Urban Renewal Mega Events

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Urban Renewal in the Traditional Center of a Mega City: A Case Study of Shankhari Bazar, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Urban Renewal in the Traditional Center of a Mega City: A Case Study of Shankhari Bazar, Dhaka, Bangladesh

The buildings construction laws are not suitable for many land parcels in the old Dhaka, this will be discussed in next chapter in detail. And it also takes enough money and time to get the plans approved from RAJUK. Therefore, many residents do not go for the approval procedure. Particularly in the 80s and 90s most of the buildings were built without consulting architects and generally by simply engaging a civil engineer to prepare the structural drawings and even sometimes just by the land owner following his intention with the help of masonry workers; as mentioned by urban scholars, urban professionals and some residents who had their buildings constructed in this way. Moreover, the residents seem to be well aware of the limitation of RAJUK which encourages them to opt for building construction on their own or violating the regulations. There is possibly also a consensus among the neighbors about this. For example, someone builds an 8 storied building without having the setbacks as required by regulations and when it is not permitted to have more than 6 stories, then in next coming years more or less everyone follows the first person. And then none complaints to RAJUK, because then everyone must suffer. Such events are mentioned by residents themselves. Also it is less expensive to bribe an officer in RAJUK compared to the market price of apartments and each additional square meter of built area counts. RAJUK is simply entitled to check for faulty building constructions, but due to lack of proper considerations in the building regulations, it cannot control if new buildings are compatible with the historic urban fabric of the inner city neighborhoods.
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Urban Tourism in Istanbul : Urban Regeneration, Mega-events and City Marketing and Branding

Urban Tourism in Istanbul : Urban Regeneration, Mega-events and City Marketing and Branding

Similarly in the second phase, data were collected through semi structured interviews, in-depth interviews and long-term observation. The interviews (eight in total) conducted for the article II were grouped into three categories: the interviews with activists/professionals, with the dwellers of the Romani neighbourhood Sulukule, and with inhabitants who live and work in the adjacent neighbourhood Çarşamba, which is ethnically and culturally different from the Romani one. Firstly, activists or professionals, who do not live in Sulukule, expressed their concerns about the Sulukule Urban Regeneration Project. They all agreed that Sulukule desperately needs ‘regeneration’ instead of large scale demolitions. In this context, they advocated alternative suggestions/plans to ‘save’ Sulukule and criticised the municipality’s irreconcilable approach. The second group of interviewees consisted of locals (some are activists, some are not). It is interesting that former property owners in Sulukule were generally reluctant to talk to me because they were concerned to express their identities and property values. However, tenants who had experienced displacement due to lack of their tenancy documents were eager to be interviewed. In these long conversations, locals told their stories concerning demolitions, evictions and their lives after these. In this part, I focused on how ambiguous property rights in the neighbourhood caused problems and how displacement affected Sulukule’s Romani dwellers. Interviews with the residents of Çarşamba helped to document the prejudices towards the Roma and their lifestyles and pointed out the ‘ethno- cultural dimension’ of this project. Both interviewees affirmed ‘bulldozer renewal’ in Sulukule. In general, all three groups provided data for the formation and activities of the urban social movement (the Sulukule Platform) in Sulukule. Further, during my frequent visits to the neighbourhood before and after demolitions, I had the chance to observe Romani lifestyles, conditions that the locals were forced to live in and their reactions to authorities.
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Mega-events, community stakeholders and legacy: London 2012.

Mega-events, community stakeholders and legacy: London 2012.

The resultant housing from the former Olympic Village became highly sought after property and led to the gentrification of the waterfront area (with a new community of young professional residents moving into the properties previously occupied by athletes) and ‘opened up’ the waterfront that had for many years been industrialised, to provide new restaurants, bars and marinas (Mackay, 2000), despite the criticisms already mentioned of the dislocated residents. However, what makes the ‘Barcelona Model’ so important is the way in which the time frame for the long term vision for the city was condensed into seven years through successful public/private partnerships and the support of the local municipal and regional Government. Monclus (2003) writes in particular about how Barcelona converted the 1992 Olympic Games into a lever and strategic instrument for renewal and regeneration of the city as a whole. The actual Barcelona Model was, in his opinion, an urban project stretching from 1979-2004 with the Games part of a bigger urban vision. Monclus (2003) believes the polarisation and social exclusion, seen in other city renewal projects, did not happen in Barcelona, but he acknowledges that insufficient focus was given in the planning to housing issues, thus disagreeing with Balibrea (2001) amongst others who argue that many inhabitants were expelled from historic communities, situated in parts of the city for a reason. Furthermore, in earlier writings, Marshall (2000) questioned whether a Barcelona Model actually exists. He believes that metropolitan regional planning is more likely to be behind the successes seen in Barcelona and that the model referred to does not have any distinct approach to urban governance, this comes from a wider strategic vision.
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Volunteers and mega sporting events : developing a research framework

Volunteers and mega sporting events : developing a research framework

Roche (2000) emphasises that mega events are typically, organized by the collaborative efforts of international non- governmental organizations (such as the IOC or FIFA) and national governments and their associated bodies. To these, increasingly, needs to be added the role of global companies as sponsoring partners to mega events, providing both financial contribution and widespread exposure to the event in question. There is little doubt that mega sporting events cost major sums of money to mount and that there is ongoing debate as to the balance between costs and benefits associated with hosting. Mega sporting events are justified, in terms of the public expenditure that is required to host them, on the basis of their long-term benefits through new event and urban infrastructure, urban renewal, enhanced international reputation, increased tourist visitation and related benefits (Ritchie & Aitken, 1985; Hall, 1987; Hall, 1992; Crompton, 1999; Kasimati, 2003). The process of bidding for mega sports events is also highly complex and political (Westerbeek et al, 2002). Many mega sporting events, especially those that are “one off” rather than annual dates on circuit timetables (FI races, Tennis Grand Stand tournaments), also develop strong cultural dimensions and the importance of these links to the development of culture and heritage in a community is widely recognized (Scott, 2004).
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Zika Virus Controversies: Epidemics as a Legacy of Mega Events?

Zika Virus Controversies: Epidemics as a Legacy of Mega Events?

Brazil’s geographic shape shows how the country is susceptive and vulnerable to this new infection. As the Chikungunya Virus is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti, it already had a widely spread population of vectors able to disseminate the disease. As well as that, the existence of infected patients, in contact with those vectors, fundaments the possibility of a wide transmission across the country. The Soccer World Cup, a mega event that occurred in 2014 in 12 cities of Brazil, was a main reason of concern due to welcoming a great number of tour- ists from all around the world. The entrance of the Chikungunya Virus in the country probably occurred during that event. Only in 2015, 20,662 autochthonous suspicious cases of the Chikungunya fever were reported. 18,793 of those happened only in the Northeast of the country. These data show a peak increase when compared to the year before, 2014 [44].
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A Strategic E-Marketing Framework For Sport Mega-Events

A Strategic E-Marketing Framework For Sport Mega-Events

This article reports on a study that was conducted which aims to understand the optimal usage of e-marketing in sport mega-events with reference to the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup TM which was held in South Africa. A conceptual framework to optimally leverage e-marketing opportunities related to the hosting of sport mega-events was developed from the findings of this study. Building on an in-depth analysis of the contemporary literature on this very dynamic topic, as well as key lessons learned from an analysis of international case studies, primary research was conducted before and after the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup TM , involving key stakeholders in the event and destination marketing sphere. Based on the preceding phases, the strategic framework that was conceptualised provides parameters and guidelines for the effective utilisation of e-marketing and e-marketing tools in future sport mega-events. Furthermore, 11 critical success factors (CSFs) were determined that should be considered when developing and implementing an e-marketing strategy for mega-events. In addition to adding value to the body of knowledge in this increasingly important sphere of tourism, recommendations regarding future research in this dynamic field of study are addressed.
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Mega urban transport projects as a catalyst for sustainable urban regeneration and the role of mega events

Mega urban transport projects as a catalyst for sustainable urban regeneration and the role of mega events

Concerning the principal research questions posed by this study (see Section 1.4) and the scale of mega projects in which globalising tendencies are omnipresent, the institutional arrangement model, this research borrowed and edited from Hollingsworth and Boyer (1999) shown in Figure 2.2, manifests itself at the global level. It shows a line crossing the overall model with the ‘market’ at one end, and a ‘hierarchy’ at the other end. The main issue that is raised involves the position in which the market and the state should locate themselves when the institutional arrangements regarding the efficiency and productivity of the outcomes of mega-project delivery are set up. Neo-liberal theorists believe that market-led institutional arrangements should govern the capitalist economy; however, while Hollingsworth and Boyer (1999: 10) claim that the rules codified by the public authority are essential taking precedence to the patterns of coordinating economic transactions with the result that governmental intervention in mega projects is all important. Hollingsworth and Boyer (1999: 13) make reference to Romer’s New Growth Theory (see Romer, 1986, 1990, 1994) which “considers the spillover effects of innovations, educations, and various types of infrastructure, [and argues that] some supply-oriented interventions by the state may promote efficiency and long run growth”. Whereas, Catlaw (2006) claims that the shift of our trust to the market (as advocated by neo-liberalism) is based on a belief that markets can resolve problems of uncertainty and that by implication public sector intervention can disturb these solutions and thus often inject uncertainty into decision-making, he argues that the reality of the market model is actually underlined by higher uncertainty. He concludes that, “markets certainty disperse authority and decision and challenge the dominion of political representation, but they entirely neglect the other critical, generative functions that authority serves” (Catlaw, 2006: 114) namely: regulations, government financing, etc.
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Spaces of Mega Sporting Events versus Public Spaces

Spaces of Mega Sporting Events versus Public Spaces

Ras Abu Abboud shows a strong touristic vocation. The area stands by the sea, between the airport and the old port, which will be soon reconverted to a touristic port. Two five-star hotels are also located in its vicinity, while attractions such as Souq Waqif, Corniche, the national museum, and the museum of Islamic art are within a short distance. The stadium will probably not be needed anymore after the tournament, and should be built as a complete temporary structure, and replaced with hotels, open spaces, and other touristic services. The 1992 Olympic Games in Barcelona could be a good example to look at. Indeed, this is probably one of the best examples of urban transformations of the last thirty years, and a perfect illustration of how to leverage an international event to change and improve the public space. The Games were utilised to overcome the lack of a development plan of the coastal area of Barcelona, and to open the city towards the sea. Similar to Barcelona, this area of Doha should invest in the renovation of its waterfront and link it with the Corniche and the downtown area. More difficult is the situation of Al Wakrah, Al Khor, and Al Thumama districts. All these areas have a clear residential vocation and low or middle-income expats and families inhabit them. Also, in the case of Wakrah and Khor, the majority of the population lives in labour camps. In order to develop these areas, the government should build schools, hospitals, mosques, shops, and all the services necessary to residents. Another issue is the lack of integration with the public transport. To illustrate, Al Khor is about 60 km from Doha and will not be connected by the new metro system. Al Wakrah will have a stop on the red line, but it will be about 7 km far from the stadium’s precinct. Similarly, Al Thumama cannot be reached by the metro system. Those who are the most in need will be excluded from an easy access to public transport, de facto increasing the social divide among the different strata of the
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Assessing the infrastructure impact of mega-events in emerging economies

Assessing the infrastructure impact of mega-events in emerging economies

7 of cases, independent economists find little or no direct economic impact of mega-events on host economies. The disconnect between ex ante predictions and ex post reality comes as a result of numerous factors. As numerous authors including Matheson (2008), economic impact studies may be based on inflated, unrealistic, or best-case predictions, but even when appropriate data are used, many economic impact estimates regularly suffer from several features that serve to exaggerate the numbers. First, to the extent a sporting event attracts spectators from the local community, any money spent by these fans is money not being spent by these residents elsewhere in the local economy. Spending by local citizens does not represent new money in the economy but is rather simply money that is reallocated within the city or country. While crowds of local fans filling up the stadiums cheering for the home team makes for a festive atmosphere, it does little to encourage new spending in the economy or promote economic growth.
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Towards a definition of Christian Mega events in the 21st century

Towards a definition of Christian Mega events in the 21st century

Despite the apparent doom and gloom for the survival of traditional church denominations in the preceding section, Berger asserted that in the 21st century, ‘Religion has not been declining. On the contrary, in much of the world there has been a veritable explosion of religious faith.’ (2008:23). The characteristics of this growth are evident in several areas. The first area of growth is in geographic areas which have diverse populations and communities (Ammerman, 2014:96). Martin and Catto note ‘Christianity’s loss of its cultural monopoly as Britain has become more religiously diverse’ (2012:388). Surely this echoes the decrease in attendance noted in the previous section? Yet, despite the tone of secular and academic discourse, there has also been significant growth in ‘dynamic Evangelicalism’ around the world (Pollack, 2014:112). In a significant variation, Berger eventually changed his mind on the impact of modernisation towards secularisation and away from religion (Pollack, 2014). These developments of what might be seen as revivalism will be examined later through the lens of large-scale mega-events, which are discussed in further detail below.
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Introduction to Sustainable Urban Renewal:

Introduction to Sustainable Urban Renewal:

they are non-obligatory. Though they can promote sustainability, they are unlikely to bring about behavioural change on a larger scale. In a research project on urban renewal in the Nether- lands Van der Waals et al. (2003) conclude that municipalities and housing associations often ignore the covenants in the building process and suggest that this is due in most cases to the absence of a monitoring mechanism, the lack of quantified objectives for CO 2 reductions, the wide scope of the issues addressed and the weak legal basis (e.g no use is made of covenants when building permits are being assessed). The true value of a covenant lies in the willingness of the different parties to sign up for sustainability. The covenant, as an instrument, is starting to pay off in the Dutch urban planning process because it places sustainability on the policy and political agenda and helps to promote sustainable building. Nonetheless, other instruments like regulations and financial incentives are still needed (Boon, 2003b).
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City management and urban renewal

City management and urban renewal

As mentioned above, the urban renewal projects specified in the Special Act on the Promotion of Urban Renewal include: ① residential environment improvement project, housing redevelopm[r]

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Sustainability Versus Mega Urban Development Projects

Sustainability Versus Mega Urban Development Projects

Abstract - The Middle East region is under mega urban development plans. This era in the region’s history is vividly revealing the conceptual understanding of the conflicting views of urban development and construction projects in the developing countries. This paper takes Jeddah city, in S audi Arabia, as a case study to highlight the conflicting views that rise from several world issues, which mark the current practices of urban development. S ustainability views the world as a source of renewable materials and hopes to keep the world green, while the new world order views economy as the source of empowerment and the hope to remedy human and environmental deterioration and to eradicate poverty. The paper aims to explore a framework that allows a holistic approach in practices’ methodology to urban development in developing countries. The main objective is to define a set of construction areas in which the use of green construction materials reduces demand for nonrenewable resources and the environmental degradation universally correlated with the mining of those resources. The paper hopes to raise awareness among developers for the use of sustainable construction materials versus the use of favored nonrenewable materials without neglect of the consequences of their impact on the urban development.
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An Evaluation of the Economic Impact of National Football League Mega-events

An Evaluation of the Economic Impact of National Football League Mega-events

If there is an exaggeration of the benefits induced by a sports mega-event, it occurs for several fundamental reasons. First, the increase in direct spending attributable to the games may be a “gross” as opposed to a “net” measure. Some subsidy advocates estimate direct spending by simply summing all receipts associated with the event. The fact that the gross-spending approach fails to account for decreased spending directly attributable to the event represents a major theoretical and practical shortcoming. Surveys on expenditures by those attending the event, complete with a question on place of residence, would appear to be a straightforward way of estimating direct expenditures in a manner that is statistically acceptable. Such surveys may well provide acceptable spending estimates for those patronizing the event, but they do not reveal changes in spending by residents not attending it. It is conceivable that some local residents or potential visitors may dramatically change their spending given their desire to avoid the congestion at least in the venue‟s environs. A basic shortcoming of typical economic impact studies, in general, pertains not to information on spending by those included in a direct expenditure survey, but rather to the lack of information on the spending behavior for those who are not.
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Biophilic urbanism: contributions to holistic urban greening for urban renewal

Biophilic urbanism: contributions to holistic urban greening for urban renewal

Documentary evidence for each city included government policies, plans and reports; media reports; secondary analyses of cities (including journal articles, books, film footage, magazine reports); and government and industry websites. Interviews were conducted with key actors in each city, who were identified as having the potential to reflect on the processes, challenges, and systems that influenced the mainstreaming of biophilic urbanism, including government representatives, industry representatives, community leaders, and academics that developed and/or reviewed initiatives. For the Berlin case study, which is the focus in this paper, interviews were conducted with two representatives from the Senate Department for Urban Development and Environment; with three representatives from a community advocacy organisation for urban greening; and with two citizens who had played key roles in grassroots urban nature initiatives, as detailed in Table 1. An iterative analytical technique of explanation building (Yin, 2009) was used to identify, confirm and refine patterns and a set of factors relating to the mainstreaming process within each city and across the set of case studies.
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Sports mega-events – three sites of contemporary political contestation

Sports mega-events – three sites of contemporary political contestation

contemporary politics of sports mega-events. Whether competing with other cities or nations to host an event, winning the right to do so, or actually hosting an event, the potential for symbolic power plays, or pitfalls, are real. All such exercises in promotional politics - nation branding, city branding, image alteration – run the danger of heightening reputational risk to the bidders (and eventual hosts) involved. According to the 2014 Anholt-GfK survey of national image, rather than boost Brazil’s reputation in the world, hosting the 2014 World Cup Finals saw the country lose ground in the rankings whilst World Cup winners Germany knocked the USA off the top spot after 5 years (Anholt-GfK Roper 2014; Garcia 2014). Another aspect of political controversy since ‘9/11’ (in 2001), and that stretches further back to the ‘Munich’ terrorist attack (in 1972), has been the relationship between the staging of sports mega-events and the growth of the security state. Societies have seen a continuing transformation of surveillance capabilities as the supposed threat of terrorist attack has grown. Sports mega-events have offered opportunities for new security equipment and procedures and surveillance operations to be trialled. As these three features – costs,
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An Evaluation of the Economic Impact of National Football League Mega-events

An Evaluation of the Economic Impact of National Football League Mega-events

If there is an exaggeration of the benefits induced by a sports mega-event, it occurs for several fundamental reasons. First, the increase in direct spending attributable to the games may be a “gross” as opposed to a “net” measure. Some subsidy advocates estimate direct spending by simply summing all receipts associated with the event. The fact that the gross-spending approach fails to account for decreased spending directly attributable to the event represents a major theoretical and practical shortcoming. Surveys on expenditures by those attending the event, complete with a question on place of residence, would appear to be a straightforward way of estimating direct expenditures in a manner that is statistically acceptable. Such surveys may well provide acceptable spending estimates for those patronizing the event, but they do not reveal changes in spending by residents not attending it. It is conceivable that some local residents or potential visitors may dramatically change their spending given their desire to avoid the congestion at least in the venue‟s environs. A basic shortcoming of typical economic impact studies, in general, pertains not to information on spending by those included in a direct expenditure survey, but rather to the lack of information on the spending behavior for those who are not.
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Urban Renewal Decision- Making in China:

Urban Renewal Decision- Making in China:

After the exploration of stakeholders as the first and second steps of this research, the investigation of the urban renewal decision-making process is conducted in the third step. Transaction costs theory is adopted to improve the understanding or decision-making process from the New Institutional Economics perspective. It provides a specific perspective to look into the efficiency and equity of policy instruments, perceive unintended consequences, design more practical policy instruments, and provide the basis to include various aspects of the institutional environment (Garrick et al. , 2013, McCann, 2013, Qian et al. , 2012, Shahab et al. , 2018). The research focuses on the stakeholder groups of municipal government, district government, local administrative organizations, and the consulting parties, because these groups are highly and actively involved in the administrative process of urban renewal decision-making. Based on transaction costs theory, an analytical framework is established to identify and analyze transaction costs borne by different stakeholder groups in all four decision-making stages. The results of in-depth interviews show that many transaction costs exist in the administrative process of urban renewal decision-making. The distribution is uneven in terms of different stages and stakeholder groups. Moreover, the huge amount of works of negotiation and coordination account for a significant part of the total transaction costs. The primary cause of the high-level transaction costs is the current institutions of urban renewal decision-making, includes three aspects. The first is that different decision- making stages are strictly separated. It leads to a lack of feedback loop and creates loopholes in the decision-making process. The second is the lack of guidance on project planning. Currently, the purpose and elements of a project plan are clear to all stakeholder groups, but how to make the project plan is not explicit, which restricts the plan-making in many circumstances. The third aspect is the lack of a cross-sector cooperation mechanism. Each stakeholder has to comply with much government planning and specific requirements of other stakeholders. When an issue involves many sectors, cooperation may become more complicated and cause misunderstandings and conflicts.
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Urban Renewal Guidebook Cities improving their competitiveness, productivity, liveability and economic viability through urban renewal

Urban Renewal Guidebook Cities improving their competitiveness, productivity, liveability and economic viability through urban renewal

Renewal projects may also focus on increasing accessibility either through transit-orientated development based around existing infrastructure, or via concurrent development of railways, highways, bike lanes and pedestrian walkways to create a 'walkable community' and increase access to both locals and visitors. Throughout the project life-cycle, project leaders will also want to engender a critical mass of local support, which often involves ensuring the projects have a range of life-enhancing aspects – such as mixed uses and public spaces which add to the amenity of the area, rather than having renewal projects limited to the footprint of the built structure.
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Proposals on adaptability of urban renewal in Turkey

Proposals on adaptability of urban renewal in Turkey

The objective of this research is to examine the applicability of the urban renewal in Turkey, having considered the act of urban renewal as an approach based on planning, regulations a[r]

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