UV curable coatings

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FIELD APPLIED UV CURABLE FLOOR COATINGS. Jo Ann Arceneaux, Ph.D. Cytec Industries Inc. Smyrna, GA

FIELD APPLIED UV CURABLE FLOOR COATINGS. Jo Ann Arceneaux, Ph.D. Cytec Industries Inc. Smyrna, GA

FIELD APPLIED UV CURABLE COATINGS OFFER ADVANTAGES OVER CONVENTIONAL COATINGS FOR CONCRETE, WOOD, AND VCT. •  Fast return to service with fully developed properties •  Reduced VOCs[r]

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UV Curable Urethane Acrylate Resin from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate

UV Curable Urethane Acrylate Resin from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate

Hydroxyl terminated macromers can be synthesized with 15-70% PFAD. Further reactions of the macromers with TDI and 2-EHA have produced the novel oligomeric urethane acrylate resins that can be cured by UV irradiation. Generally, %PFAD has significant influence in the film properties. 70% PFAD the urethane acrylic does not form good film.. The urethane acrylic oligomers with 15-55% PFAD could be cured readily and have good films properties in term of adhesion, hardness and chemical resistant. PFAD is a valuable bio-resources for wood making UV-curable coatings.
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Synthesis of UV-Cured Hyperbranched Polyurethane Acrylate Coatings and Its Corrosion Resistance Revealed by Electrochemistry

Synthesis of UV-Cured Hyperbranched Polyurethane Acrylate Coatings and Its Corrosion Resistance Revealed by Electrochemistry

high reaction speed, environmental friendliness, as well as low energy consumption. Polyurethane acrylate (PUA) having good thermal and mechanical properties is widely used as an oligomer in UV coatings [2,3]. In the UV curing solvent-borne coats, reactive diluents are toxic and irritating with a strong odor and can volatilize easily thereby limiting their use in practice. Recently, water-borne UV curing coats have been developed to overcome the obstacles [4-7]. The use of water in water-borne UV-curable coatings decreases air pollution. Although water can control the film viscosity, there are still problems with water-borne coatings such as the small solid content and unsatisfactory producing efficiency. Hyper-branched polymers (HBPs) contain highly branched and polydispersed molecules [8]. HBPs have a unique structure resulting from a good deal of reactive end-groups. Thus, HBPs possess desirable properties; for instance, low melting point and viscosity, and easy functionalization compared with their linear counterparts [9-12]. There are interests in introducing HBPs to UV-curing systems. For example, Han et al. [13] synthesized HBP 2 UA-HMPP by using the reaction between the
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The Pennsylvania State University. The Graduate School. Engineering Science and Mechanics

The Pennsylvania State University. The Graduate School. Engineering Science and Mechanics

This study evaluated possible candidates for sacrificial and barrier layers for a multifunctional coating system to fight corrosion in an elevated temperature chloride solution at low pH. Zn, Al 1100 and Galvalume coated steel were tested via OCP, LPR and EIS to evaluate the corrosion behavior for sacrificial layer. Three different steel panels were tested via OCP, LPR and EIS to observe the corrosion behavior of carbon steel as a substrate. A group of panels coated with either powder phenolic novoloc or liquid epoxy phenolic coatings at different thickness of coatings with three different levels of filler on the coatings were donated by NOV Tuboscope and were tested via OCP and EIS to observe the corrosion behavior of the coatings as a barrier layer. All of the samples were immersed in 2000 ppm Cl - containing CO 2 saturated NaCl-HCl mixture at a pH of 3.5 and at 60 o C. The Zn, Al and Galvalume samples and the
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DLC coatings in high temperature hydrogen sulfide environment

DLC coatings in high temperature hydrogen sulfide environment

Steel substrates (UNS G52986 chrome steel) were prepared for the DLC coatings. The discs were mechanically polished to 0.05 m Ra. They were washed with acetone in an ultrasonic bath and stored to dry. A customized Hauzer Flexi Coat 850 † machine was used in this study to produce the carbon films. Acetylene was used as the gas precursor. In the coating step of DLC layer, a high pulsed bias voltage (~700V) was applied in order to assist the plasma deposition. Substrates were mounted on the bias table with the rotation speed of 1 rpm. The deposition time for DLC layer step was set to 150 min, although it is noted that the whole process time for the coating is about 5 hours.
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A study of the effect of coating variations on tone reproduction in the Association Products Plate

A study of the effect of coating variations on tone reproduction in the Association Products Plate

these the coatings using of the some comparison plates creating coatings imaging basis plates at of number a hypothesis in the of arrive the of coatings brush effect the a using viscosit[r]

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The influence of diol chain extender on morphology and properties of thermally-triggered UV-stable self-healing polyurethane coatings

The influence of diol chain extender on morphology and properties of thermally-triggered UV-stable self-healing polyurethane coatings

Two sets of waterborne polyurethane dispersions were synthesised from polycarbonate polyol with molecular mass of 500 Da and hexamethylene diisocyanate or isophorone diisocyanate. Formulations were prepared without a chain extender, with aliphatic diol with two to five carbon atoms or with diethylene glycol. Coatings were prepared on cellulose triacetate sheets, damaged by a steel-wool scratch instrument and left to heal at room temperature and at 60˚C. Self-healing efficiency was examined by comparison of haze before damage and at intervals after damage. Samples were analysed using Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy. The tests were repeated after 12 weeks to investigate ageing of the polymers. Samples were also tested for their stability to weathering. Optimally designed coatings obtained up to 100% recovery within 10 minutes at 60˚C and partial recovery at room temperature. The self-healing properties of coatings were found to be linked to macro-organisation of polymer chains caused by interactions between hard segments and soft segments of the polyurethane moiety, leading to phase-mixing, promoted by bulky, non-symmetrical isophorone diisocyanate, or phase-separation, promoted by linear, symmetrical hexamethylene diisocyanate. The length of chain extender was found to have large influence on formulations prepared with hexamethylene diisocyanate, increasing phase-separation and haze with the increase of chain length. Diethylene glycol was found to improve phase-mixing and self-healing properties of hexamethylene diisocyanate based materials. The influence of chain extenders was found to be minimal for isophorone diisocyanate based materials.
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Microstructure and Properties of Electrodeposited Ni-CeO2 Coatings

Microstructure and Properties of Electrodeposited Ni-CeO2 Coatings

nanocomposite coatings, modifying deposition parameters and using pulse electroplating. Co- deposition of ceramic nanoparticles with metal and alloy phases to form nanocomposites can bring a significant improvement on physical and chemical properties of the coatings [5-9]. To obtain better properties of Ni based nanocomposite coatings, different hard second-phase nanoparticles such as Al 2 O 3 , SiC, ZrO 2 and TiO 2 were mixed into the plating solution; and much effort were contributed to

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UV-polymerisable, phosphorus-containing, flame-retardant surface coatings for glass fibre-reinforced epoxy composites

UV-polymerisable, phosphorus-containing, flame-retardant surface coatings for glass fibre-reinforced epoxy composites

A vinyl phosphonic acid polymer (PVPA) coating can be uniformly deposited on a GRE composite surface via UV photo-polymerisation. The PVPA coating provides very efficient thermal barrier protection to the GRE composite. The coating prevents ignition at 35 kW/m 2 . At 50 kW/m 2 , some specimens ignite, but there is a significant reduction in PHRR, THR and TSR values compared to those of the GRE composite. This PVPA coating also delays and reduces the heat transfer through the composite, resulting in the retention of flexural modulus after exposure to high heat fluxes. The thermal barrier effect of this PVPA coating increases with increasing coating thickness. The best results were observed with a ~500 µm thick coating.
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Effect of Curing Agents on the Photodegradation of Epoxy Coatings investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

Effect of Curing Agents on the Photodegradation of Epoxy Coatings investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

principally relies on both the amine concentration and the electron density of nitrogen atoms in benzene rings [6-10]. Meanwhile, the moiety of the curing agent also affects the photooxidation process [11] and the water resistance [12,13]. However, few studies have focused on the influence of the curing agent ratio on water resistance of epoxy coatings during the photoaging process.

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Ultraviolet Curable Process Chemistry for a Biofilm Resistant Finish on Textiles.

Ultraviolet Curable Process Chemistry for a Biofilm Resistant Finish on Textiles.

Many textiles offer ideal growth conditions for a range of microbes. This growth can lead to a variety of problems, including fiber degradation, odor, discoloration and health issues. Microorganisms can destroy textile fibers by consuming the fiber itself, or any finishes or coatings present on the fabric. To combat these issues a large amount of research has been conducted to make textiles less conducive to the growth of these microbes. Merely washing the affected textile does not remove the microbe and therefore it is necessary to treat the susceptible fabrics with an antimicrobial finish. Antimicrobial finishes can provide hygienic benefits to the user, improve the durability of the textile, and prevent possible staining.
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The McKittrick–Wheelock syndrome: a rare cause of curable diabetes

The McKittrick–Wheelock syndrome: a rare cause of curable diabetes

McKittrick–Wheelock syndrome (MWS) is a rare consequence of severe dehydration and electrolyte depletion due to mucinous diarrhoea secondary to a rectosigmoid villous adenoma. Reported cases of MWS commonly describe hypersecretion of mucinous diarrhoea in association with dehydration, hypokalaemia, hyponatraemia, hypochloraemia and pre-renal azotemia. Hyperglycaemia and diabetes are rarely reported manifestations of MWS. Herein we describe the case of a 59-year-old woman who presented with new-onset diabetes and severe electrolyte derangement due to a giant rectal villous adenoma. Subsequent endoscopic resection of the tumour cured her diabetes and normalised electrolytes. This case describes a rare cause of ‘curable diabetes’ and indicates hyperaldosteronism and/or whole-body potassium stores as important regulators of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis.
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Traditional vs. UV-Cured coatings – an inquiry-based experiment for introducing green chemistry

Traditional vs. UV-Cured coatings – an inquiry-based experiment for introducing green chemistry

cerning traditional and UV-cured lacquers, i.e., they believe that the UV-cured lacquers are expen- sive to purchase and use, harmful for the environ- ment, flammable, unsuitable to be applied with a paintbrush and in multiple layers. After the clas- ses, a smaller percentage of students gave these answers. Furthermore, the synthesis of lacquers showed that the process is similar and uncompli- cated in both cases. The results of the pre-test con- cerning green chemistry may be considered sur- prisingly high. A comparison of results from the pre- and post-tests concerning green chemistry in- dicate a 17% increase in the number of correct an- swers, a statistically significant difference, what was concluded basing on the statistical tests carried out. Admittedly, the laboratory exercise itself does not concern the green chemistry issues, but the form of realization and the results obtained create an opportunity for students to acquire knowledge in this area.
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Synthesis and Properties of Electrodeposited Ni-B-Zn Ternary Alloy Coatings

Synthesis and Properties of Electrodeposited Ni-B-Zn Ternary Alloy Coatings

Currently, metal deposition processes using aqueous solutions are getting substantial attention owing to their remarkable advantages such as simplicity, economy, high deposition rate, uniformity of the deposit, decent wear and corrosion properties [22-33]. Both electroless and electrodeposition processes have been adopted to deposit different types of coatings including the Ni-B coatings. Ni-B coatings possess very attractive properties like high hardness), high wear resistance (better than hard chromium coatings) and decent anti-corrosion properties (Ni-P coatings). In addition, many other amazing characteristics of Ni–B coating such as cost-effectiveness, thickness uniformity, lubricity, good ductility, excellent solderability, good electrical properties, antibacterial property, low porosity, superior bonding and extraordinary electromagnetic properties have also been recognized[27, 31, 32, 34-46]. Owing to their tempting properties, Ni-B coatings are finding their applications in automotive, aerospace, nuclear, petrochemical, computer, electronics, plastic, optics, textile, paper, food and printing industries [32, 40, 41, 43, 47-52].
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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ACTIVATION OF MULTI-COLOUR CHANGING
PHOTOCHROMIC TEXTILES

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ACTIVATION OF MULTI-COLOUR CHANGING PHOTOCHROMIC TEXTILES

The non-emissive reversible colour changing properties of photochromic colourants can offer numerous design opportunities to significantly enhance the aesthetics of textile products. Despite the scientifically oriented research attempts in photochromic textiles, the ability to utilise reversible colour changing properties of photochromic colourants as a means of producing novel visual effects for textile application has only been exploited to a lesser extent [13]. One of the fundamental reasons for this lack of design research is the difficulty of controlling the activation of individual photochromic colours that have been applied onto the textile surface. For example, when a textile printed with four different photochromic colours, the respective colours of the print activate simultaneously upon exposure to UV light. As such, the dynamic visual experience facilitated through this material has the tendency to be predictable for observers. The research reported in this paper aimed to address this by exploring the possibility of handling different activation methods to control the overall kinetic behaviour of printed photochromic textiles. This research paper attempted to examine sunlight and artificial UV light sources as activation methods. The ability to control the photochromic colour changing effect was investigated by considering the following features;
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Functional Coatings: Superhydrophopbic And Conductive Coatings

Functional Coatings: Superhydrophopbic And Conductive Coatings

outflow of the paint. The paint is atomized into particles due to the difference between the velocities of the compressed air and the exiting paint. These particles are conveyed as special droplets in the free jet. The paint material can be atomized extremely finely by the exiting air jets in the high-pressure process (0.2-0.7 MP). The liquid viscosity, the amount of delivered paint, and air pressure can vary the size of liquid droplets from 10 µm to 100 µm. The paint can be fed to the nozzle via a suction cup, a pressure cup, a flow cup, or pressure tank depending on the viscosity and throughput. The material loss because of overspray is slightly high and this method is rather inefficient. Airless spraying is another method of spray coating. It is used for high voltage insulator, shipbuilding, road and rail transport, maintenance and decorative coatings. The high application speeds and minimum material loss because of overspray are the main motive for its wide acceptance. The equipment includes a container, high-pressure fluid pump, a paint strainer, fluid hose, an airless spray gun and a compressed air supply to the pump motor. The output pressure is between 8 to 40 MPa. The releasing highly pressurized fluid through a small orifice in the spray cap can make atomization. A cloud of ultrafine particles that is made by atomized paint move slowly toward the surface to be coated. The air resistance is attributed to the slowing down and the cloud attacks the surface with very slow speed, so there is not any spray fog formation compared with air spray method (Stoye et al, 1998).
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Waterborne Coatings : An Alternative of Conventional Coatings

Waterborne Coatings : An Alternative of Conventional Coatings

 Emulsions/latex paints - are quite similar to water-dispersible paints. The main difference is that the resin clusters in emulsions tend to be larger, and an emulsifier is required to keep the clusters in suspension. The resins used include styrene-butadiene copolymers, acrylics, alkyds, polyvinyl acetate, and polystyrene. These paints posses increased permeability which allows them to "breathe," thus reducing blistering or peeling.  Water-based alkyds – These coatings tend to take

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No evidence for UV-based nest-site selection in sticklebacks

No evidence for UV-based nest-site selection in sticklebacks

After one week of sexual stimulation, males were given simultaneously the choice to build their nests either in an UV-rich or UV-lacking environment. The choice aquarium (Fig. 2; 100 × 45 × 45 cm, l × w × h) was divided into two equal-sized compartments separated by a kind of sluice in the middle of the tank. The sluice consisted of two opaque, grey plastic partitions (each 30 × 30 cm, l × h) separated by 8 cm, one leaving an opening at the front wall, the other at the back wall. In this way test fish could freely visit both sides but had no direct view of both com- partments. The aquarium was filled with tap water to a level of 15 cm, and the bottom was covered with fine gravel. In both compartments equal amounts of filamen- tous algae (1.56 g ± 0.04 g) was provided as nest material. Again, illumination was given by a fluorescent tube (True Light, Natural Daylight 5500, 36 Watt, 1200 mm) hang- ing 25 cm above the water surface. The top of one com- partment was covered by an UV-transmitting filter (GS- 2485, Röhm Plexiglas, Germany) whereas the other one was covered by an UV-blocking filter (GS-233, Röhm Plexiglas, Germany). To prevent potentially confounding, external influences, the walls of the aquarium were fitted out with grey, opaque plastic partitions which reflected moderately in the UV-A range.
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Corrosion Resistance of UV-Cured Urethane Acrylate Coatings Containing Dibutyl-Substituted Poly(3,4- propylenedioxythiophene) as a Corrosion Inhibitor

Corrosion Resistance of UV-Cured Urethane Acrylate Coatings Containing Dibutyl-Substituted Poly(3,4- propylenedioxythiophene) as a Corrosion Inhibitor

Among all the conducting polymers, 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) based conducting polymers have been extensively investigated from both scientific and practical fields because of their many advantages including reduced band gap in the polymers, low oxidation potential, and high environmental stability[16-18]. Unsubstituted poly(3,4-ethylenedixythiophene) (PEDOT) is infusible and insoluble, which is difficult to be homogenously incorporated into the polymeric resins. Although the solubility of PEDOT could be enhanced by using a water soluble poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) as a doping agent [19, 20], the hydrophilic and charged characteristics of PEDOT/PSS tend to deteriorate the mechanical properties of the coatings [21]. Both Xu group[22] and Liesa group[23] have found that a little amount of PEDOT/PSS in the polymer resin is essential to achieve the coating with enhanced anticorrosive performance. Substituted 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene based conducting polymers show good electro-optical properties similar to those of PEDOT, and exhibit some better properties such as improved processability and solubility[24]. In present study, novel solution-processable dibutyl- sbustituted poly(3,4-propylenedioxythiophene) (Poly(ProDotBu 2 )) was synthesized by Grignard
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Gender based comparison of knowledge, attitude and practice towards hiv/aids in hiv-seropositive and healthy individuals

Gender based comparison of knowledge, attitude and practice towards hiv/aids in hiv-seropositive and healthy individuals

The frequency of correct knowledge on whether there are signs and symptoms of AIDS was significantly higher in males among controls but in cases, females showed significant p- value. Females were more worried than males among controls of contacting the disease. The frequency of correct knowledge- to know how HIV spreads and if there are tests for it also were significantly low (p<0.001) in females of both the groups. However, seropositive females showed a higher frequency of knowledge about ELISA. Also, the frequency (%) of incorrect knowledge that HIV spread by mosquito bite, sharing meals, shaking hands, kissing and talking to an infected person, were similar between the genders of both groups. In contrast, the frequency (%) of perception of knowledge that AIDS is a curable disease, cured by traditional/spiritual means, medicine/medical doctors were significantly (p<0.05 or p<0.01 or p<0.001) higher in cases as compared to controls with infected males having higher knowledge.
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