lakebed ER pattern indicates fresh inputs both from the east and west with outflow most likely towards the southeast where the shallow subsurface becomes less resistive. The surveys also show the possibility of freshwater springs. A flowing well on the northwest shore of Gimlet Lake suggests favorable hydrogeologic conditions for spring activity under the lake. In general, the surveys provide the spatial distribution of flux direction across the lake-aquifer interface.
Interactions between groundwater and surface water are complex and depend on many factors including landform, geology, climate and the exploitation of local water resources (Adams et al., 2001). The hydrology and water quality of rivers are strongly controlled by exchanges of water and solutes with adjacent river banks and uplands (Sikdar et al., 2001; Ray et al., 2002). Ground- and surface water can be seen as linked components in a larger hydrological continuum that should be considered for sustainable development (Eikenberg et al., 2001; Négrel et al., 2003). The quality of groundwater, the main source of drinking water in most European countries, is increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activities (industrial processes, intensive agriculture, irrigation, tourism, etc.). Alluvial valleys are favoured for both industrial and agricultural activities and concentrated population (Guo and Wang, 2004). Riverbank aquifers constitute water reservoirs that are used not only as sources of drinking water for a large part of the European
slopes impart higher runoff, while topographical depressions increase infiltration. An area of high drainage density also increases surface runoff compared to a low drainage density area. Surface water bodies like rivers, ponds, etc., can act as recharge zones, enhancing the groundwater potential in the neighbourhood (Karanth, 1987; Magesh et al., 2012; Venkatramanan et al., 2012). Remote sensing provides multi-spectral, multi-temporal and multi-sensor data of the earth’s surface. One of the greatest advantages of using remote sensing data for hydrological investigations and monitoring is its ability to generate information in spatial and temporal domain, which is very crucial for successful analysis, prediction and validation. Hence Landuse pattern and remote sensing data has been utilized for delineation of ground water potential zones in Bengaluru urban Area
The groundwater quantitative status with respect to GWDAE is also evaluated as good. The abstraction of groundwater from speleological objects in the strict sense of the word is not being carried out. However, many springs are captured for the water supply. In the summer, during dry parts of the year, naturally, fewer discharges from the spring occur; while, at the same time, the pumping capac- ity is increased as the number of users in the water supply area is several times greater during the tourist season and irrigation of agricultural areas is being carried out. Under such conditions, at some springs, the groundwater dis- charge and surface water runoff cease. Such a situation may last several weeks. Given that this is also a common phe- nomenon at locations not captured for water supply, it has to be expected that such environments will be inhabited by organisms that have already adjusted to these conditions. Rohde et al.  emphasize that GWDEs include organisms that have evolved complex physiological and biochemical adaptations to adjust and adapt to short-term water-deficit stress. In this case, the identification of key species within a GWDE that can serve as an indicator of biotic responses to groundwater drawdown helps in detecting ecosystem change. Of all the springs that were separated as GWDAE in Croatia, the pressure due to groundwater abstraction for irrigation has been determined only for two springs. Both these springs were included in the NATURA network and this pressure was not ranked as being of high strength. One of the springs belongs to the GWB where twenty GWDAEs were separated, of which only one (this spring) was esti- mated as having a poor status. Another spring belongs to the GWB in which four GWDAEs were separated. At this spring, the groundwater flows out of the cave in which Pro- teus is determined. In view of these circumstances, both GWBs are estimated as having a good quantitative status. In general, an ecologically acceptable flow in Croatia has not been defined. However, Carvalho et al.  state that in many cases, the implementation of an environmentally acceptable flow is not yet sufficient, which is why the effects of water abstraction are often underestimated. This con- clusion, however, is not applicable to the cases discussed above.
There are numerous initiatives to rehabilitate urban areas by incorporating these considerations and this administrative framework to create tools to improve the quality of urban life (e.g., action plans addressing climate change, mobility plans, urban sustainability strategies and local plans). However, it is necessary to incorporate urban ecology and to consider urban areas as ecosystems into new planning methods for cities. The management model we adopt for urban ecosystems will directly influence not only the wellbeing of its inhabitants but also many other ecosystems driven by the demand for services, thereby compromising their ability to provide them. Therefore, the management of urbanization both internally and, especially, littorally will constitute the main obstacle or opportunity for achieving sustainable management strategies to integrate the natural capital of Spain as a whole.
Because of the mountains running down the center of Japan, there is a large population in a narrow territory, and the precipitation per person is about one-third of the global average [ 12 ]. The annual precipitation is 1690 mm, about twice the global average, which is estimated at 810 mm. Moreover, the precipitation per person is about one-third of the global average. The potential water resource per person is 3200 mm 3 per year, less than half the world average that is about 8400 mm 3 [ 13 ]. Due to its location in the Asian Monsoon zone, the rainfall is concentrated in typhoon season [ 14 ]. Most of the potential water resource flows into the sea without flowing into the ground. Japan has a mountainous typography with steep slopes and its rivers are short and flow rapidly out to the sea [ 15 ]. Under these circumstances, a sustainable management of groundwater is indispensable.
dence. This area covers about half of the Kanto groundwater basin. Consequently, the actual pumping volume is estimated to have been twice as much as the values mentioned above. The groundwater has been used for (1) drinking water supply, (2) industries, (3) agriculture (4) buildings and (5) other uses. The used volume increases generally according as drinking water supply, industries and so on increase in scale. However the used volume shows a little difference based on each au- tonomy on the Kanto groundwater basin and the scale of the volume used by the agriculture and the building is different at each prefectural government. The volume of other uses is the smallest amount of the volume which is the fifth order. The fact that the drinking water supply make up the largest amount of the ground water use may be the consequence of the concept that necessary of groundwater use is for the bene- fit of inhabitants (Shibasaki, 1976; Research Group for Water Balance, 1976).
tem threat in conditions of non-availability of ground- water resources. The threat risk may be determined by comparison of groundwater depth for a specific ground- water level with the average depth of the root zone de- termined for a plant community. In order to define the magnitude of GDE threat risk, a spatial analysis was made, indicating areas, in which the average hydrody- namic level (SSG), average low level (SNG), and the lowest level (NNG) are lower than the average depth of the root zone (in Tab. 1 after Foxx et al. 1984) (Text-fig. 11). The vegetation type was also indicated for these ar- eas (according to the general humidity requirements by Kucharski and Michalska-Hejduk 2003), which peri- odically could indicate humidity deficiencies in various intervals (Table 5A).
The use of nanotechnology for site remediation could potentially provide a solution for faster and more cost- effective site remediation. Many different nanomaterials have been evaluated for use in nanoremediation. They include nanoscale zeolites, metal oxides, carbon nanotubes, noble metals and titanium dioxide. Of these, nanoscale zero- valent iron (nZVI) is currently widely used in groundwater remediation . In addition to groundwater remediation, nanotechnology has also contributed towards reducing the presence of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). For this purpose, a material utilizing nano-sized oxide is used in situ to clean up heating oil spills from underground oil tanks. Compared to previous remediation methods, this approach provided an overall reduction in the contaminant
The distribution of world’s water indicates that only 2.5% and 97.5% consti- tute fresh water and saline water respectively. 2.5% of the world’s freshwater, surface water and groundwater have 0.4% and 30.1% representations respective- ly . Most of the freshwater is locked up in ice caps at the Polar region. The distribution of world’s water skewed towards saline water dominance which placed restriction on its availability for humans, agriculture and industrial uses. Furthermore, more exacerbating was the rapid rise in world’s population that rose to 7.6 billion . At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the total world population crossed the threshold of 1 billion people for the first time in the his- tory of the Homo sapiens. Since then, growth rates have been increasing expo- nentially, reaching staggeringly high peaks in the 20th century and slowing down a bit thereafter. The total world population reached 7 billion just after 2010 and is expected to count 9 billion by 2045 . This population growth re- vealed unprecedented increase in the last 200 years as it took over 200,000 years of human history for the world’s population to reach 1 billion and only 200 years to reach 7 billion. The increase in population and its attendant problems (deple- tion of natural resources, environmental degradation, conflicts and wars, lack of adequate food, water, shelter, education and employment, high cost of living and increase in anthropogenic activities) have placed stress on the available global fresh water leading to water crisis in the world. The “looming water crisis” is becoming a major issue on the world agenda for the twenty-first century. The World Water Council presented the “World Water Vision” during the Second World Water Forum and Ministerial Conference at The Hague in March 2000 . The Vision reported that 1.2 billion people or one fifth of the world popula- tion do not have access to safe drinking water, while half of the world population lack adequate sanitation. The Vision further states that rapidly growing cities, burgeoning industries and rapidly rising use of chemicals in agriculture have undermined the quality of many rivers, lakes, aquifers and also emphasized that the impacts of agriculture on water quality are less visible over time but at least as dangerous as industrial because many of the fertilizers, pesticides and herbi- cides used to improve agricultural productivity slowly accumulate in groundwa- ter aquifers and natural ecosystems.
Microbiological contaminants such as bacteria, protozoa and viruses pose one of the greatest risks in water resources. Transport of bacteria and viruses in groundwater has been a subject of great interest in recent years because of its importance in many areas. In this paper we developed a mathematical model to study the movement of contaminants by landfill leachate. Velocity and skin friction is obtained by Laplace transformation technique making use of the residual method. Results are obtained analytically for various particle mass parameter and the numerical values are computed graphically.
Objectives of the Eighth Phase of IHP (IHP-VIII, 2014-2021) for this theme include: promoting measures addressing the principles of sustainable management of groundwater resources; addressing methods for the sound development, exploitation and protection of groundwater resources; developing new groundwater resources maps; fostering transboundary aquifers management; and strengthening groundwater governance policy and water management in emergency situations. These challenges call for comprehensive research, implementation of new science-based methodologies, the endorsement of principles of integrated management and environmentally-sound protection of groundwater resources.