regions throughout the last three decades, mainly towards Mbeya and Morogoro regions. The settlement in new locations, where migrants are allocated village land, is directed by village authorities. Nowadays not only there are pastoralist-only villages, but many villages include “pastoralist hamlets” which, contrarily to the ordinary multi -ethnic nature of villages, display an aspect of ethno-cultural homogeneity. In Mbeya region (Mbarali district) village authorities have encouraged agro-pastoralists with large herds to settle in remote hamlets, separated from the village core. At least in part, this settlement pattern derives from past practices, established during villagisation, of creating a buffer zone between pastures and farms, to minimise land use conflicts and farm contamination. Unfortunately, agroecological concerns have often reinforced a legacy of social and political marginalisation of pastoralists, within an atmosphere of hostility and bias against them at the level of the central government (Benjaminsen et al. 2009; Askew 2013 et al.). In Morogoro region (Kilombero district) what emerged from participant observation in the assemblies of two villages which had pastoralist hamlets is that pastoralist groups tended to engage village institutions rather than passively accept their marginalised status. Young pastoralist men often recorded the assemblies with their mobile phones, to report back to those who could not attend; made it a point to intervene and speak out on contentious issues; and actively referred to the ujamaa political legacy to spearhead their causes. Part of this legacy is the strong condemnation of political manipulation of ethno-cultural identities; this principle is at the core of the day to day functioning of village assemblies (fieldwork notes, July and August 2014). Gender equality
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This paper focuses on participatory testing of decision making tools (DMTs) at village level to as- sist in development of land use plans (LUPs) for sustainable land management (SLM) in Kiliman- jaro Region, Tanzania. Data were collected using conditional surveys through key informant in- terviews with the project’s district stakeholders in each district, focused group discussions with selected villagers and participatory mapping of natural resources. Soil health, land degradation, carbon stock, and hydrological conditions were assessed in the seven pilot villages in all seven districts using DMTs as part of testing and validation. Results indicated soils of poor to medium health, and land degradation as portrayed by gullies and wind erosion in lowlands and better in uplands. Carbon and forest disturbance status could not be assessed using one-year data but hy- drological analysis revealed that water resources were relatively good in uplands and poor in the lowlands. Challenges with regard to land use include increased gully erosion, decreased stream flow, reduced vegetation cover due to shifting from coffee with tree sheds to annual crops farming, cultivation near water sources, and overgrazing. Empowering the community with decision mak- ing tools at village level is essential to ensure that village land uses are planned in a participatory manner for sustainable land and natural resources management in Kilimanjaro and other regions in Tanzania.
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Another good example, has been in Mvomero within Mkindo Ward where a suit has been lodged at the District Land and Housing Tribunal of Morogoro at Morogoro and has been decided to its finality but yet still the land dispute has not come to at halt. This was the case between Kambala Village Council Vs Jaribu Mwishee and 19 Others, 208 where later on the Villages of Mkindo, Dihombo, Kigugu and Hembeti joined the proceedings. The applicant’s claim was that Kambala village be declared the sole registered owner of the village suit land and for the order that the Respondents be evicted from the suit land and perpetual prohibition against the Respondents not to invade the suit land. Despite the rue fact from the records that the suit dragged in Court for almost ten years, possibly with good cause, the existing records show that the area in dispute that is bogo suburb, commonly known as Mgongola basin was situated at Kambala village. 209 The decision of the District Land and Housing Tribunal was issued on 02/06/2015, among other things, nullifying the certificate of village land of Kambala, No. 006 MVDC and ordering for verifying boundaries of the villages and establishment of buffer zone of seventy meters wide to separate the farm land from the pastoral areas through permanent beacons demarcating the area. From the time, the decree was so issue, there was efforts employed by the Applicants to appeal and staying the execution of the decree at the High Court of Tanzania at Dar Es Salaam but the an application for stay was not sustained thus struck out on 03/11/2015. But an appeal is still pending at the High Court of Dar Es Salaam.
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In Tanzania, major changes in political regimes and socio-economic policies of 1985-1995 which fostered widespread policy reform processes, and which were heavily backed by foreign donors, led to the wider promotion and adoption of VLFRs as a common Community Based Forest Management (CBFM) carried out in village lands (URT, 2007; Blomley & Idd, 2009; Roe et al., 2009). Since its establishment, more than 3.6 million ha have come under community manage- ment or co-management between the community and local or central govern- ment till 2008 (Blomley & Idd, 2009; Roe et al., 2009). According to Kajembe et al. (2005), despite the widespread of the participatory forest management within which CBFM systems are encompassed, little is clearly known about what has been achieved in terms of improvement of VLFRs themselves and the people’s welfare. The national and local focus on forest protection rather than conserva- tion has made CBFM unrealistic, hence accelerating deforestation, because the poor local communities, whose survival depends entirely on forest, are to protect them while also to a greater extent, also need of them (Kajembe et al., 2005; World Resource Institute, 2005).
This paper attempts to examine the change in the occupational distribution of workforce and access to land with special reference to marginalized groups in the post-independence period considering a case study of Gudiwada village of Nalgonda district in Telangana state. From our analysis of the data on land distribution among the households shows that, huge inequality exists among the social groups. In the village SCs and STs are deprived from having the land. Over the period land has been transformed from the others to OBCs but not to the SCs and STs. There is small increase in the land holding situation of SCs over the 40 years and there is no change in the STs land holdings situation. There exists a clear discrimination in accessing the land. Over the 1830 acres of the village land, only 28 acres of land on the name of the female in the 2016-17. Gender discrimination is visible both in landholdings and in wage. Only in case of MGNREGA female labour are getting more or less equal wage along with male labour. Within the households gender equality in terms of decision making is observed among the SC and ST households. It is also found that the gap between marginal farmers and agricultural laborers and rich farmers in terms of monthly per capita consumption is wide. Hence, special measures like strict implementation of land reforms, redistributing surplus land, waste lands among marginalized agricultural laborers and marginal farmers required to be taken up on priority while implementing the programmes, which improve their economic asset base and skills particularly education as it enables them to shift to non-farming employment.
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Land use and land cover change has become a central constituent in existing strategies for organization of natural resources and monitoring environmental changes. City expansion has brought severe losses of water bodies, cultivation land, and vegetation. Land use land cover change is accountable for a variety of urban and rural environmental issues like increased runoff, decreased air quality, increased local temperature, , deterioration of water quality and subsequent flooding, , etc. In this work we have taken Audipudi village of karamchedu mandal as a case study. The village land use and land cover changes that took place in comparing the land use changes in 1988, 2002 and 2006 . Remote sensing and GIS methodology is adopted to study the geographical land use changes occurred during the study period. Satellite Imagery- IRS1D, LISS-III (23mt resolution) data and high resolution IRS P6 LISS IV MX with the resolution of 5.8 x5.8 mt) of three different years are taken into consideration. After pre- processing of the image, unsupervised classification has been performed to categorize the images in to unlike land use categories. Classification precision is as well expected using the field information obtained on or after field surveys. Information, land use and land cover change study is very useful to local government and micro level planners for sustainable development and betterment of the city or Village.
I. It has been seen the incontrovertible fact that republic of India lives in her villages and would still do therefore. However speedy urbanization and subsequent haphazard growth of cities has resulted in neglecting of villages. It cause deterioration of infrastructure facilities, health hazards, loss of agricultural land and water bodies, besides several micro-climatic changes perturbing the ecological balance. Further, there's exodus of population, driven by lack of adequate facilities/opportunities in villages, from rural to urban areas. Although the urban regions have developed quicker as compared to rural, the fundamental objective of a balanced development of various regions has still remained a foreign dream. Instead, this has widened the gulf between the developed (urban) and also the less developed regions (rural), thereby making islands of prosperity. Therefore there's associate imperative got to cut back the cleavage between the agricultural and also the urban areas through acceptable development designing for the villages. The information technology is one such important creation that has modified the size of man‟s thinking and created him terribly powerful for the capabilities of IT on data, analysis, storage, sharing, transmission, presentation and higher cognitive process anytime anyplace. Village GIS tool, with a proverb „turning information into information‟, generated within the gift study integration the abstraction village maps with non-spatial or tabular data from the NIC system, has incontestable its potential for grass-root level development designing taking into thought the native desires and constraints. 
In the natural climatic conditions of Poland, forests are an eternal, most durable plant involu- cre of the area [Koreleski 1997]. Grubbing forests in order to acquire land for agricultural cultivation has resulted launching many negative processes. Original luxuriant vegetation was replaced by monoculture crops. Varied animal world of for- est ecosystems, in large part have been replaced by plant pests for which the main base of food are the same plants that are used by a man. As a result of lower water retention in arable land than in the forest, the risk of both drought and floods increase. In many places water and wind erosion of soil was launched [Ziemnicki 1967].
Before the Partitions in Wielkopolska region, agrarian and social reforms were sporadic. With the seizure of Polish lands by Prussia in 1793, efforts began to make the occupied Polish lands similar to the Prussian lands. Actions aimed at land classification for fiscal purposes were carried out. The Prussian authorities also sought to conduct German colonisation. In this way, they wanted to strengthen their power in a relatively small area of the Grand Duchy of Poznań (Groniowski, 1976 ). After 1815 – following the re-occupation of Polish lands by Prussia - the Grand Principality of Poznań was established based on the decisions of the Vienna Congress. In its territory, the Prussian power gradually began to implement rural relations in the Prussian style. The law announced in 1823 had a wider range than in other provinces of Prussia. The act covered peasants who owned farms over 25 acres and which existed since 1772. (Only after the People's Spring - in 1850, the Prussian authorities extended the regulations to smaller farms). The Act of 1823 assumed the appropriation of peasants and the separation of peasant and court lands (§65). In addition to the liquidation of the chessboard, the Act provided for the land consolidation and the liquidation of the three-field system. A new division of fields was also carried out. Newly defined fields were to be, if possible, in one piece and have a good communication connection with peasant buildings (§ 66). The act made it possible to create new peasant farms or to expand existing ones. The act also made it possible to transfer fields and farm buildings to the territory of the same village or to the territory of the neighboring village (belonging to the same owner) if it was to contribute to better land management. (§71) According to the Act, the reconstruction of the village could only take place at the request of the squire and it was he who incurred the cost of such reconstruction as well as he was obliged to reward the peasant (§71). If in the village there were limestones, marl, peat, clay and they belonged to the owner of the land, they were left with him after regulation. Before regulating, the peasants could have the right to use these minerals together. After the regulation, they could retain this right or if they could not use it anymore, then they were paid for it. The act also assumed the liquidation of the servitudes -
The results of a land unit in a map or Land Map Unit (SPL) are obtained from overlapping slope maps slope, soil depth map, and land use map. where in this research the sampling method soil and litter based on purposive sampling method, laboratory analysis for each selected data function (Minimum Data Set / MDS) indicator MDS is then summed to find out the Soil Quality Index (IKT), using statistical analysis, correlation test, and non correlation test parametric Spearmans to find out the relationship between people's perceptions with IKT. Also this research showed that the Soil Quality Index in various systems land use which has the highest IKT is the land of TP fields equal to 33.3, the lowest IKT on TK moor is 29.4. Most indicators effect on the IKT of soil porosity (r = 0.739). so fertilization is recommended by using manure to improve soil physical, chemical and biological properties with the dosage of using manure originally 2-3 tons ha-1 to 20 ton ha-1 , management of litter by being buried and made compost, arrangement cropping patterns between annual plants (teak plants, cashew, melinjo), plants annuals (cassava plants, peanuts, corn), and conservation plants (Setaria grass), planting cover crops, repairing bench terraces with good construction and making rorak, activities need to be carried out counseling on conservation actions carried out serially on the village area of Tembung Tambak Rejo.
This happened in November 1947. Eight months later the central government issued the “Land Reform Law of People’s Republic of China”. Then a vigorous movement of land reform was widely carried out throughout the whole country. Since the foundation of China, all rulers have kept thinking about how to help famers make fortunes out of land. The land reform became the authority’s first choice. By granting the redundant land of landlords to poor peasants and farm laborers, the cultivators realized dream of their land. Having got their own land, the farmers were expected to enjoy endless happiness. Just in this way Xu xiaoguo became the first gold rushers of Doujiaowan Village after the foundation of China. Xu xiaoguo is 80 years old now. All Xu xiaoguo’s ancestors and generations have been settled in village and they are all typical farmers only caring about soil all the time.
Funding must be made available to integrate land use planning and transport provision. An underlying root cause explaining the increased use of private car in Ireland is the dispersed settlement pattern which itself is a product of rapid growth in population and incomes, the search for affordable housing, the absence of affordable clusters of housing or sites available adjacent to schools, and public transport, and life style preferences. There has been substantial greenfield development far from urban areas without the development of associated transport systems to facilitate commuting to employment centres and associated social, health and education services. The integration of planning and future transport systems is a fundamental requirement in order to arrest this trend – capacity building, support for provision of water supply, waste treatment, schools and other infrastructure at key transport nodes should be developed to appropriate scale and scope. This should not be demand driven. If the supply if provided, the demand will follow.
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The geometrically corrected LISS IV & CARTOSAT -1 merged data, within the desired Framework is the initial input for LULC classification and mapping. Data on themes like wasteland, forest, vegetation etc. will create an important source of reference for LULC classification. Before using them these legacy layers may be required to be re-projected as per the current mapping specifications. The land use /land cover map of 2012 and 2018 is shown in fig 1 and fig 3 respectively.
Land is defined as the solid surface of the earth that is not covered by water. Any developmental activity is nearly impossible to conceive without taking land into consideration. Land administration is about registering land rights not only to secure these rights for the well-being of individual owners but also to support good governance and sustainable development. How to register relationships between land and people? What is the value of land and what is its use? These are some of the questions related to land administration and to maintain land administration systems. Land administration systems are about addressing these problems by providing a basic infrastructure for implementing land related policies and land management strategies to ensure social equity, economic growth and environmental safety. 
It is worth mentioning that there were software programs used in the processes of comparing of satellite imageries of the concerned areas such as (ARCMAP) in which the data was inserted, corrected and processes according to the objectives of the study and ERDAS image in 2015 program through which the above mentioned processes was done. In addition, that some spatial improvement, spectral, distinctiveness, special equation was used for separating water from the land to know the effect of water erosion on the eastern bank of Detang Village as a study area by comparing a number of satellite imageries of different years from 1973 to 2016. Thus, the year 1973, was chosen as the basic period of the comparison process because there was no satellite imagery for that period. Also, there was no change in the area of the Island and its eastern bank during that period.
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The investigation of the Bhyari landslide was carried out on the large scale (1/1000) cadastral map of Bhyari village. Extensive GPS aided longitudinal and transverse in different phases were conducted along the road, foot path, over the landslide zone and agricultural fields in the study area. Effects and measures were under taken and information was collected during field visit. All the revenue maps of Bhyari village were digitized and thematic information layers were stored and managed in GIS spatial data base. Detailed morphological features of landslide exposures were marked on the map. The early revenue map has been compared with existing land records and change detection was quantitatively analyzed for landslide.
Further he added, ‘This place is my birth place. We are using her for our livelihood. We are getting huge revenue from the bettle vine (panabaraj), Peddy cultivation, and fishing. A ten year child can earn upto Rupees 10,000 per month from the peddy cultivation. There is no other place where peddy cultivation is done twice in a year except Erasama block. From fishing also good revenue is collected. With one bettle vine (panabaraj) one can easily live his/her life. That person can earn one to two lakh per year. The company can never give them that amount in exchange of panabaraj. How long we can live with the compensation given by the company by taking out our livelihood. What will happen to the future of these people? That’s why I am involved in the movement. To protect peddy, Bettle & fish culture (Dhana,Pana,Mina), I have organized movement. On what right, a foreign company can snatch the livelihood of these innocent people. The company is going to grab the livelihood of these innocent people and to protect them I have started the movement. Further he said when I started this protest I became the target of Government, Police and the company people. After the starting of the movement, I am unable to go out of this area. Police has kept a look close at me. I am hidden myself in the villages. I stayed in outs and thousands of women keep guarding around me. Even I don’t know how my life has been spent for last seven years. I cannot go outside. Because of this, we have a gate around the Dhinkia village beyond that gate, I am unable to go to my own village also”. Every member of PPSS are positively involved in the movement. We are demanding justice from the company and state Government. “We will win and POSCO will go from here” he said “Until POSCO moves back, this movement will go on” he concluded.
Land consolidation plays an important role in the consolidation of farmlands and in the im- provement of spatial structure of Polish agricul- ture. One of the primary objectives of land con- solidation is “the transformation of the spatial structure of fragmented plots, distributed in a checkerboard pattern, into shapely plots with con- venient access” [Sobolewska-Mikulska, Pułecka, 2007]. The process of land consolidation elimi- nates enclaves, semi-enclaves, straightens the boundary lines of villages, and also designs a new communication system of rural areas. It also al- lows access to plots and reduces the distance be- tween the habitation and the farming plots. Land consolidation operations currently conducted in the territory of Poland “permit an increase of eco- nomic effectiveness of farming and a reduction of production costs, labour outlays, commuting time and fuel consumption” [Sobolewska-Mikulska, Pułecka, 2007]. The aim of modern land consoli-
Formulation Model of Marine Customary Rights Regulation in Eti Village, Piru District, SBB Regency, Maluku Province. Based on the results of an interview with the village head of Eti on September 14, 2019, it was said that in order to keep the conflict from happening again in the future, a model of regional regulation must be developed that could minimize the occurrence of conflicts. Conflicts that occur between the Eti Village community and the local Government because one of the causes is the absence of customary land boundaries owned by the Eti Village community, the unclear boundaries of the customary land rights make the local government young to take the customary land rights of the Village community. Eti whose area is so vast. Finally, the customary land rights were transferred to the government with the dali for the local government land. Conflicts that occur in the village of Eti of course this can not be allowed to continue for a long time, but the Regional Government in this case the SBB government must have the courage to take steps to formulate a regulatory model that can resolve conflicts or disputes that occur. As a researcher, of course it is in his interest to formulate the formulation of a model for managing marine customary rights in the SBB Regency in Maluku Province, with reference to several theories used in this study as a knife for analysis. To formulate the formulation of the model of management arrangements for Marine Customary Rights in Eti Village, Piru District, Maluku Province, the author uses two theories as analysis blades in formulating the regulation of marine customary rights, namely:
Abstract: The negative consequence of climate change and its correlation to the disaster have augmented people‘s vulnerabilities and exposures especially in the developing countries like Bangladesh. Though people exposed to the vulnerabilities and risks, seem to be less prepared to deal with adverse situation, they base traditional knowledge in coping with the changing climate. This research is unique in this regard as it reveals the criteria that influence people‘s ability to cope in the long run by identifying the different coping practices in terms of spatial, socio-economic and mental instability. A few literatures were found basically emphasized on the current coping mechanisms rather than concentrating the criteria that influence the coping capacities. Data were collected through numerous questionnaire surveys with selected households living in a char land and a remote island of Bangladesh and also used different tools of Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment techniques. The outcome revealed that the inhabitants have to spend maximum portion of their income for food and repairing houses that are often destroyed by recurring disasters just to survive. Savings are almost zero and medical and education expenses are only amplifying their burden. The most suitable options for coping includes; eat fewer meals, borrowing money or take loan and sell labour in cheap at advance. All these copings are leading people to malnutrition, economic imbalance, and domestic hostility along with mental instability which would hinder people‘s ability to take proper decision in time of risk or affect current coping ability with recurring events or the vice versa.
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