Urban search and rescue system

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The development of a robotic urban search and rescue system : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Engineering in Mechatronics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

The development of a robotic urban search and rescue system : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Engineering in Mechatronics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

The Daughters nodes are simple wireless sensors that show a level of intelligence that helps keep the system free from excess data transfers. This intelligence helps the Daughter node determine the difference between minor fluctuations in the environment and serious changes in the readings. This is another application of distributed intelligence in the system, but primarily it has been designed to prevent network issues. The major issue that this intelligence prevents is data being transmitted all the time. If the Daughters were to continually update the user with every measurement value then the network bandwidth would quickly be used up and transmission of control data to the Mother robot made impossible. The use of basic intelligence has shown that the Daughters can distinguish between natural fluctuations in measured values and actual dangerous changes. In conjunction with this the Daughters have shown the ability to accurately measure environmental factors and transmit this data to the user. Future work will include testing a range of algorithms to determine whether the changes in measure values are relevant. These Daughters are a basic template and can easily be modified to be suitable for most tasks, additions or changes to the sensors will allow the Daughters to measure numerous environmental factors. Further research will be conducted into making these nodes into fully fledged robots. That means the Daughters will be able to explore or interact with the environment; primarily by a form of locomotion. This will give the system much greater flexibility in the types of tasks it can undertake.

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Robotic Exploration Utility for Urban Search and Rescue Tasks

Robotic Exploration Utility for Urban Search and Rescue Tasks

The Green team strategy was to use a teleoperated robot which carried a full payload of sensors to allow the operator to collect as much data as possible about the environment. The scoring algorithm results suggest this strategy should not be used. However, this strategy showed an effective use of the robot, as seen in Fig. 4. The aggregate REU shows the Green team strategy as the most effective for high quality exploration. The REU for each run shows the Green team being the most effective explorers four out of five runs (Fig. 5). These results imply that better exploration is achieved by keeping an operator in direct control of the robot. The Black team’s use of a supervisory system is also fairly effective for quality exploration based on the REU, though some information is lost when the operator is required to attend to more than one robot. Interestingly, the Green team's teleoperated robot system is very similar to the interaction rescue workers currently have with search and rescue robots. It seems likely that, at least for the foreseeable future, urban search and rescue will be dominated by the need to use robots to search for victims in cooperation with human teams [1]-[4]. The ability of the robot to exhaustively and reliably search a region and to provide excellent documentation about what areas were searched and exactly where victims were found is likely to be the most important criteria for many years.

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SEARCH AND RESCUE NETWORK WIRELESS NETWORKS IN URBAN AREAS

SEARCH AND RESCUE NETWORK WIRELESS NETWORKS IN URBAN AREAS

The CPE device transmitted data utilizing a WMN, which broadcasted the data. The data was transmitted over the mesh network hopping from one mesh router to another until it reached its destination (the laptop). This multi-hop data transmission can experience signal loss and/or delays. It was important to evaluate and analyze whether the delay was significant enough to affect urban search and rescue. For example, if the dog was behind a wall and could not be seen by its handler, it would be imperative to know if the CPE system result would be accurate and had transmitted reliable data in near real-time. In the presence of obstacles and debris, the signal strength deteriorates from interference from many sources, as shown in

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Search and Rescue System by using Camera Rescue Robot

Search and Rescue System by using Camera Rescue Robot

Our project can be defined as a rescue robot that has been structured for the purpose of helping rescue workers. General situations that employ rescue robots are mining accidents, urban disasters, hostage situations, and explosions. Intelligent robots equipped with updated sensors are attracting much more attentions from researchers and rescuers. When in our life, Natural disaster like flood, earthquake and cyclone occuring regularly because people are disrupting the natural balance by cutting downs trees, destroying hills areas, unplanned urbanization, etc,. During an environment catastrophes, many people lose their life and lands. A living thing tries for a rescue operation, the life of the rescuer will be mostly in risk. In such cases, technology will be of most importance one. Hence, we present our project, Search and Rescue Robot to help such rescue operators by using camera rescue robot. Our Rescue robot will serve as a trapped disaster.

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New hybrid locomotion system design

New hybrid locomotion system design

As the urban search and rescue task is very difficult and covers complex workplace. Therefore, the rescue robots should be rich in locomotion mechanism, so that it can moves easily through various steps, gaps and obstacles to reach at destination. It should be strong enough and capable of survive in all weather platforms such as desert, mud, snow, sedge or scrubby terrain. Beside all this, it is also necessary that USAR robots be small in size, stable, portable, energy efficient, high velocity, versatile and light weight. Through the study, it is clear that, the hybrid locomotion mechanisms are good for complex environments. Robot will be able to work in all harsh and hostile environments, if in the system the track locomotion combined with other type of mechanisms. The main advantages of this robot is wheel type locomotive mechanism because of this type, robot will be good enough in dynamics, kinematics nature and also with high motion velocity on smooth path. Wheel type locomotion system is more easy to design, control and maneuverable, but it is limited only to plain and smooth terrains. In the combination of tracked locomotion, it would be effective for rough and unstructured path.

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Search and Rescue System by using Camera Rescue Robot

Search and Rescue System by using Camera Rescue Robot

Our project can be defined as a rescue robot that has been structured for the purpose of helping rescue workers. General situations that employ rescue robots are mining accidents, urban disasters, hostage situations, and explosions. Intelligent robots equipped with updated sensors are attracting much more attentions from researchers and rescuers. When in our life, Natural disaster like flood, earthquake and cyclone occuring regularly because people are disrupting the natural balance by cutting downs trees, destroying hills areas, unplanned urbanization, etc,. During an environment catastrophes, many people lose their life and lands. A living thing tries for a rescue operation, the life of the rescuer will be mostly in risk. In such cases, technology will be of most importance one. Hence, we present our project, Search and Rescue Robot to help such rescue operators by using camera rescue robot. Our Rescue robot will serve as a trapped disaster.

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An Evolutionary Algorithm for Optimal Multi-Direction Search Route in Search and Rescue Operation

An Evolutionary Algorithm for Optimal Multi-Direction Search Route in Search and Rescue Operation

Due to the premature structure of bacteria cells, a bacterium can exchange signal with just the bacteria nearby. The signaling scheme results in an extra factor based on which bacteria decide their chemotactic moves. Unfortunately, the mechanism behind this phenomenon is very complicated and has not yet been fully explainable. In BFOA, it is simulated by the attractive or repellent forces exerted by a bacterial cell on the other. Several parameters must be chosen to express this effect when designing BFOA. In brief, it can be simply referred to as a process in which bacteria are attracted by those within a certain range from their positions and to be repelled when the distance between them falls below a limit. If properly defined, it may help to redistribute the search in a promising local region around the optimum and draws bacteria from other regions to the most attractive region of the current search:

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Borewell Rescue System

Borewell Rescue System

The full hardware system can be illustrated as a mechanical system will attached to a higher plate and it is released using chain mechanism. The ultrasonic sensor is connected to the lower plate and the distance from the top of the bore well to the victim is measured and this distance will be displayed in the android app.

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Automatic Ambulance Rescue System

Automatic Ambulance Rescue System

architecture microcontrollers. The name PIC initially referred to Peripheral Interface Controller. The MAX232 is an IC, which converts signals from an RS-232 serial port to signals suitable for use in TTL compatible digital logic circuits. Here it is used for the purpose of serial communication. It is a dual driver/receiver. The display unit is for the purpose of driver’s reference. An encoder is a device, transducer, circuit, algorithm, software program, or person, which converts data from one format or code to another, for the purposes of speed, standardization, security, secrecy or compressions. Here, the encoder converts the serial data into parallel data because the controller performs only serial functions and wireless is parallel communication. The RF transmitter consists of switches, the signal changes according to it [3]. An RF module is an electronic device used to transmit or receive radio signals between two devices. It is often preferable to communicate with other device wirelessly in an embedded system. The wireless communication may be performed through optical communication or RF communication. The choice is RF for many applications as it does not require line of sight. RF communications use a transmitter or receiver.

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Exact Solution for Search-and-Rescue Path Planning

Exact Solution for Search-and-Rescue Path Planning

The discrete centralized search and rescue path planning problem involves a stand-off sensor agent searching a stationary target in a bounded environment over a given time horizon. From a search and rescue mission perspective, the goal consists in maximizing the cumulative probability of success in detecting a target within a given region. Modeled as a grid, the search region defines a two-dimensional cellular area forming a set of cells N, populated by a single stationary target, assumed to occupy a single cell. Target location is unknown. Based on domain knowledge, a prior target location probability density distribution defines individual cell occupancy, characterizing a grid cognitive map. Target occupancy probabilities over grid cells sum to one. Should the target be located outside the search areas of interest, a special inaccessible, and invisible virtual cell would simply be added . The cognitive map or uncertainty grid is a knowledge base capturing local environment state

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A Low-Cost Search-and-Rescue Drone Platform

A Low-Cost Search-and-Rescue Drone Platform

By the end of the testing process, the drone implemented here had suffered a number of failures and crashes. Most of these could be traced to operator error or to the use of faulty components that in future builds could easily be avoided. It is possible that the root cause of other issues could also be traced back to earlier crash events and mishaps. For example, the intermittent loss of flight controller communication is likely due to an incident early in the development process in which the last half inch of the antenna was chopped off by the propellers (due to ill-advised mounting and an unexpectedly sensitive throttle response). Therefore, while the system durability could theoretically present an issue in future implementations, a freshly assembled drone with new components would be unlikely to experience these issues.

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Design and Development of Search and Rescue Robot

Design and Development of Search and Rescue Robot

This robot was designed like a battle tank so that it can climb slopes in collapsed building without moving backward. Maximum slope’s degree need to be determined to analyse its ability. Search and rescue robot has a low center of gravity and has a rectangular shape which can stabilize the robot while moving on the hilly surfaces. In addition, robot’s wheel is made from plastic track to allow robot to gripped surfaces tighter than regular wheels. Table 3.4 shows hill climbing testing for this robot.

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Automated Accident Rescue System

Automated Accident Rescue System

The main objective is to be minimizing the time gap between the occurrence of accident and the time required for medical help centre and the police station to reach at the location of accident to give treatment to the victim and complete all procedural enquiries about accident. When accident occurred many time wasted for search the location of accident place, such a time our system work faster and avoid the loss of life due to time delay.

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Development of an Automated Rescue System

Development of an Automated Rescue System

Abstract— In order to effectively provide efficient rescue system for the ships in any position if they catch fire or any other fire accidents in the ships, a kind of An Automated Rescue System is designed with ARM as its core controller, collects the fire pollutant indexes consisting of exhaust particulates, sulphur oxides, carbon oxides, as well as nitrogen oxides through different gas sensors and takes advantage of Global Position System(GPS) to obtain the Ships exact position, after that, the information collected is sent as a SMS to the Centre control computer via GSM. Moreover, in order to provide Rescue Departments convenience in supervising the Lost Ships or Fire caught ships, the system also uses Global System for Mobile Communications wireless transmission in which it alarms when the ships are caught up with fire and about sink. Practical run shows that the system is well realized with the function of GPS positioning, remote data transmission, Sensing the fire emitted gasses and the precision of the system is not more the 2,5 percentage.

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Automatic Ambulance Rescue System

Automatic Ambulance Rescue System

Accident is detected by the vehicle unit and it sends the exact Latitude and Longitude co-ordinates of the accident spot to the main server.The main server search for the nearest hospital and conveys the ambulance (Ambulance unit).The main server also finds the shortest path between the accident location and the ambulance to follow the same path. The traffic control unit is used to control the traffic lights between the ambulance unit and accident location so as to reduce the time required for the ambulance to reach the accident location. The block diagram of this system is shown in the fig 1.

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The role of environmental factors in search and rescue incidents in Nunavut, Canada

The role of environmental factors in search and rescue incidents in Nunavut, Canada

When individuals are overdue or call for help, community SAR operations are activated. Search and rescue across Nunavut is largely conducted by hamlet-based SAR committees, and supported by the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and the Canadian Air Search and Rescue Association (CASARA). Operations are overseen by Nunavut Protection Services, with the Royal Canadian Mounted Polices serving as a liaison between the hamlets and the Government of Nunavut. In this context, informed prevention built on understanding of the causes or injury and distress on the land saves lives and money.

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Adaptive Optimal Task Assignment for Cooperative Autonomous Vehicles

Adaptive Optimal Task Assignment for Cooperative Autonomous Vehicles

The vehicles in the system have three different types: search vehicles which are capable of searching, detecting the victims and communicating with other vehicles as well as the base station, rescue I vehicles which in addiion to perception capabilities, they can move obstacles away with the gripper and rescue II vehicles which carry some tools that can be used for injuries in addition to perception capabilities. The system in these experiments consists of four Husky vehicles, two of type rescue II vehicles, one Search vehicle and one rescue I vehicle.Three types of victims are considered in the experiments. Type-I represents victims who do not suffer from bad injuries according to the information coming from the search/reconnaissance vehicles. Type-II represents victims with bad injuries and are in need for an immediate medical help. Type-III represents trapped or concealed victims who need a rescue vehicle equipped with gripper and able to get them out from their current trap. The three proposed scenarios are:

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Development of maritime rescue application system using geographic information system approach

Development of maritime rescue application system using geographic information system approach

The search and rescue operation in Malaysia is operated by the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency (MMEA). The responsibilities of MMEA in search and rescue tasks are detection of maritime incidents, coordination and control of maritime SAR operations within Malaysian areas, providing SAR resources to assist in humanitarian and civil incidents. MMEA has established a Maritime Rescue Coordinating Center (MRCC) and five sub-centers named Maritime Rescue Sub­ Centers (MRSC) for the purpose of coordinating search and rescue operations at sea in the Malaysian Maritime Search and Rescue Region (MSRR).

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Privatisation of the shipping industry in Vietnam : the benefit, problems and proposals

Privatisation of the shipping industry in Vietnam : the benefit, problems and proposals

The objective of this research is to improve search and rescue in Fiji, with a purpose that the country adopts the relevant international conventions and standards for an efficient and effective SAR organisation. The current situation in Fiji regarding SAR and the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System will be investigated, whereby international requirements, models and guidelines covering SAR, GMDSS and ship reporting will be examined and proposals made accordingly. Deficiencies and shortcomings in the present Fiji SAR system will be investigated, Hence recommendations for improving and upgrading search and rescue and implementing GMDSS will be made. In addition, the writer will make proposals on the implementation of an appropriate national search and rescue committee, SAR organisation structure, national SAR plan, operational procedures and training and certification of SAR personnel. A summary of the dissertation objects is as follows:

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Zigbee-based Location System for Forest Search and Rescue Missions

Zigbee-based Location System for Forest Search and Rescue Missions

In receiver part we have ROBO section and control section. In ROBO section the controller we used is ATMEGA644 and we interface ZigBee and ROBO as output to controller and battery, GPS as inputs. ZigBee RX receives the location of particular person and gives that information to the control unit. RF Camera is used to display the persons view in the control section. The literature presents different types of cameras: linear camera, color camera, stereo vision and infrared camera [14]-[18].In control unit ZigBee RX receives that information and displays that in a computer through lab view software. During rescue missions, it is not tolerated that the robot returns to the operator for a change of batteries as time is very valuable in these situations. In other words, the power supply should allow the robot to work

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