it is grown commercially and has been an important crop that contributes to the economy of the country. About 90% of palm oil is used for food, and about 10% for non-edible products as soaps and detergents. The traditional vegetable oils like linseed, soyabean and castor oils have been commercially used for the synthesis of alkyds, epoxides and polyesteramides . Less commonly, cashew nut, karanja, annona squmosa, natural rubber seeds have also being investigated for producing polyurethane, polyesteramide and alkyd resins [12,13]. Recently, there were several reports on palm oil based-resins. For example, an excellent baking enamel was produced from a water-reducible palm stearin alkyd combined with melamine resin [14,15]. The problem of insufficient unsaturation could be overcome through the incorporation of maleic anhydride or fumaric acid into the alkyd structures, to make them UV-curable [16,17]. Further exploration of palm oil derivatives has produced many new coating resins having various film properties [18,19,20,21]. In 2014, an US patent was granted for a palm oil-based polyurethane oligomer for use as restorative dental material .
Transparent glass fiber reinforced composites films ware fabricated by UV light induced chemical crosslinking of composite materials consisting of glass fiber and UVcurableresin in film state. In order to apply film to flexible device, excellent flexural property is required, then the delamination should not occurred between glass fiber and UVcurableresin when film is bent. To minimize delamination and improve the interfacial adhesion at interface between glass fiber and UVcurableresin, the γ-aminopropyl triethoxy silane and γ-glycid oxypropyl trimethoxy silane were applied for the surface treatment of glass fibers. Silanization of glass fiber surface was checked by scanning electron microscopy and the degree of delamination of composite film was confirmed through the bending test, ASTEM290-96a, used by haze meter.
A hot-embossed flexible PET mold was used as a tem- plate for UV nanoimprint lithography without the coating of an anti-stiction layer. As shown in Figure 4a,b, the UV nanoimprint process was performed on both a flat Si wafer and curved acryl substrate. The same imprinting system as that employed for the hot embossing process of the fluorinated polymer-coated flexible PET mold was used. A monomer-based UVcurableresin, NIP-K28™, made by the ChemOptics Company (Daejeon, South Korea) was used. As shown in a previous report , an isotropic pressure was applied through a flexible membrane to assure uniform pressing between the PET film mold and substrate. Due to the flexibility of the PET mold, conformal con- tact can be achieved between the PET mold and curved substrate, and a uniform pressing force can be delivered. A pressure of 20 bars and UV light with a wavelength of 365 nm were used in the imprinting process.
THERMAL CURE ROD AND BAR is produced using all longitudinal reinforcements with low speed and high temperature, which provides a rich surface appearance. It has no surfacing veil, no pigment and is not fire retardant. On request, Strongwell can quote special formulations including resin type, fire retardant properties, etc. Because it maintains high electrical standards, thermal cure rod is most commonly specified for electrical applications. Normally stocked for prompt delivery. Thermal cure rod and bar was not designed to be machined.
The TGA curves for PRZn and PMMA sample is shown in Figures 16 & 17 respectively. Having a comparison of TGA curves of PRZn spin coated and pure PMMA Figure 17, we find that pure PMMA have a transition temperature around 250 to 400 ° C while the addition of resin and ZnO nano particle to PMMA, the peak varies above 500 ° C. This clearly shows the effect of resin and ZnO on pure PMMA. The weight loss in the first step in Figure 16 corresponds to the evaporation of water (90-100 ° C). The second step weight loss peak starting at above 290°C is due to the crystal cleavage and attributed to the melting and degradation of different morphological components of PMMA and coincide with the temperature range over which a number of defined paralysis reaction takes place in PMMA. The hydrogen bond of CH 3 ruptures and ordered regions of PMMA undergo a
Quantum-chemical calculations using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) approach for structural analysis of the new dichroic mono azo dye: Sodium (E)-5-((4-carboxylatophenyl)diazenyl)-2- hydroxybenzoate (S) (trans isomer) was carried out using B3LYP methods with 6-311+G* basis set. After calculations, the new mono azo dye was synthesized. UV, FT-IR and 1 H NMR spectra of the
Pulsed laser deposition PLD can be successfully employed to many classes of materials such as metals, semiconductors, dielectrics, ferroelectrics, electro-optic and giant magneto-resistance oxides, organic materials, polymers, magnetics, composites etc  . Phase pure and doped CdO thin films exhibit some extraordinary properties due to which they are popular in various semiconducting, optoelectronic industries, and for the fabrication of IR mirrors, thin film resistors, low emissive windows etc.  . Deposition parameters in PLD process play key role in determining various properties of CdO thin films. Gupta et al. reported the effect of deposition parameters on various properties of Sn, Ti, Al and In doped CdO films prepared by PLD technique [9, 10, 11, 12] . In this work pure CdO and cu doped CdO films were deposited on glass and silicon by pulse laser deposition. The electrical, structure and optical properties were studied.
Without radiation 12.5% HEMA grafted film showed highest TS properties and at 15% HEMA grafted Lowest TS was obtained. Similar results were observed for the TM properties. On the other hand, lowest EB was observed for 12.5% HEMA grafted film and highest value was observed for 15% HEMA grafted film. When different dose of UV radiation was passed through the films there was a little change in mechanical properties. Three dose (15, 20 and 25 UV-pass) was applied through the film and the best result was obtained from the 20 UV-pass. For the 20 UV pass the tensile strength and the tensile modulus was increased 65% and 30% respectively relative to the non-irradiated films. On the other hand the elongation at break for the 20 UV pass was 43% lower than the non-irradiated films. Among the three
Whether the spectral data could be used to establish the prediction model with stepwise regression or not depends on the correlation between the spectral data and the concentrations of Salviol B. The correlation coef icients between the spectral data and the concentrations of Salviol B were calculated according Formula (5). Figure 4 showed that the UV spectral data had better correlation to the concentration of Salviol B from 260nm to 380n m. If variables were selected from 200nm to 800nm, there were 5 variables selected into the model. We would get smaller itting error but the prediction error would increase. The RMSE of the concentration of Salviol B was 0.4427 and the CV was 0.2437, MAE was 0.3052 as shown in table 1. So the spectral data from 260nm to 380nm had been used for variable selecting to establish the stepwise regression model.
a concentration 2 wt %. Absorbance spectra of the PMMA/DPA-CM thin-film on quartz are shown in Fig. 1b. A 260-nm-thick photoactive dielectric layer of the PMMA/DPA-CM was prepared by spin- coating and heated on a hot plate at 100 o C for 60 min to remove the residual solvent. Next, a 70-nm- thick polystyrene (Aldrich, M w = 280,000) buffer layer was formed onto the PMMA/DPA-CM layer
9H-Carbazol-9-ylpyrene monomer was successfully synthesized via coupling reaction. Poly(9H- carbazol-9-ylpyrene) (PMCzP) was electrochemically synthesized and characterized. Characterizations of the resulting polymer PMCzP were performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the spectroelectrochemical and electrochromic properties of the polymer film were investigated. The resulting polymer film has distinct electrochromic properties and shows three different colors (light yellow, gray, grayish green) under various potentials. The PMCzP film shows a maximum optical contrast (ΔT%) of 29% at 460 nm with a response time of 2.18 s. An electrochromic device (ECD) based on PMCzP and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was also constructed and characterized. The optical contrast (ΔT%) of the device at 623 nm was found to be 23% and response time was measured as 0.50 s. The CE of the device was calculated to be 290 cm 2 C −1 . This ECD has satisfactory redox stability.
nozzle which can turn the flow on and off (Vashishtha et al., 2011). 3D printing is a form of additive manufacturing technology where a three dimensional object is created by laying down successive layers of material. 3D printers are generally faster, more affordable and easier to use than other additive manufacturing technologies (Horvath and Harsanyi, 2010). 3D printers offer product developers the ability to print parts and assemblies made of several materials with different mechanical and physical properties in a single build process. Advanced 3D printing technologies yield models that closely emulate the look, feel and functionality of product prototypes. A 3D printer works by taking a 3D computer file to make a series of cross-sectional slices. Each slice is then printed one on top of the other to create the 3D object. Three-dimensional printing makes it as cheap to create single items as it is to produce thousands and thus undermines economies of scale. The PolyJet prototyping technology or Objet’s patented PolyJet inkjet technology works by jetting state of the art photopolymer materials in ultra- thin layers (16 µm) onto a build tray layer by layer until the part is completed. The intuitive Objet studio™ software manages the process. Each photopolymer layer is cured by UV light immediately after it is jetted, producing fully cured models that can be handled and used immediately, without post-curing. The gel-like support material, which is specially designed to support complicated geometries, is easily removed by hand and water jetting.
Phthalocyanines (Pcs), which were discovered unexpectedly in 1907 as a by-product in an industrial preparation of ortho disubstituted benzene derivatives, are derivatives of porphyrin characterized with high symmetry .Nickel Phthalocyanine is an organic semiconductor widely used as an optoelectronics devices as thin films. Thin- film technologies are being developed as a means to substantially reduce the cost of electronic systems. Thin film modules are expected to be cheaper to manufacture owing to their reduced material costs, handling costs, energy costs, and capital costs . Phthalocyanines have intense color and excellent chemical and thermal stability. The versatility, architectural flexibility, non- toxicity and ease of processing make them eligible candidates for use in a wide range of technological applications such as digital cameras, mobile phones and personal computers . Highly efficient reactive oxygen species generation and ease of chemical modification, phthalocyanines have emerged as a promising class of second- generation photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy .
For k 3 the conductivity decreases as k increases which is observed in both thin film and bulk samples . This trend indicates that the conductivity of indium gallium zinc oxide is primarily associated with the In 5s states. However, for k 4, the fraction of Zn becomes increasingly large and Zn begins to contribute to conduction . The ionic radii of Ga, In, and Zn are 1.27, 1.49, and 1.54 Å, respectively. If orbital overlap interaction is considered, and since the ionic radii of In and Zn are similar, the shift in conduction path as the fraction of Zn becomes large is evident. Indium contributes to the large spreading of the CBM. It is seen that due to the fourfold coordination of ZnO, the small Zn–Zn distance increases CBM dispersion and results in high electron mobility . Gallium oxide has a strong metal–oxygen bond and hence suppresses the generation of free carriers via the formation of oxygen vacancies. Therefore Ga 3+ by increases the amorphization by the introduction of aliovalent different-sized cations and suppresses the generation of free carriers, owing to the stronger Ga-O chemical bonds, compared to Zn-O and In-O.
[34–36]. In addition, an isosbestic peak located at about 479 nm (2.59 eV) was detected, which denote the presence of two different states in the polymer . The isosbestic peak may be explained by a transition of completely dis- solved polymer chains into aggregated stacks without inter- mediate states . It was noted that all spectra exhibited an absorption band-edge at about 650 nm. Furthermore, the redshift observed in the band-edge of P3HT-ZnO:Ho 3+ (1:1) film as compared to the P3HT film result in an en- hanced inter-chain interaction in semicrystaline P3HT leading to effective ground state interaction between the polymer and ZnO:Ho 3+ nanostructures [3, 17]. In fact, the nanostructures induced an improvement of the structure ordering of the hybrid heterostructure . The observed redshift, which involve enhanced conjugation length, definitely implies an enhancement of the light absorp- tion ability of P3HT polymer with inclusion of ZnO:Ho 3+ nanostructures .
Although bulk lignin could be directly blended with a polymer matrix using thermal extrusion/injection method to produce a composite, the poor interfacial binding between bulk lignin and the polymer matrix usually resulted in the deterioration of its mechanical performance . The nanoeffects of lignin nanoparti- cles including increased surface area and good disper- sion state potentially enhance their compatibility with polymer matrix; thus, the resulting composite might exhibit a better mechanical performance [8, 11]. When the mechanical properties of the above nanocompos- ites were further checked, there was indeed an increase instead of a deterioration of the tensile strength, indicat- ing a certain reinforcement effect of lignin nanoparticles. The tensile strength of the composite films increased from 50 to ~55 MPa for DLNPs/PVA and to ~60 MPa for OLNPs/PVA while only slightly compromising its elonga- tion performance simultaneously (Fig. 4). It seemed that apart from the intrinsic properties of lignin nanoparti- cles themselves, their interfacial adhesion and dispersion state in the PVA matrix also played an important role in determining the overall performances of the nanocom- posites. Therefore, we next assessed the interactions between lignin nanoparticles and PVA matrix. As the composite films containing 4 wt% lignin nanoparticles had the best UV shielding, antioxidant, and mechanical performances, we selected them as the testing samples for the subsequent analysis.
Network polymers are an interesting and diverse class of materials that have found applications in a number of different areas, from coatings to optical materials to bulky structural parts. These materials are typically formed through a process known as crosslinking, whereby at least one species within the material is able to interact with the other species (or itself) to form a three-dimensional network structure. This crosslinking process is typically initiated by exposure to heat or another type of radiation, such as ultraviolet radiation. Crosslinks can be reversible, although they are often irreversible. These systems can be filled or unfilled, and the ultimate properties of the network depend on the physical and chemical properties of the starting materials. The vast library of available chemical species from which network polymers can be formed allows for numerous potential applications of this class of materials, and understanding the aspects of network formation and ultimate network properties of a network is important when designing and considering a material for a specific application. Herein, we examine two different classes of materials; a thermosetting system with varied polymer backbone chemistry and its role on crosslinking and ultimate film thermomechanical properties, and a UV-crosslinkable system with and without fillers, in which we probe the effect of filler type and loading on the evolution of a network microstructure and some of the resulting film properties of the nanocomposite network.
The H 1 NMR spectra recorded from resin of NMO are shown in figure 4. The spectra show the double bond hydrogen at 5.37 to 5.26 ppm. The corresponding olefinic protons peak in the hydroxylated product has almost disappeared; showing the double bonds in oil is replaced by the hydroxyl group. This peak is shifted to 8.0 ppm in the NMO resin due to the deshielding effect of hydroxyl and carboxylate ester linkages.
Commonly used photoactive chemical dosimeters are polyphenylene oxide (Davis et al, 1976a) and polysulphone (Davis et al, 1976b). Other less commonly used photoactive chemicals are phenothiazine (Diffey et al, 1977), 8-methoxypsoralen (Diffey and Davis, 1978) and nalidixic acid (Tate et al, 1980). At present, a variety of chemical dosimeters exist that are used for the measurement of UV exposures. However, no dosimeter exists that can be used for the measurement of UV radiation exposures related to melanoma induction (a spectral response that is high in the UVB and extends well into the UVA). Turner et al (2009) conducted measurements utilizing a dual-layer dosimeter made from a sheet of polysulphone and a sheet of nalidixic acid (in a polyvinyl chloride matirx). Spectral tests showed that this dual-layer dosimeter responded to wavelengths well into the UVA region. Therefore, this past research was used as a starting point for the development of a single layer dosimeter that can be used for exposures related to melanoma induction.