preferred for the ultrasonic sensor. Using this LI-FI the data are transmitted from one vehicle to another. The data that is transmitted through LIFI can be any data like audio, video or text. This technology was introduced few years back, which needs more systematic enquiry on its sustainability for traffic control purpose. This concept can be implemented at very low cost and with higher efficiency. The day to day activities use lot of LEDs based lights for illumination, which can also be used for communication because of the advantages like fast switching, high power efficiency and safe to human vision. Hence, this project presents about ecofriendly data communication between vehicle to vehicle through visible light which consists of the white LEDs that transmit audio signals to the receiver. The receiver circuit consists of solar panel connected with the amplifier and speakers to recover back the amplified version of original input signal. VLC has a bright future and it acts as a complement to the present RF communication by achieving higher efficiancy.
destined party who then acknowledges their receipt by sending a response known as an acknowledgment or ACK packet back to the sender. The extra traffic is acceptable in a situation where each packet is destined for only one receiver because this scenario only generates one ACK packet. In the case of V2V communications it is not possible to have every vehicle send ACKs to every other vehicle’s beacons due to what is termed ACK Explosion . For example, if an ego vehicle (EV) has 100 RVs in range, and if that EV was transmitting BSMs at 10 Hz, then in one second the EV would provoke 1000 ACK packets. In the case of a congested network, the extra packets would only further increase congestion within the network.
48 Read more
Using V2V communication, in our previous example, vehicle A can send warning messages once an emergency event happens. If vehicles B and C can receive these messages with little delay, the drivers can be alerted immediately. In such cases, C has a good chance of avoiding the accident via prompt reactions, and B benefits from such warnings when visibility is poor or when the driver is not paying enough attention to the surroundings. Thus, the vehicle-to- vehicle communication enables the cooperative collision warning among vehicles , A B and C . Even though V2V communication may be beneficial, wireless communication is typically unreliable. Many factors, for example, channel fading, packet collisions, and communication obstacles, can prevent messages from being correctly delivered in time. In addition, ad hoc networks formed by nearby vehicles are quite different from traditional ad hoc networks due to high mobility of vehicles. A Vehicular Collision Warning Communication (VCWC) protocol is discussed in this paper. Major contributions of this paper include:
Abstract: Automotive industry has gone through rapid changes in the past few years. The usage of electronics and electronic control units (ECUs) have increased manifold, and this has also affected the way different subsystems communicate. Communication technologies and protocols are required to fulfill demands of fault-tolerance, dependability, bandwidth and determinism of demanding and safety-critical applications. This paper presents a survey of state-of-the-art and the most commonly employed communication technologies and protocols; both wired and wireless for in-vehicle and vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication in the automotive systems. The technologies such as LIN (Local Interconnect Network), CAN (Controller Area Network), MOST (Media Oriented Systems Transport), and Flexray are compared in terms of the performance, reliability, cost and protocol characteristics. The study shows that Flexray is an excellent network topology for in-vehicle communication that has higher degree of fault tolerance, and is suitable for hard real time systems with high bandwidth. Moreover, wireless technologies i.e. Bluetooth, ZigBee, Wi-Fi and UWB are discussed that satisfy different requirements of diagnostics and multimedia communication for in-vehicle and vehicle to vehicle communication and can be used for advanced autonomous driving systems. The paper also presented issues that need to be addressed to fully realize the potential of these communication technologies and other advancements in automotive industry.
In this research to analyze the various security attacks in the existing Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) for the Internet of things network (IoT) the problems in existing IoT is secure transmission between the devices. To improve the security in Internet of things network (IOT) for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) the following work are carried out. In protecting any automated information system like traffic monitoring often a security policy will contain the objectives or goals of a system. To analyze the various various security attacks in the Intelligent Transportation System(ITS) in IOT environment for the vehicle to vehicle Integration and propose a novel ECGDSA algorithm for enhancing safety in the vehicle to vehicle system in ITS structure to overcome the communication overhead problem in the IKEV2 system. The proposed ECGDSA algorithm will be implementing and analyzed in the vehicle to vehicle transportation system.
Following this approach, most of the existing works in the literature are centered on delivering data to or from moving vehicles by means of WiFi APs opportunistically accessed along their way. Cabernet  has been de- ployed in 10 taxis in Boston and presents a transport protocol to avoid the shortcomings of TCP when dealing with 802.11 networks and a scanning mechanism to reduce delay in the wireless association process. Note that in VARON, ongoing communications are not delayed by the latency in the wire- less association, as data is being transferred by the cellular connection. Note also that authors in  implement timeout optimizations to avoid losses. Similarly, VARON switches to using the WLAN route only if the network is reliable. In relation to that, several works study the most appropriate handoff technique and try to predict WiFi connectivity to avoid losses in the data transfers from or to a vehicle, but very few tackle the issue of vehicle to vehicle communications. Authors in  measure packet delivery ratio and packet inter-arrival time between vehicles that travel together in a 960-km long test drive. However, their measurements base on the transmission of beacons and their successful reception, whereas we look for a more general solution. ViFi , tested in VanLan and DieselNet, modifies the wireless
36 Read more
Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET), a new technology, which is a sub class of Mobile Ad hoc network leverages new paradigm in Vehicle to vehicle communication. VANET forms the communication between vehicles with high mobility and dynamic topology through wireless mesh network. While the dynamic topology architecture of VANET affects the communication between nodes, by losing the data packets without reaching to destination node, it turns out to be an important issue. In this paper the link reliability is established in VANET to reduce the packet loss rate. The combination of VANET and Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) gives the longer connectivity between vehicles. This research helps in improving the reliability of the Gateway node in VANET – UMTS, increasing the packet delivery ratio and decreasing packet drop ratio. An optimized HWMP, a combination of IEEE802.11p and IEEE802.11s is used as a routing protocol. Real Time Packet Loss Estimation (RPLE) algorithm is used to estimate the packet loss rate, in identifying the gateway node by sending few probe packets. By simulating VANET in NS2, packet loss rate is obtained based on distance. And packet loss rate probability density is found using Gaussian Mixture Model. Experiment results show that an accurate gateway node is identified based on real time packet loss estimation algorithm.
identified from the distance or remote location as the number plate can only be extracted once the camera is focused. The newly developed RTA Software can identify the vehicle with number, and additional features can be identified by it appearance i.e. its shape, model, color or style of the body. Therefore, in order to identify a vehicle on road, primarily, its data in terms of its body or appearance is also an important source of information to link-up and that should be retrieved or extracted from its image as well. This information can then be linked to the Data available with Road Transport Authorities and further analysis can be done as deemed fit. The Digital Image processing thus is a vital field in Vehicle Tracking System.
10 Read more
peripheral interfaces and the high frequency execution of the ARM processors make them an attractive choice for real time embedded systems. DSPs are already widely used for applications such as audio and speech processing, image and video processing, and wireless signal processing. Practical applications include surveillance, video encoding and decoding, and object tracking and detection in images and video. The main goal of this work is to design and implement efficient and novel architectures for automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) system using image processing , which operates in high definition (HD) and in real time. Using otsu method and its optimization focused on real time image and video processing for license plate (LP) or number plate localization (NPL), LP character segmentation (NPS) and optical character recognition (OCR) in particular, which are the three key stages of the ANPR process. Its applications include identifying vehicles by their number plates for policing, control access and toll collection. The common guidelines suggest that, to read a number plate, the car should be 50% of the screen height. The height of the vehicle is assumed as 1.5 meters . The recognition will be performed in almost real time, watching cars passing at low –high speed in front of video recording device.
As shown in Figure 1, group 6, 7 and 8 have clearly higher precisions than the other groups. This is due to indexing and query expansion using the expansion lists in Appendix. As have been mentioned, the expansion lists are built based on an examination of the data-set. For example, in Topic 48 “vehicle in South Korea”, “South Korea” normally means the country, so there is not much ambiguity. However, “vehicle” can mean many things, e.g. car, bus, boat. Intuitively, expanding names of different types of vehicle with the word “vehicle” during indexing will boost the precision, because many images are only annotated with specific vehicle names rather than the word “vehicle”. Therefore, after indexing expansion, “car” becomes “car vehicle”. Similarly, we expanded specific animal names with the word “animal”, so “fish” becomes “fish animal”.
The Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) is a technology that uses moving vehicles as nodes in a network to create a mobile network. VANET turns every participating vehicle into a wireless router or node, allowing vehicles to connect with each other in range of approximately 100 to 300 meters thus resulting in a wide range network of vehicles. It is predicted that the first systems that will adapt this technology are cops and fire vehicles to communicate with each other for safety purposes. In VANET, communication takes place between vehicles, or between vehicles and fixed equipment‟s which are road side units and certification authorities. Hence, a VANET generally consists of three network components: road side units (RSUs), on board units (OBUs) or vehicles and certification authorities (CA).
Abstract - This paper presents review on the accident detection techniques and some future possibilities in this field. Now-a- days lots of accidents happen on highways due to increase in traffic and also due to rash driving of the drivers. And in many situations the family members or the ambulance and police authority is not informed in time. This result in delaying the help reached to the person suffered due to accident. Road accidents constitute the major part of the accident. The purpose of the project is to find the vehicle where it is and locate the vehicle by means of sending a message using a system which is placed inside of vehicle system Most of the times we may not be able to find accident location because we don’t know where accident will happen. Our project Real Time Vehicle Tracking and Accident Detection with GPS is designed to avoid such situations.
and prevent overall bending. Ohkami et al. , Nishijaki et al.  investigated the effect of using a curved beam with various sections and different materials under dynamic and static loading both experimentally and numerically. They examined deformation and collapse of the structure. Thou et al.  examined the effect of using two different materials in curve and direct sectors of beams. They showed that using materials with less resistance in a direct section of the beam reduces the overall bending deformation. Tanlak and Sonmez  examined various sections with various thicknesses. They modeled automotive as mass-spring-dumper to simulate the boundary conditions of the thin-walled structure. The chassis front rails include curved beams, direct beams, and bumper beams. Direct and bumper beams must have the maximum energy absorption in front side accident, and curved beams must have the minimum deformation. The chassis front rails of the vehicle under study is shown in Fig. 1. The front chassis rail is permitted for deformation in front side accidents, but the passenger cabinet safety requires having the minimum deformation in accidents In most studies, the chassis front rail is modeled as a cantilever beam, load on the other side [1-13]. Therefore, the boundary conditions are assumed in connection of this beam and the chassis of the vehicle. The performance indicators of these simulations are deformation, specific energy absorption, and impact force.
11 Read more
Enter wings, aero foils, splitters etc., are help the vehicle to increase the grip of the car by aerodynamic means by using downforce with respect to speed. And the faster you go, the more downforce gets created and hence, more grip you will have. It is stupendous amounts of downforce that allow F1 cars to corner as fast as they can. Ironically, it is also downforce that often prevents drivers from chasing each other closely into corners.
The Driving Assistance System (DAS) can reduce the accident rate and enhance driving comfort and safety by providing assistant to drivers timely. As a typical kind of driving assistance system, lane change warning system can help drive be aware of the potential collision danger between ego-vehicle and surrounding vehicles and make judgment on lane change feasibility .we have modified this technique to Advanced Driving Assistance System (ADAS).
A common type of passenger vehicle is used in this experiment. The vehicle is full with 4 passengers and 1 driver. Before the experiment is performed, the vehicle is weighted to determine its center of gravity (COG). This location of COG is important for the position of DAQ and sensors to be installed. The vertical, horizontal and lateral vibrations and roll moment are recorded throughout experiment. The velocity of the vehicle is recorded every 30 seconds and the video and still photos are taken during experiment for observation purposes. Road conditions such as corners, junctions, roundabout and traffic lights are observed and recorded. Figure-2 shows the type of passenger car used in this experiment.
All the results are observed and compared to the heavy vehicle chassis of different materials and steel heavy vehicle chassis with respect to weight, stiffness and strength.By employing a High Strength Steel heavy vehicle chassis for the same load carrying capacity, there is a reduction in weight of 1.5~2%, natural frequency of heavy vehicle chassis are 32%~54% higher than conventional steel chassis and 8~10% stiffer than the steel chassis.
12 Read more
The purpose of a public passenger transport mode is to carry flows of people large enough to generate economies of scale and scope on one or more line services (i.e. transit routes). In relation to fixed resources and a quality of service objective, transport capacity is the maximum volume of flow that can be handled in standard conditions for a limited period. Since the service requires the combination of an infrastructure, a vehicle and a traffic protocol, capacity depends on the arrangements for each of the components: for instance the size and passenger capacity of a vehicle, or the fleet of vehicles available to run over a period. However, every vehicle needs to complete its route, which limits its availability at each spot. Moreover, in each station the flows of passengers boarding and alighting influence the vehicle’s dwelling time, hence the time it takes to complete its route. In other words, flow rates and configuration in space influence local capacity. 1.2 The issue: identifying local capacity in order to plan the network
11 Read more
The function of this chapter is to survey different journals, scholarly articles, books and other sources related to my title. Light vehicle chassis is a major component in an on road vehicle system. This research work contains modeling, design and structural analysis of light vehicle chassis. The FE analysis have been done for a light vehicle chassis model by utilizing commercial finite element analysis software packages like CATIA and ANSYS.
This paper gives design, and implementation of a newly proposed vehicle tracking system, that uses the popular social network as a value added service for traditional tracking system. The proposed tracking system make use of Google maps service to trace the vehicle, each vehicle has an account that contains a posts of Google maps that display the vehicle location on real time mode. A hardware module is inside the vehicle that uses Global Positioning System (GPS) – to detect vehicle location- and Global system for mobile communication (GSM) – to update vehicle location in vehicle account on social network -. System uses the well-known Arduino microcontroller to control GSM-GPS Modem. The proposed system can be used for a broad range of applications such as traffic management and vehicle tracking/ anti theift system, and finally traffic routing and navigation. it can be applied in many business cases, like public transportation, so passengers can track their buses, trains, by following the vehicle account on social network. It also can be used in private business sector as an easy and simple fleet tracking and management system , or can be used by anyone who wants to track his car, or to find his way in case he get lost.