Urban School and District Reform

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Teacher Candidate Immersion into Bilingual/ Dual Language Classrooms in Largest Urban District in Texas

Teacher Candidate Immersion into Bilingual/ Dual Language Classrooms in Largest Urban District in Texas

Abstract Prevailing teacher education reform initiatives call for preservice preparation to be "clinically rich" shifting the primary locus, and therefore location, of learning from within university walls to schools (National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, 2010; New York State Department of Education, 2011; U. S. Department of Education, 2009, 2011). In an effort of the largest school district in Texas to recruit our bilingual preservice teachers and for us to expose our students from the Rio Grande Valley to a highly populated urban setting, our students are invited to spend one week with host families and shadow an experienced teacher in dual language classrooms. As they are immersed in urban classroom's activities and community events, bilingual teacher candidates are exposed to a full array of a teacher's role and responsibilities. This experience is in addition to their field-based assignments as part of their educator preparation program and student/ clinical teaching. Although teacher candidates pend completion of clinical teaching, graduation and state certification, they receive letters of intent from district officials at the end of their week-long visit Journals and essays kept by the students were analyzed through three qualitative processes by the researchers: NVivo, Excel, and color-coding of themes and sub-themes. Qualitative findings suggested central phenomena was identified relating to bilingual/ dual language practices in the classrooms along with relating common subthemes of diversity, instructional strategies, routines, differences from the Valley, feelings/ emotions, bonding, and classroom management.
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On Educational Outcomes in an Urban School District

On Educational Outcomes in an Urban School District

4 The effects of peer groups are as pertinent to researchers in economics and education policy. First, social interactions among students can be interpreted as creating positive and negative externalities. That is, peer groups can induce spillover effects in classroom learning through productive or disruptive behavior (Lazear, 2001). As such, it is crucial to uncover and further understand the significance of peers and their implications on classroom productivity. Doing so will enable policy makers to determine which inputs matter in educational school reform, thereby providing insight on how school inputs make a difference in the classroom rather than on just whether or not they do at all. Second, a major question in the economics and policy literature is whether or not the interactions among students lead to large social multipliers (Epple & Romano, 1998; Hoxby, 2000). Depending on the nature of peer effects, there may be gains from grouping together different subsets of students. Answers to these questions would inform the debates on school choice, busing, and tracking (Angrist & Lang, 2004).
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An Examination of Principals’ Perceptions of Professional Development in an Urban School District

An Examination of Principals’ Perceptions of Professional Development in an Urban School District

(6) Includes multiple modalities of learning – active engagement; (7) is site-based and includes teachers from the same grade and subject level; and, (8) is based on student performance data (p. 9). Little (1994) advocates that professional development can be a reform strategy for capacity “to equip teachers individually and collectively to act as shapers, promoters, and well-informed critics of reforms” (para 4). Six principles guide a reform strategy approach. Zepada (2012) indicates that professional development (1) offers engagement with ideas, materials and colleagues in and out of teaching environments; (2) takes explicit account of the context of teaching and experiences of teachers; (3) offers support for informed dissent; (4) places classroom practice in the larger contexts of school practice and the educational career of children; (5) prepares teachers and others to employ techniques and perspectives of inquiry; and, (6) the ensurance of balance between individual interests and institutional interests (p. 65). Adding to this list, the Annenberg Institute for School Reform (AISR) asserts that professional development is ongoing, embedded within context-specific needs of a particular setting, aligned with reform initiatives, and grounded in collaborative, inquiry-based approach to learning (p. 1). Learning Forward, formerly the National Staff Development Council, created the 2011 Standards for Professional Learning. Based upon research on professional development, these reform-focused standards of Learning Forward posit three key categories: Context, Process, and Outcome “that lead to effective teaching practices, supportive leadership, and improved student results” (para 1). Context standards involve three specific areas: learning communities, leadership, and resources. Process standards refer to: data, learning designs, and implementation. The stand alone outcome standard addresses the outcomes performance standards and learning outcomes.
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Comparative Study to Assess the Knowledge of Rural and Urban Primary School Teachers Regarding Selected Common Health Problems of School Children at Hassan District

Comparative Study to Assess the Knowledge of Rural and Urban Primary School Teachers Regarding Selected Common Health Problems of School Children at Hassan District

The setting of the study was under Shanthigrama PHC Primary schools and Primary schools at Hassan city. Simple Random sampling technique was used to select the subjects. The sample size was 60 (30 Urban primary school teachers and 30 Rural primary school teachers).The tool used for this study consists of two sections, section 1:- consist of demographic variables, section 2:-consists of various questionnaires related to knowledge on selected common health problems. Content validity of the tool was given by experts and tool is found to be reliable and flexible during the pilot study.
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Risk factors for antenatal hypovitaminosis D in an urban district in Malaysia

Risk factors for antenatal hypovitaminosis D in an urban district in Malaysia

Mithal et al. [26] concluded from other studies in de- veloping countries that economic status and high family income showed a lower prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in all age groups. High-income families provided better outdoor activities for school teenagers, better antenatal care facilities for pregnant women, consumed balanced diet and could afford vitamin D supplements for their older people. Most of the studies claimed that there was no association between household income per month and vitamin D status [34]. This was similar to our study where household income was not associated with hypovi- taminosis D. Our respondents were first trimester preg- nant women, some of them were having morning sickness that causes poor dietary intake. They probably rarely spent Table 4 Multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the
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Improving Early Sepsis Identification on Inpatient Units

Improving Early Sepsis Identification on Inpatient Units

The version of the community educators’ manual that the teacher’s manual was derived from was 165 pages long. As a part of the partnership with the department of School Health, the SFCAPC’s training manual for teachers needs to cover lessons one and two of the Child Safety Awareness Program. Lesson one covers safe and unsafe touch, internet safety and bullying for Kindergarten through 5th graders, and lesson two covers support systems. The existing version would be too time consuming to introduce into a teacher’s already busy schedule. The longer the document, the less likely it would be used. To increase the likelihood of use and sustainability of the manual, the Train the Trainer manual for teacher’s (appendix B) was condensed to 34 pages, including appendices and cover page. The manual is only available online to ensure easy access and increase customer satisfaction.
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An Analysis of Consumption Expenditure in India

An Analysis of Consumption Expenditure in India

Consumption is an important activity performed by the household sector. Whatever personal income we obtain, from one source or the other, is spent either on consumption or is saved. Presently, consumption is exacerbating inequalities. The consumption pattern in India is defined with the reference to the consumer expenditure survey by the NSSO. These surveys divide rural and urban population into different expenditure groups. The distribution of household/person and the per capita monthly expenditure on food and non food items is given for each group.
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LIVE OAK CHARTER SCHOOL

LIVE OAK CHARTER SCHOOL

i. Issue: The school has participated in the CSFGP for over a decade. The school has qualified under the program as part of both the McKinley and McDowell elementary school areas, although for technical reasons only one of these (McKinley) shows on the school’s eligibility documents with the CSFA. The school alerted the CSFA in the latest round of eligibility document submissions, and submitted a letter documenting, that McDowell should be listed as the school area for eligibility purposes. The school was recently informed by the CSFA that these changes had not been recorded by the CSFA as regards meeting eligibility requirements and as such that the school does not show in their system as eligible to participate in the program for 2018-19 since the McKinley school no longer meets the FRPM eligibility requirements for the program. The school has alerted legal counsel to the issue and is in the process of filing an appeal regarding this matter.
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Minutes for the Regular Meeting of the Board of Directors Live Oak Charter School Multi-purpose room June 6, 2019 PRESENT: Sarah Grossi (SG), Chair

Minutes for the Regular Meeting of the Board of Directors Live Oak Charter School Multi-purpose room June 6, 2019 PRESENT: Sarah Grossi (SG), Chair

Ecology Action performed an energy audit at Live Oak Charter School on March 20, 2017. Live Oak Charter School, which is leased from the 4th District Agricultural Association, is located at 100 Gnoss Councrouse in the Sonoma-Marin Fairgrounds in Petaluma, CA. Petaluma is located in California Climate Zone 2, as defined by the CEC.The school was originally constructed in 2001 and all major mechanical equipment is original. The school has a typical instructional schedule running from 8am to 4pm Monday through Friday. The first day of classes is August 22 and school releases for summer break on June 9. There are 180 days of classes per year. The school is divided into the Upper and Lower Campus. The Upper Campus serves grades K-5; this facility contains nine classrooms, administration offices, a music room, a library, a handwork room, and an after-school care room. All buildings are modular. The Lower Campus serves grades 6-8; this facility is located in a converted fairgrounds building. The updated building contains four classrooms, a choir room, and a kitchen.The Upper Campus classrooms are conditioned by heat pumps. The facility contains a total of twelve 3 ton and two 4 ton heat pumps. Each heat pump is controlled by a single-zone thermostat. The majority of the thermostats are programmable, but non-programmable thermostats are still present in the third grade classroom, after-school care room, handwork room, music room, and administration offices.The Lower Campus is housed in a converted fairgrounds building. The building is conditioned by two Trane 20 ton constant speed packaged gas/electric units. Each unit is controlled by a programmable single zone thermostat.Interior lighting at the Upper Campus is typically two lamp troffers with 32 watt T8 lamps. The custodian closet and third grade classroom closet contain 40 watt lamps. The first and second grade classroom light fixtures are 4 lamp troffers with 32 watt T8 lamps. Upper Campus exterior lighting consists of 23 watt CFL lamps at each classroom, plus scattered 100 watt halogen lamps operating on motion sensors.Lower Campus classroom lighting is typically 4 lamp troffers with 32 watt T8 lamps. The restrooms contain 2 lamp wrap fixtures with 34 watt T8 lamps. The Lower Campus building does not feature any exterior light fixtures.
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A comparative study of anemia in rural and urban school going children in Jammu district

A comparative study of anemia in rural and urban school going children in Jammu district

Our study presses on the fact that the prevalence of anemia is very high in school going children.Inspite of various welfare programs like mid-day meal program,IFA supplementation programmes,majority of the school going children suffer from anemia.Steps should be taken at community level to improve dietary habbitsof the children by increasing consumption of green leafy vegetables, iron-folic acid supplements.Parents, teachers and students should be educated regarding advantages of balance diet supplimentation and intake of iron rich food. To achieve all this ,it is the need of the hour to strengthen various government policies like
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The impact of school type on the personality of rural and urban students

The impact of school type on the personality of rural and urban students

production theory that considers schools as agents of socializing students to adopt gender roles as men and women in the society (Kershner and Bricheno, 2005). Hence, both the approaches, the school effectiveness approach focusing on differences in educational achievements among boys and girls in single- sex and coeducational schools and the sociological approach giving importance to the differences in educational practices within a school resulting gender differences in social and personal developments have led a discussion on the gender composition of a school and its impact on students’ academic achievement and personal and social development. Education competence in the present world is interwoven with the progress of every society. The most significant agency of education is school, where an individual should learn not only academics but to adjust with the surrounding in specific and society at large. According to Chaplin (2005), educational or academic achievement is the specified level of attainment or proficiency in academic work as evaluated by the teachers, standardized or by a combination of both. Carter (2009), in the Dictionary of Education defined, achievement as knowledge acquired and skills developed in school subjects, generally indicated by marks obtained in tests. Achievement contributes strongly to one’s own self- esteem. It is also important in gaining the esteem of others. School achievements are considered to be the most important in determining the career of a student. Academic achievement of a student is greatly influenced by several psychological and sociological correlates such as attitude, teacher effectiveness, adjusting ability, socio- economic status, home and school environment. Personality is also a factor which influences the academic achievement of students. "Personality" is a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences their environment, cognitions, emotions, motivations, and behavioral science in various situations. The word "personality" originates from the Latin persona, which means mask.
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An Historical Geography of Ontario School-Board-Operated Outdoor Education Centres

An Historical Geography of Ontario School-Board-Operated Outdoor Education Centres

Foster (2007), Breunig and O’Connell (2008), Sharp and Breunig (2009), and Ontario teachers surveyed by Tan and Pedretti (2010) each report that numerous school-board- operated OE centres were closed across the province from the 1990s to early 2000s. To test the clarity of these accounts, it was important to ask: What significant changes happened with Ontario school-board-operated OE centres from the 1960s to 2012, and how have these changes impacted the ability of these facilities to support the education of Ontario students? Finally, because historical inquiries often play a unique role in helping stakeholders and policymakers design more informed policy resolutions based on added factual knowledge about past events (MacMillian, 2010), based on the insights answered through the two previous support questions, the following question was asked: Based on these findings, what are the implications for future educational policy related to school- board-operated OE centres in Ontario? Through the process of conducting this inquiry, this doctoral dissertation can provide unique insights that policymakers may use to better inform their decisions regarding the future design and delivery of OE opportunities within Ontario’s publicly funded education system. Furthermore, at a broader level, this document may be used by other regional public education systems as a case study which examines the complex dynamics that go into the political decisions to establish, operate, or occasionally close specialized educational facilities.
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THE IMPACT OF THE SCHOOL HEAD IN SUPERVISION OF EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT CENTRES IN MUTARE URBAN DISTRICT SCHOOLS

THE IMPACT OF THE SCHOOL HEAD IN SUPERVISION OF EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT CENTRES IN MUTARE URBAN DISTRICT SCHOOLS

Early childhood is a crucial stage of life in terms of a child’s physical, intellectual, emotional and social development (Pence, 2004). Growth of mental and physical abilities progress at an astounding rate and a very high proportion of learning takes place from birth to age six (Maponga, 2014). It is a time when children particularly need high quality personal care and learning experience. As Morrison (2009) postulates, education begins from the moment the child is brought home from the hospital and continues on when the child starts to attend playgroups and kindergartens. The learning capabilities of humans continue for the rest of their lives but not at the intensity that is demonstrated in the preschool years (Morrison, 2009). With this in mind, babies and toddlers need positive early learning experiences to help their intellectual, social and emotional development and this lays the foundation for later school success (Madziyire, 2010).
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School and system reform – an agenda for Wales

School and system reform – an agenda for Wales

process of school improvement in this way. The first is that when all are pulling in the same direction, then the aspirations of school improvement have much more chance of success. All need to exist in a reciprocal relationship if student attainment is to be enhanced. The second is that schools need to develop a deep appreciation of their current performance along with their particular strengths and weaknesses (with external assistance as required) to determine where in the model to focus their energies and, hence, where their improvement journey needs to start. The third relates to the crucial issue of where the initiative for improvement comes from. Most school reform assumes that change comes from the ‘outside–in’. In those schools that have made the jump from ‘good to great’ the linear logic of policy implementation has been inverted – they start from the centre of the circle and move outwards; they survey the range of policy initiatives confronting the school to see which they can most usefully mould to their own improvement plans. Paradoxically, it is these schools that appear to be the most effective at interpreting the centralised reform agenda. This is what is called working from the ‘inside-out’. Finally, it is this way of working that places great demands on school and system leadership. It requires: the courage to collaborate; the abandonment of activities that do not best serve student achievement; the creation of a culture of mutual interdependence and trust; and being open to evidence of what works in school reform.
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PAPER / ARTICLE  TITLE   –     NAME OF AUTHOR

PAPER / ARTICLE  TITLE   –     NAME OF AUTHOR

Scheduled Tribe literacy – Table No- 5 shows the literacy status of Scheduled Tribes population in the rural areas of Puruliya district. The number of literacy rate by sex and their male- female literacy rate gap in rural areas (C.D.Blocks) are also shown seperately in this table. Rural unit wise data shows that the highest literacy rate among the Scheduled Tribes in Kashipur C.D.Block (60.88%) and the lowest in Arsha C.D.Block (45.48%). Kashipur, Para, Hura, Puncha, Jhalda-I, Raghunathpur-II, Manbazar-I are shown better literacy of Scheduled Tribe than District level.

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High school reform : a case study using the Breaking Ranks II framework

High school reform : a case study using the Breaking Ranks II framework

Having knowledge of this important national report, at the committee meeting on July 8, 2004, participants considered each of the 31 recommendations of Breaking Ranks II, and ranked them on a scale of 1 to 5 on each of two questions: “How important is this recommendation?” and “What level do you believe this recommendation is practiced in your school?” Participants met in four “job-alike” groups: principals and assistant principals, counselors, and two groups of teachers. Each group then reached consensus on the levels of importance and practice for each recommendation. Results were displayed in a chart for all to see. After this activity the group could see that they agreed that all of the recommendations were important but that there was a discrepancy in the level of implementation of various recommendations. At the meeting on July 22, participants looked again at the recommendations, considering those which had the greatest discrepancy between the group’s sense of importance and its current implementation. For example, participants gave recommendation 11 (“Each high school teacher involved in the instructional program on a full-time basis will be responsible for contact time with no more than 90 students during a given term so that the teacher can give greater attention to the needs of every student.”) an average score of 4.7 in importance, but 1.5 in implementation, thereby creating one of the larger “gaps” of 3.2. Similarly, recommendation 15 (“High schools will develop flexible scheduling and student grouping patterns that allow better use of time in order to meet the individual needs of students to ensure academic success.”) received a 4.8 on importance but a 2.0 on implementation, with a “gap” of 2.8. Discussion of these two recommendations served as a backdrop to a presentation about options for the high school schedule and contributed to the group’s support of the 4x4 block schedule.
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OCEANPORT SCHOOL DISTRICT,

OCEANPORT SCHOOL DISTRICT,

objected, and refused to let Ryan take the Honors Algebra placement test two days later. Ryan was forced to miss the review test for the Honors Algebra course. Ryan eventually took the Honors Algebra placement test a month later, and was admitted to the advanced classes for both Algebra and English (at the high school in the separate school district). When Ryan received an award from Johns Hopkins Talent Search for a high SAT score, his name was omitted when Amato announced the names of students who won similar awards. DiGiovanna and McGough would not permit Ryan to practice with the baseball team during his suspension, and then, compounding his punishment, revoked his
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Pathways to Equity: An Auto-Ethnographic and Narrative Study of Teacher Educator and Preservice Teachers in a One-Credit Course and Community-Based Field Experience

Pathways to Equity: An Auto-Ethnographic and Narrative Study of Teacher Educator and Preservice Teachers in a One-Credit Course and Community-Based Field Experience

Admittedly, this study has its limitations. This research relies heavily on archival sources that reflect community reflection on the process of reassignment and to a large degree voices of disagreement with district proposals because those were the individuals who chose to speak out at public hearings. Future research would benefit from the consideration of more opinions that were in support of district proposals. Further, the findings presented in this research would be strengthened through more comparable of contrasting examples of reassignment processes in districts from other places in the nation as well as from districts that are perhaps organized differently. It may also be useful to compare and contrast cases with districts of different sizes and in different regions of the country. It would also be useful to identify districts that may have radically diverged from an existing policy. For instance, the school districts that were sued in the case of Parents Involved are currently being tasked with reconstructing policies regarding student assignment that does not take into account a student’s race. These districts should provide a good contrast to the isomorphism or reproduction of existing reassignment philosophies that exist in many school districts across the country.
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2019 LCAP Arcohe DRAFT 8-1-19

2019 LCAP Arcohe DRAFT 8-1-19

The Leadership Team looked at student and school data and addressed the problem by proactively increasing our teaching methods, adopting new curriculum and using data to help drive instruction. As mentioned in the above section, our greatest progress this year came out of our recognition of our greatest need in the district. The district has used the data to identify a weakness in the system and has set forth to address the issue. To help build capacity with staff, the district established PLCs with grade-level teams to both analyze the data and create systems to improve student output. The other relative need in the district is to continue to address the suspension rate of all students, and particularly, the students identified as Socioeconomically Disadvantaged and/or Students with Disabilities. The district has instituted Restorative Practice circles in classrooms and continued to evolve the district’s use of the Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS) system. The district is its seventh year of implementation of PBIS. We continue to increase our practices by attending conferences and trainings to help all personnel implement the strategies effectively to proactively address issues prior to a suspension being necessary. It is important to note, that
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ESOL Urban High School Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Instructional Strengths and Challenges: A Qualitative Case Study

ESOL Urban High School Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Instructional Strengths and Challenges: A Qualitative Case Study

Observations are a qualitative method whose main objective is to help researchers learn and gather data using multiple perspectives. “Conducting observations is a systematic process, not a casual occurrence” (Merriam & Tisdell, 2016, p. 18). Observations are usually framed in theories, guidelines, or objectives that help researchers anticipate and make sense of the events. For this study, each participant was observed once for approximately 15-20 minutes in regular instruction. There was only one observation conducted in this study due to time constraints and schedule conflicts with the school and participants’ classes. The observations were conducted towards the end of the study and their main purpose was to compare and contrast the ESL teachers’ self-perceived strengths and challenges with the researcher’s observations. The observations were guided by an observation form provided by the high school’s school district (see Appendix B). Furthermore, participants received a courtesy notice about the observations but the specific time and day were not provided because the researcher sought to gather data from unplanned everyday instructions.
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