Since the 1970s, historically-aware performances of late eighteenth- century repertoire (and that of Mozart and Beethoven in particular) have prompted demands for a finer stylistic awareness on the part of the performer. Articulation in late eighteenth-century repertoire is of particular importance in this regard. In violinperformance, bow strokes constitute the primary technique with which to render articulatory effects. In this study, I consider not only the link between the theoretical discussions of historically-informed performance (HIP) practitioners and the conventions of mainstream performance practice on the violin, but I investigate how best to merge musicological discussions of HIP with the practice of frequently performed repertoire on modern instruments today.
20 The reason for the continuing use of the Tourte bow design is complex. Referring to bow making, each bow model has its own limitations in tone production and articulation. Even though transitional bow models are similar to the Tourte bow design and the modern bow in many ways, the clarity of articulation produced by transitional bows is more natural. Although no historical documentation of the collaboration between F. Tourte and G. B. Viotti in inventing a new bow design has been discovered yet, Viotti’s performative aspects must inspire Tourte’s work in many ways. Furthermore, the ascendancy of the Viotti School played a significant role in promoting the use of the Tourte bow design. Viotti’s new performing style not only swept through central Europe and established a new authority in violinperformance or ‘school’, but various bow strokes associated with the Tourte bow design were also disseminated by students of the Viotti School, and these techniques were soon systemised as fundamental exercises. For example, Rodolphe Kreutzer, one of the greatest pupils of the Viotti School, constituted exercises of diverse bowings, especially of accented strokes, into his 42 Studies for the violin.
Page | 132 What might perhaps be more useful in the context of an analysis of violin playing is Auer’s detailed description of the role of dynamics, timbre and tempo in achieving control of nuance. 10 At the outset, Auer states that the awareness of dynamics is ‘a necessary part of the violinist’s technical equipment’ as it plays an all-important function in pulling off ‘artistic playing’. Timbre is an additional factor which the violin student is expected to develop. The violin is said to consist fundamentally of four individual timbres stemming from the four different strings. Each string has its own tone, and brings colour to a performance. Auer draws parallels between a violinist and a painter, claiming that the nonexistence of colour on an artist’s canvas would reveal the shortage of true skill and artistic ability. Lastly, tempo is also regarded as an important factor in achieving nuance in a performance. By ‘tempo’, Auer does not mean issues such as tempo rubato, or the rhythmic alterations which are often related to tempo rubato. Rather, he is referring to basic, and to him often disregarded, tempo indications. He states that while a student might diligently discriminate between an adagio and a presto, it is easy to pass over the nuances of slower or more rapid movement which lie between the extremes. These nuances are imperative, and the student ‘must [themselves] feel to express’. 11
This largely negative consequence of technological growth and ease of travel has been commented on by violinists. For example, Simon Hewitt Jones, a performing instrumentalist and researcher at the Royal Academy of Music in London, has discussed the effects that ease of travel has had on the specific identities in schools of violin playing. 34 On 16 May 2010, he questioned whether it was still possible to identify any one thread of teaching based on, for example, the American School of playing, or the German School. He continues that his theorising is based on the idea that advanced modes of travel and use thereof internationally have affected the so- called purity of a style, and that the principles upon which any one school is built are inevitably altered by such easy discourse between players of differing schools. This raises yet again the question of whether such developments in the modern use of technology, including the ever-increasing progress in digital media, are diluting the richness of experience that geographically distinct heritages of pedagogy and performance have achieved over the last few hundreds of years. This question becomes all the more potent when one considers that, as explained above, outstanding musicians either do not, or are unable to, take it upon themselves to document and monitor changes and progressions of development.
Master of Music | Chamber Music Performance | University of Texas at Austin Sarah and Ernest Butler School of Music - Austin, Texas
2010 - 2012. Sandy Yamamoto, the Miró String Quartet (principal teachers).
Bachelor of Music | ViolinPerformance | University of Texas at Austin Sarah and Ernest Butler School of Music - Austin, Texas
From the result obtained we can say that the adaptive LMS, NLMS and RLMS algorithm can be used for cancelling the Gaussian noise present in the desired signals of the musical instrument Violin. For comparison between them the table shows the values.
A larger number of instances of the use of multiple stopping in Italy as of the 1670’s coincided not only with the introduction of the copperplate engraving technique in printing, but also with the considerable rise in popularity in this period of the sonata for violin and cello, both of the da camera as of the da chiesa type. The manuscripts of Giuseppe Colombi, Stradella and Torelli, as well as the copperplates of Montanari, Rozzi, and Corelli are all connected with the violin-cello or violin-harpsichord duo. 20 If we examine the
It has been shown that a computer can differentiate effectively between beginner and professional standard legato violin note samples with 97% accuracy. The results returned have shown that it is possible to achieve Task I by using one feature only. Basing a detection task on only one feature makes it sensitive to erroneous data and outliers, recalling that relatively few features have separated the dataset’s samples based on player type with full accuracy. Using more than one feature to represent the data allows greater detection accuracy. Should a sample get an incorrect label from one feature, the values used to represent it based on the other features will rectify the situation, making for more robust detection. From the results obtained, improvements on this level of accuracy were not achieved by altering the feature choice or number. Where present, the same features have been returned indicating much redundancy in the successful feature combinations. Although four-fold cross-validation has been used to obtain the results, the ability to generalise was further tested on new data. A testing system was set up requiring five to seven features. The test sensitivity was set based on the number of conditions applied, which are determined by the feature combinations. The features used include the TM, MMV, RCCM, RCCV, SFMV, PSD190 and CQTH9. When the appropriate test sensitivity level had been selected, the results returned were found to be good indicating that the results generalise. Beginner notes have been successfully identified from the professional standard legato notes using at least five out of the seven features.
“I always loved music, according to my mother. When I was a toddler, my next door neighbor, a boy two years older, started to learn the violin. I went to hear him practice every day. This violin fascination superseded cartoons and toys. So, when I was five, my father brought home a quarter-size violin. I started lessons and never stopped. My [current] violin is the 1715 Stradivari called “Titian.” Someone thought the beautiful varnish reminded him of paintings by the Venetian master. Or it was simply a sales job. It had been used by two great violinists: Efrem Zimbalist and Arthur Grumiaux.”
The known ratio of ac to dc gain at any VM frequency then allowed the Violin-Mode ‘ac responsivity’ to be calibrated for each sensor, as follows. First of all, a vertically orientated 400 μm diameter silica fibre sample was translated (in the ξ - direction of figure 1), at a constant rate of a few tens of μm per second, using a dc-motor driven leadscrew—so as to pass transversely through the illuminating beam of a particular sensor. The position of the fibre was recorded continuously using a Renishaw LM10 magnetic position encoder, having a 1 μm resolution, together with a microcontroller-based inter- face to eliminate jitter at low translation- rates. The detector’s two dc voltages, VDC, a and VDC, b, were recorded simul- taneously at every 1 μm step, with 12-bit resolution, using a National Instruments USM-6259 DAQ device, controlled by a LabView data acquisition program running on a Laptop PC. The detector’s dc output voltages were then plotted as a function of fibre position, producing a pair of ‘shadow-notch’ traces for each sensor, such as those shown in figure 6—here, for emitter-detector pair A. These two signals were then dif- ferentiated off-line with respect to fibre position, ξ , generating in this case the pair of traces shown in figure 7. Differencing these two traces generated the (differential) ‘dc responsivity’ shown in figure 8, again for sensor A.
In this paper, the motivation and design of a Bowstroke Database have been described. This project is the first of its kind, combining gesture and audio data corresponding to violin bowstrokes together in a format that provides fast, remote access online, and several important design features, such as the organization of the Stroke Group page. The main motivation behind this project is the obvious need for bowing data in research communities such as those of bowed string synthesis, acoustics, gesture, and interactive music composition. Unlike other online repositories for ges- ture data, the Bowstroke Database developed here provides not only the ability to download data, but also the abil- ity to upload data. In this way, it encourages interaction and collaboration between researchers. It is hoped that this research tool will continue to develop and serve as an ever- growing respository of knowledge on bowing.
For most purposes, the back is the part to trace, because it will be much less worn and distorted than the top. Find a place for the violin where it feels secure and doesn’t rock around. You will need to hold it firmly so that it doesn’t move while you’re tracing, and I usually push down on the corners or the c-bout. Figure out an angle for the pencil that will trace a line directly under the edge of the violin, and maintain that angle all the way around. Do the outer bouts first, then the c-bouts, and finally, with more care, the corners. If a violin is particularly interesting, I may take several tracings of it.
This article presents a method of detecting the frequency of the C4 mode of the violin in the energy spectra of chromatic scales. The recordings from the AMATI multimedia database, which includes recorded sounds of violins taking part in the 10-th Henryk Wieniawski Inter- national Violin Making Competition in Pozna´n, are used in the study.
L udwig van Beethoven’s ten violin sona- tas make a splendid cycle, reflecting many facets of the composer’s person- ality and covering most of his mature career. Only the “late” phase is missing. They also bring out many qualities in the musicians who per- form them. Beethoven was ideally positioned to write such pieces: he was a pianist of brilliant tech- nique and improvisatory flair; and although only of average competence as a violinist or violist, he knew his way around the violin without having to consult players on technical grounds. He inherited the sonata for piano and violin (which was how he thought of it) in good order from Mozart. To the graceful, lyrical, well shaped structures of the older composer, he added even greater interdependence of the parts, an explosive dramatic quality and a hearty sense of humour. In some of Mozart’s sona- tas for piano and violin, and even some of his trios, the piano part could almost stand on its own without interference from the violin (or violin and cello); whereas Beethoven, with his greater propensity for motivic rather than melodic writing, thought of his