Conclusions and applications of findings: The soybean farm saved-seed germination and vigor were significantly influenced by agro-ecological conditions. Considering that seed moisture, content in the lower warmer agroecologies was significantly lower than those from higher cooler agroecologies the observed seed deterioration was attributable to the higher temperatures characteristic of lower altitudes agro-ecologies. Therefore, since the farm saved seed viability and vigor was better retained in the cooler higher agroecological zones (UM2, UM3 and LM3) of Meru South Sub-County, farmers should source better quality soybean seed from these areas. The results validate the need for ecological zoning of suitable areas for the production of high quality soybean seed in Kenya.
1696 | Page test, but not enough sufficient. The vigor of the plant is another factor that is part of this exercise. Vigor is the potential for the establishment and good growth of the plantlets. Physiological quality of seeds as determined by an emergence test is not enough to predict storage potential of seeds (Stumpf et al., 1997).Viability of embryos was determined from intact seeds using tetrazolium dye after Cho and Sanders (2009). Briefly, intact seeds were soaked overnight in water to soften the seed coats which were then carefully excised with a scalpel under a dissection micro- scope. After seed coats were removed, embryos were soaked in the dye solution (5%, w/v) in the dark for a minimum of 24 h. Viable embryos stained red, while non-viable embryos remained an unstained white color. Germinated seeds were subdivided into those with a V-shaped opening and fragments identified by an attached pedicel.
Oil palm seeds respond well to protocols of dormancy break, however, the seeds of interspecific hybrid (HIE) (caiaué × oil palm) have lower germination rates. The mechanical depulping can af- fect the potential of germination of seeds, therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanical depulping on the seed germination, vigor and viability of embryos HIE BRS Manicoré. A randomized block design with five treatments, based on the depulping time and on the percen- tage of mesocarp on the seed with four replications was used. The percentage of seed germination, the germination speed index (GSI), the percentage of fungi and abnormal seeds and vigor and via- bility of embryos were evaluated. There was no statistical difference (p < 0.05) between treat- ments for all variables. The average of germination at 35 days was 45.34% and embryos showed high to medium vigor by the tetrazolium test. The mechanical depulping do not affect the seed germination, nor the viability and vigor of embryos HIE BRS Manicoré. It is recommended that the fruits of HIE BRS Manicoré remain in depulper machine for 40 minutes to completely remove the mesocarp residue.
The association between viability and vigor is well described by the seed quality (or germination) curve (Fig. 1) developed by Bird and Reyes (1967) and confirmed by Bourland and Ibrahim (1982). Until cottonseed have been conditioned for germi- nation by exposure to heat and moisture (factors of deterioration), they will not produce maximum germination even under favorable conditions. Maximum germination is attained by conditioning the seed with incremental exposure to heat and moisture, which typically occurs after boll opening and prior to harvest, but can occur during process- ing and storage or even after the seed are planted. Once maximum germination is attained, additional exposure to heat and moisture causes germination to decline. If a seed lot having standard germina- tion of 80% is entering the conditioned stage (left of the curve apex), the seed would be vigorous. A second seed lot can also have 80% germination but might be entering the deteriorated stage (right of the curve apex) and, thus, have low vigor. Therefore, standard germination tests can provide estimates of both viability and vigor if the conditioning status of the seed can be established.
From sowing to harvest, three viability parameters (Duration of germination (DGe), Rate of germination (RGe) and Speed of germination (SGe)), five vigor parameters (Duration of emergence (DEm), Rate of emergence (Rem), Speed of emergence (Sem), Length of seedlings (LS) and weight fresh of seedlings (FWS)), one vegetatif parameter (length of plant) and one production parameter (Number of fruits per plant (FrPl)) were collected. Then five others production parameters were completed after harvest (Weight of fruit (WFr), Number of seeds per fruit (NSeFr),: Weight of seeds per fruit (WGrFr), Weight one hundred seeds per fruit (W-100Fr), Yield (Yld).
ty was assessed through the germination standard test, and vigor through the first germination count, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, seedling length, seedling dry matter and biomass density tests. The experimental design was the completely randomized, with four replications. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and when significant effects were observed, the Scott- Knott test was carried out at 5% probability using the SISVAR 5.1 software. The results showed that: a) the application of 1.875 L·ha −1 of glyphosate was harmful to pigeonpea seed viability and
Rhizobacterial seed treatment significantly increased the viability and vigor of the rice seed treated in terms of vigor index, seed germination, and seed performance. In this analysis, four isolates were selected with the potential to help the development of rice seed, namely M5, RJ6, L1, and LA6. There is a need for more work to obtain isolates that are active in enhancing the growth of isca nuts.
The voltage drop incurred within the vigour supply in brand new VLSI chips to is a major hindrance referred to as vigor-provide noise. In sub one-volt give voltage, noise of very few enormous quantities millivolts factors circuit malfunction. The motive for energy provide noise is the quick and simultaneous transistor switching. At the same time the good judgment sign switching is unfold across the entire clock cycle, the switching of the clock tree and the sequential circuits are occurring at the same time, causing excessive local present peaks. The clock related transistor switching is the fundamental contributor to power give noise. This paper proposes to spread the switching of clock tree drivers in an try to decrease the peakcurrent, while preserving
The hybrid seeds of several important crops with supreme qualities, including yield, biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, have been cultivated from decades. Thus far, a major challenge with hybrid seed, it does not hold ability to produce plants with same qualities over subsequent generations. Apomixis exist naturally an asexual mode of reproduction in flowering plants via avoiding meiosis and ultimately leads to seed production. Apomixis possess potential to preserve hybrid vigor for multiple generations for economically important plant genotypes. The evolution and genetics of asexual seed production is unclear and need much more efforts to find its genetic architecture. To fix hybrid vigor synthetic apomixis has been suggested an alternative. The development of MiMe (Mitosis instead of Meiosis) genotypes are utilized further for clonal gametes production. However, the identification and parental origin of genes responsible for synthetic apomixis are less known and need further understanding. Genome modifications utilizing genome editing technologies (GETs) like clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (cas9) a reverse genetics tool has paved way to utilize emerging technologies in plant molecular biology. From the last decade, several genes in important crops have been successfully edited. The vast availability of GETs has made the functional genomics studies easy to conduct in crops important for food security. The disruption of expression of genes specific to egg cell MATRILINEAL (MTL) or BABY BOOM1 (BBM1) through CRISPR/Cas genome editing system can promote haploid plants. The establishment of synthetic apomixis by engineering MiMe genotype by genome editing BBM1 expression or disruption of MTL leads toward clonal seed production. In present review, we discussed the current development in plants by utilizing CRISPR/Cas9 technology and its possibility of promoting apomixis in crops
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reward rate. However, one might hypothesize that evolu- tion has favored increased vigor with increased reward rate even when this is not formally advantageous, as a Pavlovian effect. Our effect is of this nature because the baseline reward was delivered independently of perfor- mance and the performance-dependent reward was fixed. Such a Pavlovian effect might explain why reward (or its prediction) sometimes exerts an influence on be- havior that might seem paradoxical (Rigoli, Pezzulo, & Dolan, 2016; Rigoli, Pavone, & Pezzulo, 2012; Dayan, Niv, Seymour, & Daw, 2006; Berridge & Robinson, 1998; Mackintosh, 1983; Williams & Williams, 1969). For instance, this is relevant in some forms of impulsivity in which performance decreases with reward in con- texts where less vigorous behavior is more appropriate (Guitart-Masip, Fuentemilla, et al., 2011). By design, a larger baseline reward was associated with a decreased ratio between performance-contingent and noncontin- gent reward. In some contexts such as decision-making under risk, research has shown an endowment effect, which prescribes that agents treat the portion of reward dependent on choice/performance as larger when the portion of reward independent of performance is smaller (Kahneman et al., 1991). This would have led our partic- ipants to show increased vigor with smaller baseline re- ward, exactly contrary to our findings. An important difference between our task and other tasks in which an endowment effect has emerged is that, in the former, reward is delivered after an action is performed, whereas in the latter, the endowment is provided before making a choice. This might entail a different framing in such a way that a reward not yet collected might be attributed a higher weight, hence increasing Pavlovian vigor, whereas a reward collected already might increase a reward refer- ence point and hence underweight the impact of future expected rewards.
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The voltage drop incurred within the vigour supply in brand new VLSI chips to is a major hindrance referred to as vigor-provide noise. In sub one-volt give voltage, noise of very few enormous quantities millivolts factors circuit malfunction. The motive for energy provide noise is the quick and simultaneous transistor switching. At the same time the good judgment sign switching is unfold across the entire clock cycle, the switching of the clock tree and the sequential circuits are occurring at the same time, causing excessive local present peaks. The clock related transistor switching is the fundamental contributor to power give noise. This paper proposes to spread the switching of clock tree drivers in an try to decrease the peakcurrent, while preserving the clock sign pleasant and low skew at the some distance finish tree’s leaves where the sequential circuits are related. A strategy of mobilephone switching characterization was oncdeveloped for fast computation of peak-current and other indicators parameters. This computation is embedded in a branch and certain tree traversal. We endorse a novel optimization algorithm centered on clock tree delay-invariant branch transformation, replacing low-threshold by means of excessive-threshold and smaller measurement drivers. The algorithm used to be applied in forty nanometers design. We completed a reduction of 50% of clock-tree peakcurrent.. I. INTRODUCTION
In a similar study about the dispersion of Fabaceae seeds in the faeces of bovines in open fields,  also found a higher number of kudzu plants when comparing to macrotiloma, to calopo, and to estilosantes. The author relates these results to the efficiency in overcoming dormancy and degradation in the passage of the seeds through bovine GIT. Additionally,  stated that the passage of the seeds through the digestive system of birds that spread seeds increases the percentage of germination and the vigor of Cecropia pachystachya in the cerrado region in central western Brazil.
Observing the Table 4, it can be realized that during the periods of immersion, there is an increase of quantity of electrolytes released by seeds, demonstrating the influence of immersion period of seeds on the quantity of solutes leached into the solution. This was also reported by Paiva et al. (2008) for macrotyloma seeds, Machado et al. (2011), for ground pea seeds and Vazquez et al. (2011), for sorghum seeds. In the combination of 25 seeds in 25 mL of water, after two hours of immersion, was possible to observe that lot 1 was superior, lot 3 and 4 intermediate and the lot 2 inferior. During all the period of immersion the classification of lots in three levels of quality, being the lot 1 the superior quality, the 3 and 4 of intermediate quality and the lot 2 inferior, was maintained until the 24h, period final of testIn the combination of 25 seeds with 50 mL and 50 mL seeds with 75 mL, only after 6h and 22h of immersion respectively, it was possible the separation of lots in three levels of quality. This occurs due to the initial liberation of electrolytes be intense in the beginning of the immersion of seeds in water, becoming difficult the distinction of quality between the lots (Vieira and Kryzanowski, 1999). In the treatment involving 50 seeds in 50 mL of water after two hours of immersion, already was possible to observe that the lot 1, presented higher physiological potential. However, the period of 2 hours was not enough to point significant differences of vigor between the lots 2 and 3. After 14 hours of immersion, was possible to classify the lots in four levels of quality, being the lot 1 of higher quality, followed by the lots 4, 3 and 2 respectively. According Menezes et al. (2007), with the increase of the period of immersion of seeds, the quantity of leachate released by the seeds more vigorous will be stabilizing, between others facts, by the reorganization of membranes, favoring the classification of lots in level of quality. Lopes and Franke (2010), working with ryegrass seeds, also found better distinction of lots using 50 seeds in 50 mL.
al., 2001; Buckley & Huang, 2011; Dode et al., 2013). However, those tests demand time and skilled labor, and have high operating costs, limiting its diffusion in seed testing. Additionally, the results are divergent with respect to the association of vigor with the concentration of carbon dioxide released. Carbon dioxide can also be measured by means of infrared spectroscopy (Vermeulen et al., 2013; Patanè & Avola, 2013; Dantas et al., 2015). This technology makes it possible to analyze non-destructive samples and repeated measurements of a single seed or even a seed sample, whether in dry state or with ongoing germination in a short time. However, there is little information about its use in the evaluation of seed vigor.
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Aptitude to take the tough decisions appropriately makes the intellectual the business leader in the corporate arena. Tough times develop the intellectual skills in the public. Present study aims at finding whether Indian intellectuals’ vigor the tough decisions in tough times or not. Study gives the mixed results where majority of intellectuals were found to put off or postpone the tough calls whereas some of intellectuals take the changes as a challenge and take initiatives in this regard. Exceptional ones are often found in few facts that means results of the study are valid and can be generalized.
The wheat cultivar used was TBIO Iguaçu which was sown into polyethylene trays filled with a solodic, haplic, eutrophic planosol (albaqualf) from the Pelotas mapping unit. The soil was previously amended accordingly to soil analysis in which nitrogen fertilization was accomplished using 70 g of urea m -3 of soil, phosphorous fertilization through the application of 140 g of triple superphosphate m -3 of soil and potassium was provided via 140 g of potassium chloride m -3 of soil. Drip irrigation was used to maintain field capacity. The treatments were composed by the following sowing depths 20, 30, 40 and 50 mm, obtained with the use of a ruler, scaled to millimeter. Vigor expression and physiological characteristics of initial growth were evaluated by the following variables:
Plants were grown in the field from 2012 to 2014, chemical composition was determined in 2012, and phenotyping of agronomic traits was performed in 2013. Due to a large loss of plants during the winter following the 2013 season, no phenotyping could be performed in 2014. Plant height was determined as the distance from the soil to the last leaflets of stretched plants in spring (HSp) and summer (HSu). Plant vigor (Vigor) was scored visually on a scale from 1 (very weak) to 9 (very strong). Susceptibility to rust disease (caused by Uromyces onobrychidis) was also visually scored on a scale from 1 (non-susceptible, no disease occurrence) to 9 (highly susceptible, high disease occurrence). Flowering time (FT) was recorded as the number of days after May 1st, when a plant showed three or more open flowers. Seed yield was measured as the total number of seeds per plant in 2013 (SN), as described by Kempf et al. (2015).
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With the search for new sources of vegetable raw material for biodiesel production, the crambe ) emerges as an alternative because of its high oil content, around 40%. Therefore it is necessary to know more about these species and the germination behavior of its seeds. Among the factors that affect germination, the main are temperature and light. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of temperature and light on germination and vigor of crambe seeds. Crambe seed of cv Brilhante FMS were used and submitted to three temperatures (15, 25 and e and absence of light). The following tests were performed: germination, first count of germination, germination speed index, percentage of abnormal seedlings and seeds no germinated. Data were submitted to analysis of variance. Means were compared by ey test at 5% and regression analysis was performed. The germination and vigor of crambe seeds was higher at 25 °C in the dark. The presence of light reduced the germination and seed vigor at 15
Dimensions of Employee Engagement.  defined engagement as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind. Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UEWS) was developed by ) to measure dimensions of work engagement based on Vigor, Dedication and Absorption. Vigor was defined as an employee who having a high level of energy and mental resilience while working. Vigor is known as the first step in work engagement. Employee with high level of Vigor willing to invest effort in their work and remain persistence even they face difficulties. Dedication is characterized by having a mind of inspiration, pride and enthusiasm in what the employee has done when encountered with work-related challenges . It is a second step of engagement which referred as the emotional side of work engagement and the effort of people to spend time in doing something meaningful. Absorption means a characteristic of an individual being fully concentrated and happily engrossed on their work where they experience difficulty to detach themselves from his work . Absorption is also known as third step of engagement. These employee engagement dimensions consider engagement in terms of the employee’s relationship with his or her work, as well as occupational role and organization .
A wide range of biochemical changes occurred during seed priming which was crucial for germination, i.e., breaking of dormancy, hydrolysis or metabolism of inhibitors, imbibitions and enzymes activation Ajouri et al. . Researcher demonstrated that the priming process that antedate the germination is boosted by priming and preserved following the re-desiccation of the seed Asgedom and Becker . Primed seed can rapidly consume and resuscitate the seed metabolism, as a result germination percentage was increased and the physiological heterogeneity was triggered down Rowse . Moreover, seed priming most likely grants some fix-up of damage to membrane caused by deterioration and resulted in better germination pattern and higher vigor level compared with non-primed seeds Jisha et al.  and Ruan et al. . Priming showed reviving effects in the early stages of germination by the mediation of cell division in germinating seeds Hassanpouraghdam et al. . Similar mechanisms seem to perform in the course of our experiments so that PEG-primed seeds resulted in higher germination attributes and rapid seedling growth under osmotic stress. Hydropriming significantly boost germination rate Ghassemi-Golezani et al.  and is a useful technique for optimized overall germination Maiti et al.  and these beneficial effects of hydropriming have been attributed to the mobilization in embryonic tissues of enzyme activities required for rapid seed germination and of compounds such as free amino acids, proteins, and soluble sugars from storage organs Ashraf and Foolad . Farooq et al.  proposed that physiological changes exerted by osmohardening increased the starch hydrolysis and made more sugars available for embryo growth which enhances germination. Baque et al.  reported that 10% PEG was best for improved germination behavior of wheat. The report of the Sun et al.  revealed the compatible PEG concentration were 20% for Gangyou 527 (indica hybrid rice) and 10%-15% for Nongken 57 (conventional japonica rice). During germination, PEG concentration above the optimum level had adverse effects. Singh and Gill  reported that over-priming (KNO 3 ) might be