This project is about designing a wireless digital water meter which is a part of the Integrated UtilitySystem (IUS). The wireless digital water meter will use the HALL type flow sensor in order to measure the flow rate in the pipeline and then convert it to water usage in liter. This meter has the ability to generate DC power as the power supply for its circuitry. The Digital Water Meter will also send the meter reading data to the IUS‟s Energy Meter in order to be displayed on the LCD display in liter (L) and also in its corresponding charges (RM). After displaying the water usage on LCD, the IUS‟s Energy Meter will send the meter reading to the terminal computer by using the Power Line communication (PLC). PLC is a method of data transmission using the domestic power supply cable.
On August 1, 2011, the City Council authorized staff to issue a Request for Information (RFI) for firms that manage and operate publicly owned utility systems through Public-Private Partnership (P3) arrangements. The purpose of this RFI is to solicit more information about how a P3 arrangement might work and the potential benefits that it could offer the City of Gardner.
climatic parameter monitoring has been implemented using advanced microcontroller with nano watt technology Our system aims to design and develop real time monitoring of climatic conditions at a relatively low cost and portability. The System offers the user choice and options according to their requirement. In this paper a system design has been implemented using microcontroller unit to monitor and record the values of essential parameters like temperature, humidity, light intensity and concentration of carbon mono-oxide in air. Microcontroller communicates with various sensors to closely monitor and control the different micro-climatic parameters. Microcontroller then compares the environmental condition, if any corrective action is required, it gives the command to run the actuator circuitry to perform the necessary action as per situation. Alphanumeric display is used for displaying real time data acquired from the various sensors and the status of the various devices that facilitates user to know real time climatic conditions and customize the use to meet the demands in greenhouse, manufacturing industry, food industry, dairy and fisheries, automobile safety, human safety in industry, home automation, weather prediction. Currently available systems offer few parameters for specific purpose while the proposed system can be used for multiple purposes. The system presents versatility, adaptability, multi functionality, portability and cost effectiveness comparing with other weather monitoring systems.
A federated cloud-based multi-platform Power System is presented to meet the growing challenges confronting power system operators. It uses a fede- rated architecture to provide a group sourced increase in cyber security, in reducing the need for computing resource overcapacity, for sharing compu- ting and power resources during emergencies, for minimizing energy costs, and for sharing information on threats and incident responses. In the face of nation-state and organized crime complex, multi-technology, coordinated at- tacks, a single organization stands an ever reducing chance of remaining safe. The proposed federated cloud preserves the economic efficiency advantages of marketplace of non-monopolistic organizations innovating to obtain compet- itive advantage with shared preparation, resources, information, and resilien- cy enabled by individual Power System cloud-based computing creating a fe- derated System. The paper applies earlier advances. This paper combines the results previously published in different publications and applies them to a single paradigmatic example of a power system consisting of a number of in- dividual asset owners. It includes the architecture, model of energy, and re- source sharing as well as a novel, self-learning, semantic-less breach detection system for detecting anomalous behavior in resource usage across the power system participants. The paper extends previous work published about fede- rated cloud. The simulations results provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed system.
3 Analytical Framework for Modeling the Impact of Increased PV
We develop a simplified model of the process described in the previous section to simulate the utility operations with increasing deployment of PV. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important to understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations (Figure 1). First, we represent the decisions made by the DA desk as the DA commitment. Second, we represent the decisions made by the RT desk prior to the close of the RT dispatch as the HA scheduling. Finally, we represent decisions made by the RT desk and transmission system operators after the close of the RT market as RT balancing. We simulate the DA and HA scheduling processes with a detailed unit-commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED) optimization model. This model creates a least-cost dispatch and commitment plan for the conventional generating units using forecasts and reserve requirements as inputs. Like system schedulers must do, we develop a method to estimate requirements for reserves that are held in the DA and HA scheduling process. These reserve requirements are chosen with the aim of maintaining sufficient reliability to meet NERC requirements during RT operations. We simulate RT balancing using a separate minute-by-minute simulation based on deviations from the HA schedules. The minute-by-minute deviations account for HA forecasting errors and the actual variability of the load, and wind and solar generation. Using these minute-by-minute deviations, we calculate the resulting CPS2 performance for each scenario to evaluate the impact of PV and the choice of reserve requirements on system reliability. The different parts of the analytical framework are discussed in further detail in the sections below.
Section 1: The Differences Between Utility Theorists 1.1: Introduction
There are many economists who focus on Expected Utility, Behavioral Economics, Bounded-Rationality theory, and other branches that have direct connections to utility theory. Two major pioneers of utility theory are John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern with their axiomatization of the Expected Utility model in 1944. Soon afterwards, paradoxes arose that showed that the von Neumann-Morgenstern Expected Utility model was not applicable in every lottery-type situation. Several economists, namely, Maurice Allais, Daniel Ellsberg, and Mark Machina, identified several paradoxes to various utility theories. These paradoxes have shown that economists need better utility models, and with that necessity, came various Non-Expected Utility models such as Rank-Dependent Utility, Cumulative Prospect Theory, Maxmin Expected Utility theory, amongst many others. These models have shown the trends in utility theory and their development either empirically or abstractly. Despite many obstacles, it seems that economists have finally discovered solutions to these paradoxes, though there have been many barriers. These impediments have paved the way to an important discovery, which is that the current utility models are suitable for modeling utility and predicting decisions, in particular settings, but they are not always applicable. Dani Rodrik (2015) explains a similar phenomenon in his book Economics Rules: The Rights and Wrongs of the Dismal Science, though in the context of macroeconomics. 3 To fully understand the Non-Expected Utility models and the responses given to each model, it is necessary to start by turning to the recent literature on Bounded-Rationality theory and Neoclassical utility theory.
The research has designed a dynamic algorithm tool that aids decision making and enhances spare parts inventory control and management, which has the ca- pability of performing sensitivity analysis automatically. It can be applied also to supermarkets, pharmaceutical companies, demand and supply organization etc. The major motivation for this research is an experience with the spare parts complex of PHCN. The system does not observe service differentiation through rationing and demand lead time and cannot find the average number of back- orders and the fill rates for each demand class, especially manually. It no longer withstands the challenges of modern standards of spare parts inventory control. Therefore, the model presented has formulated, designed and developed a simu- lation model for effective spare parts inventory which captured the stochastic demands and stepwise state transitions.
Keywords: expected utility, cardinal utility, benchmark, risk attitude, stochastic domi- nance.
1 Introduction (and disappearance)
This paper advances an alternative interpretation of the Von Neumann and Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries. In short, we show that the expected utility model need not be based on the notion of a cardinal utility function over prizes and can in fact be entirely phrased in the language of probability. From here, we move to examine what the proposed interpretation has to say or to add about some important topics in expected utility theory and about some non-expected utility models.
[P]rovid[ing] fair regulation of public utilities in the interest of the public; promot[ing] the inherent advantage of regulated public utilities; . . . promot[ing] adequate, reliable and economical utility service to all of the citizens and residents of the State; . . . assur[ing] that resources necessary to meet future growth through the provision of adequate, relia- ble utility service include use of the entire spectrum of demand-side options, including but not limited to conservation, load management and efficiency programs; . . . re- quir[ing] energy planning and fixing of rates in a manner to result in the least cost mix of generation and demand-reduction measures which is achievable, including consideration of appropriate rewards to utilities for efficiency and conservation which decrease utility bills; provid[ing] just and reasonable rates and charges for public utility services without unjust discrimination, undue preferences or advantages, or unfair or destructive compet- itive practices and consistent with long-term management and conservation of energy resources by avoiding wasteful, uneconomic and inefficient uses of energy; . . . assur[ing] that facilities necessary to meet future growth can be financed by the utilities operating in this State on terms which are reasonable and fair to both the customers and existing investors of such utilities; . . . authoriz[ing] fixing of rates in such a manner as to result in lower costs of new facilities and lower rates over the operating lives of such new facilities by making provisions in the rate-making process for the investment of public utilities in plants under construction; encourage[ing] and promot[ing] harmony between public util- ities, their users and the environment; . . . foster[ing] the continued service of public utili- ties on a well-planned and coordinated basis that is consistent with the level of energy needed for the protection of public health and safety and for the promotion of the general welfare . . . seek[ing] to adjust the rate of growth of regulated energy supply facilities . . . cooperat[ing] with other states and with the federal government in promoting and coor- dinating interstate and intrastate public utility service and reliability of public utility en- ergy supply; . . . and . . . promot[ing] the development of renewable energy and energy ef- ficiency through the implementation of a Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Port- folio Standard (REPS) that will [d]iversify the resources used to reliably meet the energy needs of consumers in the State. Provide greater energy security through the use of in- digenous energy resources available within the State. Provide improved air quality and other benefits to energy consumers and citizens of the State.
We intuitively interpret the results in a manner similar to Hori and Mae- bayashi (2013). Suppose that agents expect higher government spending. If σ < 1, that is, government expenditure and private consumption are comple- ments, the marginal utility of private consumption increases. This accelerates capital accumulation for future consumption, and thus output and wages rise while the shadow value of capital becomes lower. This induces higher gov- ernment spending. When the income tax rate is progressive to income, the tax rate increases; however, the equilibrium condition may not be violated if the base tax rates are not sufficiently high to satisfy the preferences to gov- ernment spending. Therefore, equilibrium may not be determinate in that the self-fulfilling expectation as above can be realised. Consumption tax
Dispersion is defined as pulse spreading in an optical fiber. As a pulse of light propagates through a fiber, elements such as numerical aperture, core diameter, refractive index profile, wavelength, and laser line width cause the pulse to broaden. Dispersion increases along the fiber length. The overall effect of dispersion on the performance of a fiber optic system is known as Inter symbol Interference (ISI).Inter symbol interference occurs when the pulse spreading caused by dispersion causes the output pulses of a system to overlap, rendering them undetectable.
reported that several objective measurements obtained using the OQAS, including the MTF cut-off, OSI and Strehl ratio, differ between eyes with cataracts and con- trol eyes [11, 16, 20, 21]. The MTF curve, computed from the point spread function (PSF), displays the per- centage reduction of the contrast of the retinal image at various spatial resolutions and represents the combined effects of high-degree optical aberrations and scatter . It is the ability of a lens or ocular structure to transfer the object contrast to the image. It has been suggested that the MTF plots are associated with the subsystems that make up a complete electro-optical or photographic system . The MTF is associated with tear film stability  or the type of intraocular lens . The OSI is defined as the ratio between the inte- grated light intensity in the periphery and that around the central peak of the double-pass image . The OSI reflects the degree of scattering caused by the loss of transparency in the cornea or lens . The OSI grad- ation relates directly to the extent of visual degradation (forward scatter) . The higher OSI value represents a higher level of intraocular scattering . The OSI has been found to correlate with NC and PSC severity [16, 25]. The Strehl ratio is defined as the ratio of the peak in- tensity of a measured PSF to that of a perfect optical sys- tem [26, 27]. The Strehl ratio expresses the ability of the eye to form a point image on the retina when a point ob- ject is seen . It is related to wavefront errors , aging  and characteristics of the intraocular lens .
This manual contains basic advice for the installation and operation of Metrotech Utility Line and Sheath Fault Locators as well as accompanying accessories. The manufacturer is not liable for damage to material or humans due to non-observance of the instructions and safety advice provided in this manual. Therefore, this manual should be provided and reviewed by all personnel associated with the line and sheath fault locating equipment.
In this paper, we considered one web transaction as one visit to the website which may include ordering a single product(item) or multiple (different) products (otherwise itemsets ie., group of items) of specified quantities. A single webpage may be a single product. One complete transaction hence includes one visit to the site with all products of different cost prices ordered multiplied to their quantities specified. Now, this resembles the market basket problem. Hence, our contribution concentrates not on how many times a web page is hit by the customer, or how much time he spent on it; but rather on how much profit he makes to the company by placing an order to or buying its product & the enhancement of utility value to the respective product.
Once the strategic dashboard has been recorded and validated, deployment to the lower areas can be carried out.
The system deploys the dashboard by way of a wizard that allows delegating metrics to the immediately lower level; the person in charge of the main dashboard chooses the elements that contribute to the goals of the strategic plan and allocates them to the person in charge of the immediately lower level, who receives them and may add new measures, and repeat the deployment process with subsequent corresponding areas. After that, each area is in charge of performing maintenance of its measures. The updating of values is automatic because data is related to each dashboard.
Abstract: Rectifier type fault current limiter is one of well known fault current limiters, because of using superconductor in the structure of rectifier type FCL, using this type is limited to research projects and laboratory applications. In this paper we have been studying on rectifier type fault current limiter using copper coil. Such reactor consists of copper coils and is applicable in Iran power systemutility. The coil is connected to the DC link of the bridge circuit. The DC reactor effect of the current limiter has been studied. This type of FCL is similar to the bridge type SFCL but a copper DC iron- core reactor is used instead of superconducting reactor. The simplicity to be built and its low cost are the main advantageous of analyzed system. The results show that the power loss is a very small percentage of protected load power.
The system will temporarily set the PV current to zero in order to determine the open circuit voltage. Once it has this value it can calculate, based on the specified ratio, what the operating voltage should be and the system can begin moving to that point. There is a specific amount of time, which can be programmed into the system, to wait before isolating the source and repeating the calculation. This method is inherently much less efficient than either the perturb and observe method or the incremental conductance algorithm. The primary advantage of this technique is that it requires much less computational time and is a much simpler algorithm than the previous methods.
The second case concerned a 70 year-old demented male patient with a history of reported wandering. He lived in a town with his 50 year-old wife who was working 40 km away from home. She chose to let him walk freely by subscribing to the electronic tracking system rather than locking him up at home when she was away. At the end of the day when coming back home she would systematically call the phone center to find out whether her husband was home. If this was not the case, she was given her husband's position and with a map of the area she could find him and take him back home. The system allowed this woman to retain her job without any problem concerning her husband's safety. He tolerated the device well and carried it in a small waist bag. Use of the system was terminated when the demented patient died.