Plasma viremia was quantified using the two different versions of the AMPLI- COR HIV-1 MONITOR test (Roche Diagnostics, Barcelona, Spain), a reverse transcription-PCR-based assay designed for quantifying HIV-1 RNA in plasma (22). Version 1.0 was the original commercial test. The other one was a prototype automated procedure of version 1.5 (COBAS), in which HIV-1 RNA amplifica- tion and detection take place on the COBAS AMPLICOR instrument (9). Both methods differ in the primers used for reverse transcription and PCR, the composition of the reverse transcription-PCR mixture, the thermal cycling pa- rameters, and the internal quantification standard RNA (21, 32). Hypothetically, COBAS provides more reliable viral load data, since it is substantially less influenced by viral subtype (21).
After the initial Delphi round, subsequent rounds might retain all outcomes [55, 57, 125], or some items may be dropped according to prespecified criteria [56, 58]. Whilst there are examples of both approaches in the academic literature, at present there is no empirical evi- dence of whether the decision impacts on the final core set. Retaining all items for all rounds may provide a more holistic approach, enabling participants to score and prioritise the list of outcomes as a whole. If items are dropped between rounds there may be items consid- ered of most importance to some participants which are not present in later rounds and this may hinder their ability to prioritise the remaining items. This may be particularly pertinent when scoring systems require par- ticipants to allocate a certain number of points across all outcomes . In addition, if items are dropped after the first round, participants will not get the opportunity to re-score those outcomes taking into account feedback on scores from other participants. Suppose that a par- ticular outcome is rated highly by patients in round 1 but poorly by other stakeholder groups and that based on prespecified criteria the outcome is dropped. It is plausible that had participants seen that patients rated the outcome highly, other stakeholders would have in- creased their scores such that the outcome would have been retained at the end of round 2.
1. Use a text editor to create a file that lists all the additional files you want to preserve. In this file, type one file name per line. Each file name must be a full path starting with a slash (/). To include comments in the file, type each comment on a separate line and use the pound sign (#) to precede the comment. Leading blanks and tabs are allowed in this file. The following is an example: /usr/local/mysendmail
In an attempt to measure the reliability of the Persian version of the LLIS, its repeatability over a one-week period was evaluated through test-retest and an intra- class correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.96 was obtained for the total scores of the scale. The ICCs of the phys- ical, psychosocial, and functional subscales of the LLIS were 0.927, 0.855, and 0.980, respectively. Because of ethical issue for postponing the treatment and accept- able statistical levels of ICC, only 13 patients were re- cruited for test-retest reliability assessment. However, the original study by Jan Weiss reported the ICCs for the total scores of the LLIS and its subscales as follows: 0.99, 0.97, 0.978, and 0.965, respectively . Thus it is possible to say that the current study showed relatively good stability overtime.
The original version of AKAROA was designed at the Department of Computer Science, University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand, by Associate Pro- fessor K. Pawlikowski and Victor Yau (Computer Science) and Dr D. McNickle (Management). A contribution from Peter Smith (Computer Science) is also ac- knowledged. The project was partially sponsored by Telecom Australia Research Laboratories in Melbourne. The current version (AKAROA II) is a reimplementa- tion by Dr Greg Ewing (Computer Science).
Most of the people presently infected with HIV-1 reside in Africa. The diversity of HIV-1 subtypes that are found in this region of the world necessitates the development of methods capable of quantifying all subtypes equivalently. Here we show that the Gen-Probe HIV-1 viral load assay is highly sensitive for detection of HIV-1 subtypes A, C, and D found in Africa. Although there was a good correlation between the Gen-Probe assay and other commercial assays and a QC-RT-PCR meth- od, the Gen-Probe assay yielded higher values in many cases. The Gen-Probe assay and the newest version of the AMPLI- COR HIV-1 MONITOR assay, which has been designed to minimize subtype differences (version 1.5), yielded very com- parable data using primary isolates from Kenya. Our analyses suggest that the AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR assay version 1.5 is also highly sensitive for the HIV-1 subtypes found in Kenya and in this regard represents an improvement over its predecessor, version 1.0, that is now in commercial use. These data are consistent with previous findings using a panel of viruses from different parts of the world (26). The improved subtype sensitivity likely reflects the fact that the Gen-Probe HIV-1 viral load assay and the AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONI- TOR 1.5 assay were developed at a time when more non- subtype B HIV-1 sequences were available, allowing probe and
shift, cycling, rightshift in number of ways to make the entire bit patterns almost random. The whole operation performed number of times to make the final encrypted text totally random. The authors applied this method on some trivial patterns such as a text which contains all ASCII „1‟ or ASCII „2‟ or ASCII „255‟ etc. Generally any standard method will generate cipher text where same pattern may be repeated. However, the present method applied on the above patterns but the outputs are totally unpredictable. Since the proposed method based on bit levels so therefore, some standard attacks such as brute force attack, known plain text attack, differential attack are not applicable here. The proposed method may be applied in mobile data encryption such as encryption of One Time Pass word(OTP), in android mobile this method may be used to encrypt any kind of data.
The present method is tested for various types of files and it has been able to deliver a satisfactory result. For a given communication, the encryption and decryption process worked smoothly. The result reveals that the process is successful in generating more than 1 cipher text for a given plain text. This method is free from any sort of Brute Force attack, Statistical attack, Known Plain text attack, Known cipher text attack and does not possess any threat to confidentiality. Such a technique can be used effectively for any android applications and any other fields as the process is simple, flexible yet efficient. The authors further aim to work on the present version and extend the present research to a more specific detail, dealing with specific point of a layer rather than the entire layer.
Kelebihan mikroalga adalah mampu menyerap karbondioksida dan nutrien secara efektif dan dapat tumbuh cepat, bisa dipanen dalam empat hingga sepuluh hari, produktivitasnya 30 kali lebih banyak dibanding tumbuhan darat (Zuhdi, 2003). Kelapa sawit, misalnya, perlu waktu 5 bulan, sedangkan jatropa atau jarak pagar perlu 3 bulan. Jika dibanding minyak bumi yang sulit mencari sumbernya dan perlu proses yang rumit dan mahal dalam pengolahannya, maka mikroalga merupakan pilihan yang lebih tepat. Pada 1 hektar ladang minyak bumi hanya bisa disedot 0,83 barrel minyak per hari, sedangkan pada luas yang sama budidaya mikroalga menghasilkan 2 barrel BBN (Sukardi, 2005).
Nannochloropsis sp. Pupuk yang digunakan pada skala laboratorium ini terbuat dari bahan kimia PA (pro analis) dengan dosis pemakaian 1 ml pupuk untuk 1 liter volume kultur. Jenis dan formula pupuk adalah yang sudah umum digunakan yaitu Conwy atau Walne’s medium (tabel 9). Untuk memudahkan pemakaiannya, terlebih dahulu dibuat stok pupuk cair. Pupuk Conwy umum digunakan untuk fitoplankton Chlorophycea atau fitoplankton yang berwarna hijau.
Fairbrother, P., Ure, J., Hanley, J., McCloughan, L., Denvir, M., Sheikh, A., & McKinstry, B. (2014, January 1). Telemonitoring for chronic heart failure: the views of patients and healthcare professionals – a qualitative study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 23, 132-144. Hillestad, R., Bigelow, J., Bower, A., Girosi, F., Meili, R., Scoville, R., & Taylor, R. (2005,
Step 9 Random_Data_Insectsi[x,y]is a list of ordered pairssuch that 1=<x<=255 and 1=<y<=255.Motion_Insectsi[x,y] is stored such that (x-a)2+(y-b)2=r2. Here 2*r<=ymand 2*r<=xm. For each Motion_Insectsi[x,y] such that x=xi and y=yi and data_layer[xi][yi] > 0 then Encri[x][y]=Random_Data_Insectsi[x][x] ^ data_layer[xi][yi]; i=i+1 until i< size of Motion_Insects.
The Decrytion is just the reverse of encryption process. The last operation in encryption should be the first operation in Decryption. In case of decryption first y-decryption is done and after that x-decryption is done. The decryption process for 1-dimension i.e. MWFES ver-1 is already described. In 2dMWFES decryption the y-direction decryption to added in addition to x-axis decryption.For odd and even dimension a minor adjustment in decryption method is to be used.