Location information is crucial for most applications and protocol designs in high-speed vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs). In traditional approaches, this is obtained by object tracking techniques that keep tracking the objects and publish the information to the users. In highly dynamic environments, however, these approaches are not efficient as the target objects in VANETs are typically vehicles that present high mobility. Their locations keep changing in a large range so that the tracking and information publication algorithms have to be frequently invoked to obtain the instant locations of the objects. To deal with this problem, we propose a novel approach based on the observation that in high-speed VANET environment, the target objects are strictly constrained by the road network. Their mobilities are well patterned and many patterns can clearly be identified. These patterns can smartly be leveraged so that a large amount of control overhead can be saved. Towards this end, in this article we adopt Variable-order Markov model to abstract Vehicular Mobility Pattern (VMP) from the real trace data in Shanghai. We leverage VMP for predicting the possible trajectories of moving vehicles which help to keep the timely
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Recently, we have started to see a shift on using more realistic simulation models in the simulation evalua- tions. For example, the authors of  issue a ‘A call to arms: It’s time for REAL mobility models’, thus they design and implement a more realistic pedestrian mobility model. In addition, to further improve the validity and credibility of the simulation studies the authors of [4, 5] show that mobility and traffic are interconnected, as well as, implement a more realistic traffic model. The studies show that under more realistic mobility and traffic models the simulation protocol performance better reflects the protocol performance of real deployments. In addition, more realistic vehicular mobility models are implemented [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12]. For example, the authors of  implement a more realistic vehicular model by using the publicly available TIGER (Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing) database from the U.S. Census Bureau, giving detailed street maps for the entire United States of America, and model the automobile traffic on these maps. First, the model can be very complex, since it needs to query the database for every location. Second, the database does not provide any speed limit information for each location. Lastly, the model makes assumptions about the speed distribution and other pertinent parameters. Specifically, the models do not take into account mixed traffic conditions [13, 14].
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This paper presents an overview of the categories of vehicular mobility models and performance metrics used to determine the effectiveness in VANET. In this paper, we have proposed and discussed a new vehicular mobility model, Revival Mobility model that can capture the movement pattern of vehicles at varying levels in detail. We dealt with mobility models such as FMM , MM M , CSM and RMM , which are based on unrealistic maps that can be used to simulate vehicular Adhoc networks (VANETs) . In our perspectives, we investigated the impact of FMM.MMM and RMM on the packet delivery ratio in VANETs. Our results indicate that the feature of RMM using DGRP is comparatively better than other mobility models in terms of packet delivery ratio. Our work provides a sound starting point for further understanding and development of mobility models for VANETs.
simple terms, entity mobility models are those in which the mobility of the nodes is independent of each other. Correlated or group based mobility models are those where movement of a node is dependent on mobility of other nodes. However, it is actually a combination of both of these types that we get to observe in real life. For example, an individual sometimes move as single entities like pedestrians and sometimes move in groups with correlated motion patterns. Vehicular movement can also be cited as an example of correlated mobility model (although we prefer to mention it as a separate class of mobility model) since the movement of a vehicle is highly governed by the motion of other vehicles; for example, the speed of a vehicle moving in queue (such a highway) generally cannot exceed the speed of vehicles ahead of it. Human or sociality based mobility models are those which are governed by human nature and their tendency to socialize. Mobility of an individual may be governed by other human when they socialize and tend to move in groups; for example, group of rescue workers or soldiers. And lastly, vehicular mobility models are those which are governed by nature of vehicular movement on road or highway observed in daily life. Vehicular movement is affected by several factors such as traffic signals, movement of vehicles ahead, lane speed limit, accidents, and so on. Apart from synthetic mobility models, we have the class of real life mobility observed in humans, vehicles, and animals. Some authors prefer to classify the real-life mobility into the following types; pedestrians, vehicles, aerial, dynamic medium, robot and outer space motion.
The simulation is carried out for user mobility in vehicular and pedestrian environment. The throughput of all scheduling algorithms in vehicular mobility is quite less compared to pedestrian mobility. This is because, at higher mobility, the deviation in UE received signal power increases leading to degradation of system performance. Based on the simulation results, we conclude that in a multi cell network with user handover RR scheduling algorithm provides least latency and higher system throughput compared to other scheduling algorithms.
Road accidents are a global public health hazard. The concept of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) enables implementation of wireless communication technologies to realize safety in vehicular environment in response to growing concerns of road accident injuries. Preliminary research findings indicate that majority of vehicular accidents involve non-impaired drivers who, if alerted of the impeding danger, would avoid such crashes. Solutions have been proposed in collision avoidance through cooperative safety applications supported in vehicle-to- vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communications. While the existing protocols relying on pilot carriers adequately address the fixed and low mobility scenarios, high vehicular mobility is perturbed by Doppler shift which renders the existing protocols ineffective by degrading the received signal quality. In this paper a method based on analytical techniques is developed to enhance signal detection by yielding more accurate Doppler shift estimates. Numerical results indicate that the proposed method outperforms the methods based on existing algorithms.
With increasingly demand of mobile communication on the wheels, much work has made comprehensive per- formance comparison among different routing protocols for vehicular networks in city traffic scenarios. In , AODV and OLSR have been evaluated and compared for vehicular networks in urban environment under realis- tic mobility model called vehicular mobility model which is developed in . In , a modified ad hoc on- demand distance vector routing (AODV)  and a mod- ified greedy perimeter stateless routing (GPSR)  are compared under realistic vehicle traces generated by a multi-agent microscopic traffic simulator (MMTS) which simulates the traffic over the real road map of a city in Switzerland. With the vehicular traces generated by the traffic flow simulator Videlio for a small area of Berlin, Lochert et al.  compared the routing algorithm AODV, dynamic source routing, and a geographic source rout- ing approach. All the traces are used as input to NS-2 for simulating the mobility of vehicles in the network. All the previous work assume that vehicular networks are simi- lar to MANETs, sharing the common characteristics such as good network connectivity and low mobility in small regions.
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WiMAX is introduced by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers(IEEE) which is designated by 802.16 to provide worldwide interoperability for microwave access. There are fixed (802.16d) and mobile(802.16e) WiMAX. This technology offers a high speed, secure, sophisticate, last mile broadband service, ensuring a flexible and cheap solution to certain rural access zones. In a fixed wireless communication, WiMAX can replace the telephone company's copper wire networks, the cable TV's coaxial cable infrastructure. In its mobile variant it can replace cellular networks. In comparison with Wi-Fi and Cellular technology, Wi-Fi provides a high data rate, but only on a short range of distances and with a slow movement of the user. And Cellular offers larger ranges and vehicular mobility, but it provides lower data rates, and requires high investments for its deployment. WiMAX tries to balance this situation. WiMAX fills the gap between Wi-Fi and Cellular, thus providing vehicular mobility, and high service areas and data rates .WiMAX is a standards based technology for wireless MANs conforming to parameters which enable interoperability. WiMAX developments have been rapidly moving forward.
Abstract—In this work, an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) is proposed and evaluated. The IDS is evaluated by simulation in presence of rogue nodes that can launch different attacks. The proposed IDS is capable of detecting a false information attack using statistical techniques effectively and can also detect other types of attacks. First, the theory and implementation of the VANET model that is used to train the IDS is discussed. Then an extensive simulation and analysis of our model under different traffic conditions is conducted to identify the effects of these parameters in VANETs. In addition, the extensive data gathered in the simulations is presented using graphical and statistical techniques. Moreover, rogue nodes are introduced in the network and an algorithm is presented to detect these rogue nodes. Finally, we evaluate our system and observe that the proposed application layer IDS based on cooperative information exchange mechanism is better for dynamic and fast moving networks such as VANETs as compared to other techniques available.
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ABSTRACT: Connected and Autonomous Electric Vehicles (CAEVs) will play a vital role in emerging eco-friendly automobile revolution. CAEVs have great potential to operate with higher vehicle efficiency and if they are charged using renewable energy sources that will significantly reduce emissions and dependency on fossil fuels. Autonomous technology integrates better with electric engines. Most Electric Vehicles are built with drive-by-wire systems that replace traditional mechanical control systems with electronic controls, and these systems create a more compatible and flexible platform for autonomous driving technologies. CAEVs offer many potential advantages in terms of sustainable development for environment friendly urban mobility like less environmental pollution, improved safety. This study aims to enumerate the concept, levels of automation, benefits and challenges associated with Connected and Autonomous Electric Vehicles. A shift to Connected and Autonomous Electric Vehicles would not just reshape the entire transportation industry, but also our daily lives. Experts refer to this future as zero crashes, zero emissions, and zero fatalities. Presumably, Connected and Autonomous Electric Vehicles will become smart enough to avoid all collisions, eliminating over 1.25 million traffic fatalities around the world each year. Their battery powered-nature would significantly reduce air pollution, particularly in cities where car density and air pollution are at their highest. Traffic congestion would become a thing of the past, as networked cars would communicate with each other and local infrastructure to seamlessly choreograph traffic movements. The value of such developments is virtually unquantifiable, as people would likely be able to live longer, healthier lives, with more free time.
Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) is a special type of Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) with some unique characteristics like, high mobility, no power constraint, large scale, variable density etc. there is On Board Unit (OBU) to replace node in MANET and Road Side Unit (RSU) to provide infrastructure. VANETs are very dynamic in nature because connection between nodes is very short lived. It is designed for Vehicular to vehicular (V2V) and Vehicular to Infrastructure (V2I) communication . Security in VANETs is important, because the message sent by one vehicle might have important consequences such as accident prevention. There are many possible attacks on VANETs; one of the harmful attacks is Sybil attack.
The paper tries to design a novel location aided routing protocol with the concept of baseline and distance minimization. The protocol has been implemented successfully for a vehicular adhoc network and Manhattan model is utilized. The vehicular movement used a new concept of communication using minimization of distance from base line. The base line was drawn from source to destination node. The discussed protocol seems to work quite well and seems to yield encouraging results. The packet delivery ratio was increased significantly and the average delay was reduced significantly. This shows the efficiency of our algorithm.In future other algorithms can be utilized for the same and our proposed model can be implemented for hybrid networks. Also Meta-heuristic algorithms can be utilized for the same and the performance can be compared with our method. References
With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, namely, particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic systems, are incorporated into the proposed schemes to enhance the accuracy of prediction of link break and congestion occurrence. The experimental results verify the eﬀectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.
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The advancement in technology and networks has led to the introduction of safety systems with vehicles. Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks are one of the emerging areas for emergency situation warning since traffic safety is a concern for everyone. VANETs are Ad-Hoc vehicle networks between vehicles equipped with communication facilities. The application areas of VANETs, includes are autonomous vehicles, warning systems, collision avoidance/notification and traffic optimization. Broadcast storm arises due to frequent contention and collisions in transmission among neighboring vehicles. To limit the number of packet transmissions by Cluster Based Efficient- Broadcast (CBE-B) algorithm. The main aim is to broadcast a messages from farthest node and reduce collisions between the nodes. Due to distributed clustering this protocol can overcome challenges of data broadcast storm. Packets will be then forwarded only to selected vehicles, opportunistically elected as cluster-heads. CBE-B performances have been assessed in vehicular scenarios, mostly highway scenarios and performance are measured in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio and Throughput.
In our proposed simulation, we used NS2.34 to simulate our proposed study, then extracted data from NS2.34 linked to mat lab to draw the performance figures. The simulated performance results obtained using different performance metrics such as throughput, packet delivery ratio (PDR), routing overhead, end-to-end delay, and loss. The following table shows the values of the various parameters used during simulation to evaluate the performance of mobility models in mobile ad hoc network using IEEE802.11 MAC protocol.
On the other hand, researchers have witnessed fresh ad- vances in the research of mobility in ICNs. Tyson et al.  make an investigation on how ICN is analyzing its challenges, sustain mobility, and major research area. Fur- thermore, some other scholars start to merge ICN into MANETs. Oh et al.  current the specifics of CCN in urgent and tactical MANETs and realize a brief linear top- ology test platform to demonstrate the performance of MANETs in CCN. It is observed that all these researches compare two networking schemes through simulations to check whether ICN-based MANETs outperform the trad- itional MANET approaches, without using theoretical analytical tools. Varvello et al.  first look into the spatial design for a content-center MANETs in the view of analytical models. The authors derive a serial of analysis models for a serial of solutions for candidate and compare
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On the other hand, city traffic can be a problem for the self-driving vehicles and safety is a major issue of the current era. This has always been a big concern for the developers of the driverless car, on how to make the car safer for city travel. Andrei Furda, and his colleagues Laurent Bouraoui, Michel Parent and Ljubo Vlacic presented ideas on using VANET systems for intra-vehicular and inter-vehicular communications in their research paper Their research showed great potential as networking of autonomous vehicles will help self-learning which can be used by other vehicles in similar situations, intra-vehicular communication will help increase safety and security of the vehicle by automatic checking and communication between all the modules used for autonomous vehicles implementation, although it was only applicable in areas where sensors and VANET(Vehicular network) systems were deployed.
Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) involves the application of modern digital technologies to increase safety and control on the roads among vehicles. Major objectives of ITS include traffic safety, congestion control, efficiency in traffic flow, reduced air pollution and improved energy efficiency . Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System (C-ITS) handles all the communication in ITS, among different devices in the system . Emerging application of Vehicular Adhoc Network (VANET) is perfectly aligned with the purpose of ITS because it provides such platforms for safer roads with minimum losses. VANET is attracting significant interest from manufacturers and researchers in the wireless networks due to the growing number of applications designed for the safety of passengers. VANETs are adhoc networks that are highly dynamic, with limited access to the network infrastructure and offer multiple services. VANET is a special branch of Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) and provides us with a platform for improving road safety and better movement of vehicles on the road . VANET, is a special branch of ad hoc network, where network nodes consist of vehicles (with on-board units or OBUs) Road-side units (RSUs) and other infrastructure nodes.
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Traffic signals are utilized to assign vehicular and pedestrian right of way they are utilized to advance the deliberate development of vehicular and pedestrian traffic and to anticipate excessive delay to traffic signals ought not to be introduced unless one of the warrant determined by the manual on uniform traffic control devices (MUTCD) has been fulfilled the fulfillment of a warrant is not in itself legitimization for a signal A traffic design investigation must be lead to decide if the traffic signal ought to be introduced the establishment of traffic signals requires sound designing judgment, and must adjust the following, sometimes clashing, and goals:
WiFi (Wireless Fidelity) is another internet based Vehicular communication technology that provides the communication under restriction. This network architecture is beneficial for small range communication. In wireless-LAN architecture this kind of communication is more effective. In such networks, WiFi access points are setup for indoor communication to provide effective secure and fast network communication. The signal strength of this network type is restricted up to small coverage area. The access point installation is performed to improve the power level and coverage area based communication. The ratio signal based data transformation is allowed in this internet communication.