The overall feedbacks received from the developers have shown that the usability tool used for evaluation of highereducationalwebsites has good user experience and they feel happy to use this software. Moreover, the feedback also show that still the efficiency of the software needs improvements in order to increase its user experience in terms of usability. They found the software innovate and helpful to evaluate the websites which can evaluate the websites in an organized way. They also appreciated this idea which is innovative used to enhance the usability of the educationalwebsites. Finally they found the tool valuable and innovative.
navigation scored the lowest for both males and females. Additionally, Hasan found that individuals in different disciplines were often persuaded more by certain factors of usability as well; for example, those in administrative disciplines might consider the content and navigation as most important when designing the usability of their websites. Roy et al., consider four different types of users who might visit highereducationalwebsites: prospective students and parents, current students and disciplines, researchers, and alumni. Their study looked at three higher education websites to determine the user satisfaction and pleasure associated with the websites. After a pre-questionnaire and a performance-based evaluation, Roy et al. found that the participants had difficulties completing the tasks and that task completion time’s correlation with participant’s satisfaction levels varied across the different websites but was overall negative.
When some usability aspect is repeated in all sets, it indicates that such an attribute is common to all interfaces, for example learnability. In the first phase these attributes were selected and assigned to the final set. Then, the appropriateness of domain-specific heuristics was analyzed according to educational and mobile usability models. Analysis also revealed the conflicting heuristics. For example, the conformance with other applications heuristic (CMS9) contradicts to support learner’s curiosity (E5) heuristics and the fact that each educational system can have unique features. Educational aspects has a higher priority in this case, therefore, the CMS9 heuristics was not added to the final set.
results are expected to provide guidance for developing better and more usable web sites not only for NKU but for other highereducational institutions as well.
This paper is composed of six sections. Introduction (Section 1) is followed by Literature Review (Section 2) where the concept of usability and the five assumed components of website usability that are employed for the research are explained and discussed. In Research Methodology (Section 3) detailed information regarding the survey and the way the survey is conducted is explained. Research Hypotheses (Section 4) lists and details the six hypotheses that are tested. Five of the hypotheses are constructed on one of the five assumed factors of usability. The sixth hypothesis is constructed on demographic factors. Findings and Analysis section (Section 5) presents the results that the research reveals. Conclusion and Discussion (Section 6) is the last section of the study. The section summarizes the overall results; provide guidance for more usable web sites, discusses the other possible contributions (such as better governance via improved communication with stakeholders) that higherusability could initiate. The section also highlights topics for further research in the area.
divergence requires more scrutiny of the semantics and meanings of the words that are to be used in the translation of websites (e.g. an educational programme or a commercial website that is translated from one language to another). For example, the Arabic word ‘ﻰﺤﺼﻓ’ , pronounced ‘Fussha’ in English; when it is translated into English, using Google translator or a Babylon dictionary or any other dictionary, the following definitions are provided: “pure, classic, and standard”. However, these definitions do not reflect the true meaning of the word ‘Fussha’. There are English words with a close meaning but they do not reflect the exact meaning. The same problem occurs when one tries to translate the words ‘ ﺲﺟﺎھ and ﺲﺟاﻮھ’, pronounced ‘Hajiss and Haouajiss’ respectively in English. There are no English words which reflect the true meaning of those two words. There are many sentences and phrases that are impossible to translate from Arabic to English and still keep their original meaning. For instance, the literal translation of the Arabic sentence ‘ ﺮﻤﻘﻟﺎﻛ ﺔﻠﻔط ﺖﯾأر’ , pronounced ‘raaytu teflaten ka-lkamar’ in English is: I saw a girl like the moon. In English this sentence is incomprehensible and does not make much sense. However, the actual meaning of this sentence in Arabic describes the stunning beauty of the girl. Arabs use the word ‘moon’ beyond its literal meaning to describe anything beautiful. This attribution stems from their environment and culture as Arabs across the Arab world see the moon frequently in the clear sky and its light symbolises beauty. A literal translation of the following example’ ارﻮﺜﻨﻣ اءﺎﺒھ’ , pronounced ‘habaan manthoran’, into English does not provide any appropriate meaning; Babylon translates it to: floating dust scattered about. However, the closest meaning to that sentence in English is “your work has gone down the drain”.
different learning styles, personalities, attitudes toward the target language, degree of self-direction, anxiety level, and different learning strategies. Even though it is not feasible to satisfy all the variables of individual learners, all the variables must be taken into consideration because learners often face difficulties in online learning due to different individual characteristics. Motivation has a strong correlation with both self-directedness and self- efficacy. In other words, higher motivation leads to higher self-directed learning and higher self-efficacy, which are crucial to online learning. Not only should a good EFL E-learning website accommodate these learner variables, it should also actually enhance some of the variables. For example, when designed effectively, a site can help to heighten learner capabilities, attitudes, self-directedness, and self- efficacy in SLL, lower language learning anxiety as well as technology anxiety, and develop overall learning strategies (metacognitive skills). Development of learning strategies, in turn, can enhance self-directedness and self-efficacy in learning. Therefore, since the developmental process of learner variables is cyclic, a well-designed website can bring a synergetic effect in ESL/EFL learning.
3.5 Data analysis
The data were analysed to determine which methods identified the area of each usability problem; the analysis was undertaken in three stages. The first two stages followed the analysis procedure of the multiple case study design by Yin (1984), as illustrated in Figure 3.1. This design starts by analysing the individual methods within each single case and interpreting the results at the single case level. This is followed by making a comparison across the cases which, in turn, results in drawing conclusions for the overall study from the multiple cases. Therefore, in this research, the first stage involved analysing each usability method separately for each case (i.e. each e-commerce website) and identifying the usability problems obtained from each method within each case. The second stage aimed to identify a list of common usability problems pinpointed by each method. This was achieved by performing a comparison of each usability evaluation method across the three cases (i.e. the three e-commerce sites). A third stage of analysis was undertaken in order to generate a list of standardised usability problem themes and sub-themes to facilitate comparisons among the various methods. Problem themes and sub-themes were identified from the common usability problem areas which were generated by each method. These were then used to classify the problems which had been identified. The list was generated gradually, starting from an analysis of the first method (the performance data and observation). Then, after an analysis of most of the aforementioned methods, new problem themes and/or sub-themes were added to the list from problems that were not covered in the standardised themes. The analysis of each method also described the overall usability of the sites.
Due to the rapid development and growing use of internet both as an electronic commerce as well as information seeking tool, web design and evaluation studies has been growing in significant amount. Many organizations depend upon efficient and effective websites. In recent years, several methods have been introduced for measuring and improving the effectiveness of websites, however they mostly concentrate on web page design and on access analysis. Since late 1990’s a number of studies were conducted for website evaluations. Generally speaking, there are two mainstream on researching website quality, namely content richness and ease of use (Huizingh, 2000). A number of web design checklists have been developed with the aim to identify design evaluation criteria for good or poor websites. Poor interface design is one of primary reason of high profile website failures (Nielson, 1999; Buschke, 1997). Usability refers to consistency and ease of getting the website, clarity of interaction, ease of reading, arrangement of information and layout (palmer, 2002; Raquel, 2001) has defined website usability as that how easily a visitor without formal training can interact with website. Users visit websites mainly to fulfill their goals. Websites are created for a variety of purposes like for entertainment, for information, and for educational etc. Each category of website needs different strategies but the basic elements are required to be there.
A study by Morahan-Martin (2004) reviewed relevant research on how health information is retrieved, evaluated and used. Morahan-Martin (2004) came to many useful conclusions which were that firstly, searchers very rarely go beyond the first page of a website. Secondly, that they use search engines with only keyword or short phrases, which are often misspelled. It is important to note that the misspelling of words is not uncommon with regards to health information retrieval due to the complicated terminology used. Thirdly, Morahan-Martin (2004) noted that most health information searchers have limited search and evaluation skills, although they are usually concerned about the quality of online information. As a rule most avoid websites that are overtly tied to commercialism and on a more worrying note do not pay attention to indicators of credibility.
accessibility and comprehension is a problem, which we describe in a review of the literature on the health knowledge and literacy in the Deaf population. We define “Deaf health” as the health of people who are Deaf and use sign language to communicate. Researchers of Deaf health agree that poor health literacy, language barriers to health care, and other factors contribute to increased risks for poor health outcomes (Margellos-Anst, Estarziau & Kaufman, 2006; Barnett, McKee, Smith, & Pearson, 2011; Smith, Massey- Stokes, & Lieberth, 2012). Generally, Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users report difficulties with understanding health information in print, accessing health services and understanding treatment-related procedures (McKee & Paasche-Orlow, 2012). A review of seven articles on Deaf patient-physician communication issues suggested that Deaf adults experience health disparities due to the lack in linguistic and cultural competency on the part of health care practitioners in treating Deaf patients (Barnett, 2002). As expected, data from the Deaf Health Survey revealed that patients whose communication was concordant with the provider were more likely to utilize preventive services (McKee, Barnett, Block, & Pearson, 2011). However, the number of physicians who are culturally competent to care for Deaf patients is small. As a result, Deaf patients are forced to rely on alternate sources of health information (i.e. health websites; books; trusted peers or family members) for preventive care and better understanding of diagnoses (Margellos-Anast, Hedding, & Miller, 2004). Such an approach increases the risk of misunderstanding and using health
All websites of banks considered do not have major deficiencies regarding most of the usability features. So as a final conclusion it can be stated that the current online banking users are satisfied with the level of usability the website offers them. But the minimum, maximum and the variance values indicate that it is not the case for all. There may be different reasons for the variability of the responses. Since the sample consists of IT people the level of IT literacy and language problems cannot be considered as a major factor affecting the result. But still it cannot be ignored the fact that everyone might not have a good knowledge in IT. Rather physical factors such as bad eye sight, physical disabilities such as tremor in hands may have affected the result. But a good website must address the requirements of all types of users. So different problems that are present in the websites that affects the users were identified and guidelines were proposed.
The research was based on a multiple-case study (comparative design) where the three methods (user testing, heuristic evaluation and GA) were applied to three Jordanian e- commerce companies in order to develop the framework. To make the identification of usability faults as efficient and effective as possible it was necessary to ascertain the order of deploying the methods as well as determining which methods should be used for what purposes. Initially, twenty seven e-commerce companies in Jordan were identified from five electronic Jordanian and Arab directories and a Google search. These companies were contacted and three of them agreed to participate. Two of them sold women’s clothes and the third sold hand-crafted gifts to both national and international customers. This study focused on investigating the usability of these websites from the point view of national (Jordanian) customers. The three methods were employed concurrently at each site to ensure that the results were not affected by any website changes made by that particular e-commerce vendor.
Faculty of Information Technology, Yarmouk University, Irbid, JORDAN
The aim of this research study was to evaluate the websites of Jordan's universities from the usability perspective. Two online automated tools, namely: html toolbox and web page analyze were used along with a questionnaire directed towards users of these websites. Tools were used to measure the websites internal attributes which can not be perceived by users, such as html code error, download time, and size of html page. The questionnaire was developed and designed based on 23 usability criteria divided into 5 categories. Each category deals with one usability aspect. The results showed that the overall usability level of the studied Websites is acceptable. However, there are some weaknesses in some aspects of the design, interface, and performances. Suggestions are provided in the study to enhance the usability of these websites.
Abstract: Great proportions of visitors to university website are applicants for admission, or are thinking to becoming applicants. This target audience group usually has a very specific set of goal in finding the information that they require from the website. Their experience in using the university website will verify whether they are impressed by the information from the website or not and this surely will give impact on the university’s admissions. To comply with their requirements, the university website must meet certain usability measures. The interface should be navigated smoothly without making the user lost. In this case the navigation design must preserve the consistency without unnecessarily puzzling the user. The aim of this study is to inspect whether the websites of the Malaysian public universities are fulfilling the usability guideline provided by Web site Content Accessibility Guide (WCAG) or not. This study answers the question whether the websites are differs in their usability and accessibility. The usability and accessibility of the eleven Malaysian public universities are compared by using two automatic evaluation tools i.e. Bobby and LIFT. This paper also compares the eleven Malaysian public universities website in term of navigation design. Finally several methods in finding the audience oriented requirement for the website are proposed.
2019 technology is not like branded gadgets but it will be more like to improve the infrastructure and use of resources, it will be more than the expected. Some experts say that the difference between the old and 2019 technology is the computerization. When making prediction not only about technology but even about educational technology is a great room for the starting of science fiction. The engineers and the authors will use the work of writers and authors as a motivation for creation .
Nine Websites of Jordanian universities are evaluated by Mustafa et al. . They used two automatic evaluation tools: HTML Toolbox, and WebPages analyzer. The results of their study showed that the overall usability level of the studied Websites is acceptable. Another researcher by Akoglu  presents a case-study of a usability evaluation method for architectural Websites, and introduces a special tool for assessing the usability of architectural department Websites in the University of Istanbul. The evaluation was based on two environments: traditional laboratory and Internet environments. Oztekin et al.  study presents a new methodology for usability assessment and design of University Web-based Information System (UWIS). It integrates information systems’ Web–based service quality and usability attributes. Their methodology was applied in the information systems’ department at Fatih University, which proves it can be used for designing more usable and higher quality Web-based information systems.
Universities should utilize the cloud infrastructure to share numerous education materials such as reference books, videos, online lecture and virtual class rooms. Online education will enable students to communicate with experts and professionals of top most universities of the world. It is economical and time saving for students and faculty by cutting down the transportation activity. Students at different locations can get benefit by attending lectures through virtual class rooms. Faculty can be hired from different geographical regions. The part time students who have some problems during normal working hours can be benefitted. CC should be implemented not only for the practical courses but also for non-practical courses like history, linguistics and literature. Students can communicate with professionals and experts of the specialized areas using CC technology. A survey is conducted by the IBM and it is reported that learners could learn in less time through the modern methods of learning as compared to traditional teaching methods . In addition, teachers can update their knowledge and skills through modern educational technologies. Cloud computing has an important place in the higher education both as a universal computing tool and a powerful platform. Using cloud services, teachers and students can achieve mobility because of wired and wireless technologies. The online education is equally beneficial to full time and part time students.
location of the voivodeship, which borders Germany. It should be noted that a language version other than Polish is not available on the website of the office of the city of Szczecin (www.szczecin.pl), which is the capital of the voivodeship. Translations into English and German are only present when we enter the website considered to be the official portal of the city of Szczecin (www.szczecin.eu), containing mainly a promotional, tourist and investment offer. A good example is provided by the practice of solutions of some of communes, such as Darłowo, Szczecinek or Goleniów, which use the function offered by Google Translate in their translation, thanks to which they provide various language versions. Despite the undisputed, yet still not very high quality of these translations, it is a chance for many communes to make such translations at a low cost. The first two communes use this function for language versions other than English, which can be considered quite a good solution at this stage of implementation. Similar to the case of adapting websites to the needs of people with disabilities, websites of urban-rural and urban communes perform better compared to rural communes in terms of multilingual support. The satisfaction from using these websites largely depends on their usability. Offices should, therefore, eliminate errors appearing on websites. In the case of the investigated websites, the inconvenience was the lack of results often appearing when using the search option, i.e. lack of information on the request even though the searched issue was available on the website at the so-called manual search.
Martín del Pozo (2005) points out that it is acknowledged by HCI experts from the beginning that linguistics as a discipline contributes to the field of HCI. Another important area of research regarding language and websites is the design of multilingual websites, localization and cultural particularities (Morgan, T., Luttrell, C., Liu, Y., 2001) (He, S., 2001). Nevertheless, research about the very issue of language on websites is rare. The online article "Linguistics and Web Usability” by María Angeles Martín del Pozo (2005) has identified this lack. She categorizes the research about language and usability in two fields: Reading materials which in the context of guidelines and checklists (e.g. Duda, S., 1998) briefly points to linguistic aspects, and articles on website writing and publishing.
Empirical technique for usability testing was applied to test the usability of the Chapel Hill Transit and Triangle Transit Authority websites by which participants were observed while they performed information seeking tasks using the websites and feedback was obtained to identify usability issues. The study indicated that overall both websites are user-friendly although some information seeking tasks revealed a number of small usability problems in the Chapel Hill Transit website making the website less usable. Participants faced numerous difficulties while performing the information seeking tasks on the Chapel Hill Transit website due to lack of well-presented information and inefficient website design. The Triangle Transit Authority received better feedback from all the participants and had fewer usability problems. Based on the participants’