Abstract— Autonomous navigation of robot for on-road driving has gained growing importance in automobile research area. Image based path tracking is being considered for future driving assistance. Image from a monocular camera directing in front side is used for tracking the drivable road area and road direction. **Vanishing** **Point** **estimation** has been considered very important in case of driver assistance systems to indicate the possible turning direction of road ahead. This paper describes different methods used for **vanishing** **point** **estimation** in a captured image frame. As the road driving is real time operation, timing considerations play a vital role along with the accuracy. With this constraint in mind, an algorithm has been proposed for texture based **vanishing** **point** detection.

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Different techniques are used for **vanishing** **point** **estimation**. This paper uses technique discussed in [4] for estimating the **vanishing** **point**. The **vanishing** **point** so obtained can then be used to determine direction of road and its curvature. It may also be used to determine centerline of road and boundaries are also determined using **vanishing** **point**.

濛濦濣濩濢濘澔濦濙濛濝濣濢
Fig. 1. The flowchart of the proposed stereo-vision based **vanishing** **point** detection for road detection framework.
variant of Labayrade et al. [16] (see [17], [18] for related work). Then the **vanishing** **point** position of road can be estimated by a voting strategy [22], [23], [24], where the **vanishing** **point** candidate space is reduced to a very small region that corresponds to an area near the horizon. Due to the robustness in horizon detection, the stereo-based vanish- ing **point** **estimation** is also more accurate compared to the **vanishing** **point** **estimation** methods using a single camera.

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In this paper, we approach the image localization problem as that of worldwide pose **estimation**: given an image, automatically determine a camera matrix (position, orientation, and camera intrinsics) in a georeferenced coordinate system. As such, we focus on images with completely unknown pose (i.e., with no GPS). In other words, we seek to extend the traditional pose **estimation** problem, applied in robotics and other domains, to accurate georegistration at the scale of the world—or at least as much of the world as we can index. Our focus on precise camera geometry is in contrast to most prior work on image localization that has taken an image retrieval approach [6, 7], where an image is localized by finding images that match it closely without recovering explicit camera pose. This limits the applicability of such methods in areas such as augmented reality where precise pose is important. Moreover, if we can establish the precise pose for an image, we then instantly have strong priors for determining what parts of an image might be sky (since we know where the horizon must be) or even what parts are roads or buildings (since the image is now automatically registered with a map). Our ultimate goal is to automatically establish exact camera pose for as many images on the Web as possible, and to leverage such priors to understand images at world-scale.

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This work is organized as follows. We start with the accurate formulation of the multiple change-**point** model. Then we briefly sketch the essential steps to get the main results of the work. Chapter 2 provides the relevant mathematical tools for our purpose. For simplicity, Chapter 3 deals with the case of known expectations. This chapter is intended to present the fundamental recipe to estimate change-points and conclude asymptotic claims for the estimator. Based on the least squares estimator of the moments of change (bnθ 1 c, bnθ 2 c) we

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In fact, change **point** problems have originally arisen in the context of quality control, but the problem of abrupt changes in general arises in many contexts like epidemiology, rhythm analysis in electrocardiograms, seismic signal processing, study of archaeological sites and financial markets. In particular, in the analysis of financial time series, the knowledge of the change in the volatility structure of the process under consideration is of a certain interest.

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A strong monitoring policy is always required to make **estimation** as a success .We have to make a check list with the date of completion and must follow the checklist. If work is not done on the time some necessary action must be taken to compensate the deviation [14].

The core idea of our method is to evaluate the PSF by imaging “phantom” objects with precisely defined geometry. The phantom shape and alignment procedure are an extension of a design we have proposed in [17], based on a 2-value phase image, corresponding to π phase shifts. Here the phantoms were designed to produce true complex images under imaging with an ideal, delta PSF. To this end, we manufactured two phantoms of aluminium, which has very good reflective properties, representing the same geometric pattern, which consists of a series of elevated concentric disks. The radii of the disks follow a quadratic growth law and are 5.0, 5.3, 5.9, 6.8, 8.0, 9.5, 11.3, 13.4, 15.8, 18.5, and 21.5 mm, respectively. There were several reasons for choosing this particular phantom design. Firstly, we wanted a pattern that is easy to generate automatically and to be able to produce the ideal phantom images aligned with the real phantom data. We wanted it to have strong edges at all orientations, which would lead to strong components in all Fourier domain low frequencies. This would make it suitable for using a Wiener filter deconvolution technique, which we detail in Section 4. We also wanted a fair degree of variability with respect to the radial steps and, in particular, to have at least one annular ring thinner than the expected extent of the support of the **point** spread function. The elevation step between consecutive disks was kept constant, which means that, for an ideal, delta-like **point** spread function, the image of the phantom would be constant on every annular ring. The elevation step was 0.4 mm for the first phantom (which we will henceforth refer to as “Phantom 1”) and 0.2 mm for the second phantom (which we will henceforth refer to as “Phantom 2”). The frequency of our system was set to 180 GHz. The elevation steps on both phantoms are not integral fractions of the wavelength, and therefore the phase variation on consecutive disks is nonperiodic. The phantoms were both placed within the focal zone of our imaging system but were not perfectly aligned, in order to test the variability of the estimated **point** spread function over the focal range. Pictures of the two aluminium phantoms are shown in Figure 2.

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Relations of squarefree exponent n can be treated by induction on the number of primes dividing n, using the following theorem.. THEOREM (2.3) Let n = pm, where p is prime and p d[r]

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Case reports and open case studies in modern medicine are of value for a number of reasons: [1] they can **point** towards a new direction in therapeutic or preventive medicine; [2] they can reveal underlying biological mechanisms that require further exploration; [3] they may provoke pilot studies and go on to initiate controlled human studies; [4] they may be of value in aiding clinicians who deal with patients having rare diseases and disorders for which no controlled studies are possible; [5] they involve individual subjects in the real clinical world who take combinations of medications and other therapies not factored in controlled studies.

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One advantage of scaling vectors over a single scaling function is the compatibility of sym- metry and orthogonality. This paper investigates the relationship between symmetry, van- ishing moments, orthogonality, and support length for a scaling vector Φ. Some general results on scaling vectors and **vanishing** moments are developed, as well as some necessary conditions for the symbol entries of a scaling vector with both symmetry and orthogonality. If orthogonal scaling vector Φ has some kind of symmetry and a given number of **vanishing** moments, we can characterize the type of symmetry for Φ, give some information about the form of the symbol P (z), and place some bounds on the support of each φ i . We then construct an L 2 (R) orthogonal, symmetric scaling vector with one **vanishing** moment having minimal support.

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All three of the above observations **point** towards a change in labor market dynamics. While each may be of independent interest and have potentially useful implications for our understanding of macro uctuations, our goal in the present paper is to explore their possible connection. In particular, we seek to investigate the hypothesis that all three changes may be driven by the decline in labor market turnover in the US over this period, which reduced hiring frictions and allowed
rms to adjust their labor force more easily in response to various kinds of shocks. In order to illustrate the mechanism behind this explanation, we develop a stylized model of uctuations with labor market frictions and investigate how its predictions vary with the level of labor market turnover. The decline in labor market turnover in the US is well documented, among others by Davis, Faberman, and Haltiwanger (2006), Davis (2008), Fallick and Fleischman (2004), Mukoyama and ¸Sahin (2009), Faberman (2008), Davis, Faberman, Haltiwanger, Jarmin, and Miranda (2010), Davis, Faberman, and Haltiwanger (2012), Lazear and Spletzer (2012), Fujita (2011), Cairó and Cajner (2013), Cairó (2013) and Hyatt and Spletzer (2013), see Cairó and Cajner (2013) for an overview of this literature. In this paper, we explore the implications of this decline for business cycle dynamics. Our argument does not depend on the source of the decline in turnover and we leave this

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The represented body therefore takes on the notion of a closure, an infinite confined within a finite. The fabric acts as a dressing to the untouchable body, its folds both concealing and revealing the possibilities. Much like Leibniz’s monad as a one‐ multiple, the surface of the fabric contains infinite possibilities that must be connected, must ‘touch’ all other monads. (Deleuze, 2006, p. 24‐30) The images when installed are projected onto a black surface ‐ a reference to the singularity of **vanishing** without return ‐ they appear contemporary but carry the weight of appropriation, clouding any direct relationship to a historical moment or practice. The ephemerality of projection further enhances the sense of the liminal; there is a haunting quality that derives from not knowing what is present, the shadowy thrill of an inanimate object coming to life or the discovery of a body vanished. Although not overt within the images, the contemporary relevance of female **vanishing** still remains sadly prevalent and is echoed in the recent political abduction of more than two hundred girls from a boarding school in Chibok by Nigeriaʹs militant Islamist group Boko Haram. 20 The **vanishing** of female bodies

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In his Politics (Book 4, Part IV) Aristotle stated that: “If liber- ty and equality, as is thought by some, are chiefly to be found in democracy, they will be attained when all persons alike share in the government to the utmost”. (Aristotle 1992) The citizen should be both the starting **point** and the focus of democracy, but this is no longer the case. In 2004, Colin Crouch observed that key political questions are now determined and solved between “elected governments and elites that overwhelmingly represent business interests” (Biegelbauer and Loeber 2010: 4) The integra- tion of states into supranational organisations has come at the cost of democracy as many decisions are made at an inter- governmental level, bypassing the citizen. This is a problem that exists not only at the global level in supranational institutions and multi-national corporations, but also at the national level. The voice of the ordinary citizen is being ignored and political partici- pation is denied to her – and I would argue she is being made apa- thetic and powerless in order not to question the hegemony of the neoliberal philosophy in most western democracies. The rise of neoliberalism also coincides with a decline in political participa- tion. Without greater political participation of the polity democ- racy is invariably weakened. For the globalisation of democracy to take firm root we must begin by strengthening democracy at the local and national level, and reverse the decline in political partic- ipation. Only then will we be able to address the democratic defi- cit found in the supranational organisations.

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Estimating the power effect on the neutral **point** from flight-test data will provide future designers of similar UAVs with a reference to make their own estimates and better predict the static stability of their design. The future expansion of this research to many other UAVs with different power configurations may generate enough experimental data to compile the power effects on the neutral **point** into a single reference source, basing the power effects on UAV geometry and power configuration. Future designers could use this reference source to make their own estimates of the power effects by comparing the geometry and power configuration of their design to those already estimated in the reference source. If enough experimental data is recorded, comprehensive predictive theory may also be developed from the data. This would reduce the need for wind tunnel testing and lower the risk of redesign due to poor power effect estimates.

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As our second contribution, we propose alternative sequential algorithms that are imple- mentable even when the original NPL algorithm does not converge to a consistent estimator. The first estimator replaces Ψ(θ, P ) in the NPL algorithm with Λ(θ, P ) = [Ψ(θ, P )] α P 1−α , which has a better contraction property than Ψ under some conditions. The second algorithm decom- poses the space of P into the unstable subspace and its orthogonal complement based on the eigenvectors of ∂Ψ(θ, P )/∂P 0 . It then constructs a contractive mapping by taking a Newton step on the unstable subspace. The third algorithm defines a pseudo-likelihood function in terms of multiple iterations of a fixed **point** mapping and, upon convergence, generates a more efficient estimator.

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Department of Information System China Steel Corporation
Kaohsiung, 812 Taiwan
Software **estimation** provides an important tool for project planning; whose quality and accuracy greatly affect the success of a project. Despite a plethora of **estimation** models, practitioners experience difficulties in applying them because most models attempt to in- clude as many influential factors as possible in estimating software size and/or effort. This research suggests a different approach that simplifies and tailors a generic function **point** analysis model to increase ease of use. The proposed approach redefines the function type categories in the FPA model, on the basis of the target application’s characteristics and system architecture. This method makes the function types more suitable for the particular application domain. It also enables function **point** counting by the programmers themselves instead of by an expert. An empirical study using historical data establishes the regression model and demonstrates that its prediction accuracy is comparable to that of a FPA model.

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countries, but the sampling **point** is only obtained from the intersection of a plane and a fragment of the axis of rotation, and the estimated contour of the is not accurate [9]. Based on PDM (**Point** Distance Minimization) the B-Spilne curve fitting method, 3D **point** cloud data of the method using only one plane and debris intersection **point** obtained are sparse, the sampling points and use the distance as error criterion fitting method is relatively poor, and due to the presence of noise, sampling **point** may all the features can not be completely retained the contour lines, and the fitting part of the lack of information [10]. Based on SDM (Square Distance Minimization) of the B-Spilne curve fitting method, the method of control polygon firstly with four binary tree to calculate the initial curve, then according to the curve between **point** cloud data and two-dimensional square distance control polygon adjustment curve continuously, fitting curves by two-dimensional **point** cloud data of the [11]. This method is a good method to fit the data of two-dimensional **point** cloud, which has fast speed and stable convergence [12].

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This paper considers the **estimation** problem of structural models for which empirical restrictions are characterized by a fixed **point** constraint, such as structural dynamic discrete choice models or models of dynamic games. We analyze the conditions under which the nested pseudo-likelihood (NPL) algorithm achieves convergence and derive its convergence rate. We find that the NPL algorithm may not necessarily converge when the fixed **point** mapping does not have a local contraction property. To address the issue of non-convergence, we propose alternative sequential **estimation** procedures that can achieve convergence even when the NPL algorithm does not. Upon convergence, some of our proposed **estimation** algorithms produce more efficient estimators than the NPL estimator.

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in cross tabulation tables in the Supplementary Material. We observe a large amount of variability around the optimal partition. With 95% posterior probability, we believe that, on one extreme, the data could be modeled using only 2 components, one with a large variance to account for outliers (black cluster in Figure (11a)). On the other extreme, the data could be further split into one medium sized cluster and many, 14 to be precise, smaller clusters. The horizontal bound, the most extreme partition in the credible ball, splits the largest cluster (red in Figure 10b) into two medium sized clusters and four small clusters and reallocates some of its data points to the ﬁrst cluster (black in Figure 10b). Figure 11d emphasizes that the posterior similarity ma- trix under-represents the uncertainty around the **point** estimate in comparison to the credible ball.

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