Viral Hepatitis C

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The Absence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Patients with Hepatitis B virus in Mashhad, Iran

The Absence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Patients with Hepatitis B virus in Mashhad, Iran

patients monoinfected with HCV are more responsive to IFN therapy (5-6). Occult HBV infection, a condition in which HBV DNA and not HBsAg is detectable, may elevate the risk of hepatic diseases as well as the rate of non- response to conventional treatment of HCV (7). Due to shared routes of transmission, coinfection with HBV and HCV, particularly in endemic areas, is not uncommon (8). Dual infection is not limited to viral hepatitis C and B and clinical conditions may also vary. Senturk et al. concluded that HBV/HDV coinfection may have more serious implications compared to dual infection with HBV and HCV (9). Contradictory results have been reported regarding the extent to which HBV or HCV is dominant among patients with HBV and HCV coinfection; with more findings suggesting the suppression of HBV (10-14). Other in vitro findings have confirmed that HCV, through its core protein, brings about suppression of HBV replication (15-17). On the other hand, other studies showed that the dominance can change over the period of infection and some others reported the dominance of HBV (18-19). According to some limited studies, the treatment for HBV/HCV-coinfection is not straightforward and needs to be adjusted for individuals with different response rates (3, 5, 20). At the present time, no specific treatment guideline exists for this group of patients (21). A study by Liu in 2009 suggested that combination therapy with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin is suitable for treating both HCV monoinfected and HBV/HCV coinfected individuals to the same extent (21). In another study, PEG-IFN-a2b and ribavirin was found to be effective in suppression of HCV among HBV/HCV-coinfected individuals (22). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of HCV infection among patients with HBV infection in the general population of Mashhad.
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Mortality after viral hepatitis in china: a systematic review and aggregated data studies

Mortality after viral hepatitis in china: a systematic review and aggregated data studies

of Non-A, Non-B post transfusion hepatitis and is also implicated as the cause in many of sporadic cases of Non-A, Non-B Hepatitis. Constant infection with HCV has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic liver diseases (Plagemann, 1991). According to surveys in blood donors, ejection drug users and other high risk population of HCV infection (Lok et al., 1992; Jian Lu et al., 2009; Lavanchy et al., 2004; Merican et al., 2004 and Xia et al., 1992) prevalence of anti-HCV is l-70% in different high risk Chinese population. The proportion of acute viral hepatitis C is about l0-15% in acute hepatitis cases in China (Xia et al., 1992 and Xian Xia et al., 2008). However, the distribution and risk factors of HCV infection is unknown in the general Chinese population. A nationwide cross-sectional sero- epidemiologic study of hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E virus infections in the general Chinese population was carried out in 1992. The purpose of that study was: (i) to understand the distribution and major risk factors of hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E virus infection in the general Chinese population; (ii) to provide a basis for developing and evaluating preventive procedures and public health practices on viral hepatitis control (Xia et al., 1996 and Xia et al., 1996).
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Association of IL 10, IL 4, and IL 28B gene polymorphisms with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus in a population from Rio de Janeiro

Association of IL 10, IL 4, and IL 28B gene polymorphisms with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus in a population from Rio de Janeiro

A cross-sectional study of 161 individuals with chronic HCV infection attending the Liver Clinic of the Clemen- tino Fraga Filho University Hospital (HUCFF) were selected from 2008 to 2010 and a cohort of 18 patients with acute hepatitis C and spontaneous viral clearance were selected from the Viral Hepatitis Clinic of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ). This cohort of patients with acute HCV infection was previously evalu- ated by clinical and laboratory parameters [31]. Patients with undetected HCV RNA in three consecutive tests within 12-months of follow-up were considered as hav- ing spontaneous viral clearance. Further details were described elsewhere [31]. The inclusion criteria for chronic hepatitis C patients were: detectable anti-HCV antibodies with detectable serum, HCV RNA for 6 months of follow up, and a liver biopsy with character- istics of chronic HCV infection. Patients with clinical diagnosis of compensated liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A) were also included. Exclusion criteria were: HBV or HIV co-infection, alcohol ingestion, other etiologies of chronic liver disease and patients with HCV infection who were submitted to organ transplant. The age at HCV infection of chronic patients could not be deter- mined. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient. The Research and Ethics Committee board of the HUCFF approved the study protocol.
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A STUDY OF LIPID  PROFILE AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS IN CHRONIC HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTED EGYPTIAN  PATIENTS

A STUDY OF LIPID PROFILE AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS IN CHRONIC HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTED EGYPTIAN PATIENTS

In the current study, there was a significant correlation between LDL and PCR . This is in some similarity with Hsu et al. who found that high TG and total cholesterol level correlated with higher HCV RNA level in genotype 2 in a study done in Taiwan (29). Khattab et al. found that in patients with HCV genotype 4, TG levels were associated with higher HCV RNA level (26). Ramcharran et al., conducted a study on 160 African Americans and 170 Caucasian Americans, and found that TG levels were significantly and directly correlated with HCV levels in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection (28). Host serum lipid plays an important role in hepatitis C virion circulation and hepatocyte entry. A proportion of circulating hepatitis C viral particles are complexed with host triacyl glycerol-rich lipoproteins, known as lipo-viroparticles (30). Lipo-viroparticles use LDL receptors on hepatocytes as points of entery and are associated with high rate of infectivity (31). Once hepatitis C virions have entered the hepatocytes their replication is again dependant on host lipid interactions.
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Multilaboratory Comparison of Hepatitis C Virus Viral Load Assays

Multilaboratory Comparison of Hepatitis C Virus Viral Load Assays

This would eliminate the need for both qualitative and quan- titative assays and would allow laboratories to use a single assay for therapeutic monitoring. Traditional viral load assays, such as the Bayer bDNA and Roche Monitor, have lower limits of quantification of 615 IU/ml and 600 IU/ml, respectively, which are inadequate to define an end-of-treatment response or sustained-treatment response. In addition, for Roche Mon- itor, specimens with concentrations greater than the limit of quantification (800,000 IU/ml) must be diluted to accurately determine viral load. The upper quantification limit of the Bayer bDNA assay is 7.7 million IU/ml; therefore, dilution of clinical specimens is not routinely needed.
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Association of laboratory parameters with viral factors in patients with hepatitis C

Association of laboratory parameters with viral factors in patients with hepatitis C

Patients of this study were the people referred to Pathology department, Jinnah Hospital and Mayo Hospital Lahore; and Liver Centre Faisalabad Pakistan, for biochemical and serological tests. This analytical study was carried out from March 2006 to September 2010 in collaboration of National Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, Uni- versity of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Patients were divided into three cohorts, (i) 2006-08, (ii) 2008-09 and (iii) 2009-10; first as initial cohort and later two as valida- tion cohort to find appropriate relationship between viral and host serum markers. Blood samples (10 mL) were col- lected from each patient and tested for anti-HCV antibody by ELISA (Abbot Laboratories) at Jinnah Hospital Lahore. Patients with positive serology and/or positive test for HCV alone and no evidence of liver failure were included in this study. Patients who were not keen to give informed consent, not able to make follow-up visits and not willing to undergo genetic testing and not allow samples to be stored for future research were excluded from the study. Accordingly, thus, a total of 6048 HCV-RNA positive patients were identified. The routine liver function tests (LFTs), Hb level and direct bilirubin were estimated for each patient in the hospital laboratory by using commer- cially available Hitachi-7600 series analyzer. Questionnaire (including their personal, lab tests and demographical information) was prepared for patients who came for HCV initial screening and further genotyping and viral load quantification. Informed consents were (containing per- mission to do liver biopsy, procedure of liver biopsy and the possible risks associated with liver biopsy were men- tioned) obtained from those patients who were willing to do so. Only patients aged 18 or above were considered for liver biopsy samples. Patients less than 18 years were only included in genotyping and biochemical data analysis etc. Regarding consent obtained from under 18 years children, parents signed and filled the questionnaire. The study was approved by the institutional ethical committee.
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Human Immunoglobulins for intravenous use and hepatitis C viral transmission.

Human Immunoglobulins for intravenous use and hepatitis C viral transmission.

Detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus in prospectively followed transfusion recipients with acute and chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis. Sampliner, and the Sentinel Counties Chronic no[r]

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Monitoring the Treatment of Hepatitis C Viral Infection by Molecular Techniques

Monitoring the Treatment of Hepatitis C Viral Infection by Molecular Techniques

This study (approved by the Ethical Committee of Ain Shams University) in- cluded 85 HCV-Ab positive cases collected from Cairo, Egypt (El Hussein and Sayed Galal hospitals), Al Menia (El Menia hospital) and Al Daqahlya (Al Man- soura general hospital) from October 2017 to March 2019. Ethics approval was obtained for the study and informed consent forms were signed by patients. The 85 cases included 45 females and 40 males between 18 - 65 years of age. The subjects were divided into two groups: First group were positive HCV-Ab and titre of HCV-RNA is less than 615 IU/ml (n = 28) and Second group were posi- tive HCV-Ab and titre of HCV-RNA is more than 615 IU/ml (n = 57). Blood samples were drawn from all study participants and serum samples were sepa- rated and stored at −80˚C until further testing.
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Longitudinal Study of Hepatitis Activity and Viral Replication before and after HBeAg Seroconversion in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Infected with Genotypes B and C

Longitudinal Study of Hepatitis Activity and Viral Replication before and after HBeAg Seroconversion in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Infected with Genotypes B and C

For the longitudinal follow-up study, 180 asymptomatic patients attending the Hepatitis Clinic, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, for at least 10 regular follow-ups were recruited during the period of January 1998 to January 2002. These patients were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) for at least 6 months and had not received any form of antiviral therapy. Patients with antibodies to hepatitis C and D, a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, Wilson’s disease, or drug-induced hepatotoxicity were excluded. The HBsAg and HBeAg/anti-HBe status and liver biochemistry were checked during every follow-up, which was scheduled every 3 to 6 months or more frequently if clinically indicated. The HBV DNA levels were measured in 16 patients who underwent HBeAg seroconversion at four time points (3 months before, during, and 3 months after the HBeAg seroconversion and at the last follow-up) and for all the anti-HBe-positive patients at the last follow-up. The HBV DNA levels were measured by the Cobas Amplicor HBV Monitor test, Roche Diagnostics, Branchburg, N.J. (with a lower limit of detection of 200 copies/ml). HBV geno- types were determined for all the 180 patients.
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Viral Sequence Evolution in Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection

Viral Sequence Evolution in Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection

The dN/dS ratio is commonly used to differentiate between random genetic drift and evolution driven by selective pres- sures. In order to evaluate the hypothesis that high initial mutation rates might represent early adaptation to selection pressures in the new host, we calculated dN/dS ratios between all sequenced time points and analyzed these in conjunction with the viral loads over time. dN/dS ratios were low for the transmission event in both transmission pairs but remained relatively constant later in all patients (Fig. 4), suggesting higher rates of random genetic drift during the early phase after transmission. Notably, however, in patient BR554 this observation did not coincide with high replication rates, which would have allowed for more random errors by the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. During the later course of the infection intraindividual changes in the mutation rates were similarly independent of the viral loads, although these varied dramatically between patients, as well as within patients over the course of infection (Fig. 4). In summary, HCV se- quence evolution showed considerable variation between pa- tients but seemed to appear in large part early after transmis- sion. Although dN/dS ratios suggested random errors during viral replication as a possible cause for the high mutation rates upon transmission, a lack of correlation with the rate of viral replication did not support this hypothesis.
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Hepatitis C Virus Proteins Interact with the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) Machinery via Ubiquitination To Facilitate Viral Envelopment

Hepatitis C Virus Proteins Interact with the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) Machinery via Ubiquitination To Facilitate Viral Envelopment

FIG 4 HRS mediates HCV envelopment. Lysates of HCV-transfected HRS-depleted cell lines or NT controls were subjected to two-dimensional gel electro- phoresis. Membranes were blotted with anti-core and anti-actin antibodies. (A and B) Separation of core complexes by BN-PAGE (A) and denaturing SDS-PAGE (B). The experiment was conducted twice. (C and D) Sucrose density gradient analysis of intracellular viral particles derived from HCV-transfected cell lines depleted of HRS by shRNA or NT controls by isopycnic (C) and rate-zonal-like (D) separations in the presence or absence of 1% DDM. Thirteen and ten fractions were collected, respectively, and analyzed. Each experiment was conducted three times. Representative membranes blotted with anti-core and anti-E2 antibodies are shown. Plotted data represent the core content along the gradient normalized to the total core protein and levels of infectivity (in numbers of focus-forming units [FFU] per milliliter). ⌬ E1-E2, E1-E2 deletion HCV mutant. (E) Proteolytic digestion protection assays of lysates of HCV-transfected cell lines depleted of HRS or NT controls. A representative membrane is shown, demonstrating the amount of protease-resistant core following no treatment or treatment with Triton (T) and/or PK. Plotted data represent relative core levels from 2 experiments quantified by Western blotting and normalized to untreated controls. (F) Fraction 10 of the isopycnic gradient (see panel A) was subjected to RNase digestion protection assays. Samples were left untreated or were treated with S7 RNase alone, with S7 RNase following PK treatment, or with S7 RNase, Triton (T), and PK. Plotted data represent relative residual HCV RNA levels normalized to untreated controls.
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Original Article Vascular malformations and hemangiolymphangiomas of the gastrointestinal tract: morphological features and clinical impact

Original Article Vascular malformations and hemangiolymphangiomas of the gastrointestinal tract: morphological features and clinical impact

The association of gastrointestinal HLA or VM with arterial aneurysms, aortic stenosis and blood disorders, without a specific time se- quence in their occurrence, was observed in 3 of the patients, and its possibly fortuitous na- ture is worth exploring. Although observed in more than one third of the patients, an associa- tion with autoimmune disorders is difficult to establish because of the heterogeneity of asso- ciated autoimmune disorders in our series, some of them previously unreported to our knowledge (such as hemophilia C or scleroderma and intestinal HLA). Similarly, a unifying process linking gastrointestinal VM and HLAs with other tumors, all non-vascular, is not clear. Of clinical relevance would be the asso- ciation of a hemorrhagic VM in the patient with Henoch-Schonlein purpura, an association pre- viously not reported to our knowledge, although gastrointestinal intramural hematomas have been reported in a patient with this condition [41,42].
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A higher prevalence of DM has also been reported in HCV-infected patients than in chronic hepatitis B, which is in line with our finding. Likewise, DM was noted to be more frequent among patients infected with HCV than with other liver diseases such as pri- mary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis (4,10-12). In other studies, the prevalence of DM was also noted to be higher in HCV-positive than in HCV- negative liver transplant recipients as well (15-17). As seen in our study, cirrhotic patients appeared significantly more likely to be diabetic as compared with non-cirrhotic patients in various mul- tivariate analyses (OR=2, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.43). The association of HCV with DM and IR has also been demonstrated in several other previous clinical, epi- demiological and laboratory studies (18-26). The studies suggest that HCV promotes IR through viral- associated mechanisms interfering with insulin sig- naling pathways. The stimulation of various inflam- matory processes could also accelerate progression of the pathology leading to worse morbidity and mortality.
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<p>Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C Viral Infections And Associated Factors Among Patients With Diabetes Visiting Gondar Referral Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study</p>

<p>Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C Viral Infections And Associated Factors Among Patients With Diabetes Visiting Gondar Referral Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study</p>

The difference in the prevalence of sero-positivity against anti-HCV antibody in diabetic and control groups was statis- tically signi fi cant. The association between Hepatitis C virus infection and type II diabetes in the region was statistically signi fi cant. Hence, the absence of a single signi fi cant pre- dictor for anti-HCV positivity in diabetes group indicates that HCV might have a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. History of blood transfusion and unprotected sex were sig- ni fi cantly associated with HBV infection.

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Infection of Common Marmosets with GB Virus B Chimeric Virus Encoding the Major Nonstructural Proteins NS2 to NS4A of Hepatitis C Virus

Infection of Common Marmosets with GB Virus B Chimeric Virus Encoding the Major Nonstructural Proteins NS2 to NS4A of Hepatitis C Virus

H epatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health threat that causes chronic hepatitis and is associated with 78% of pri- mary hepatocellular carcinoma (1). Currently, limitations of small-primate models hamper the development of HCV vaccines and affordable antiviral drugs. Chimpanzees have been used as a uniquely reliable animal for HCV infection in past decades (2), significantly contributing to defining the infection natural history, pathogenesis, immune response, and rechallenge of HCV (3–6). However, the utility of chimpanzees has been more and more restricted by ethical concerns, and though rare, the use of this primate model in medical studies is extremely costly (2). The nonprimate animal models simulating HCV infection might po- tentially be mimicked with rodent hepacivirus (RHV)-infected rats (7, 8), canine hepacivirus (CHV)-infected dogs (9), and equine hepacivirus (EHCV) (nonprimate hepacivirus [NPHV])- infected horses (10). HCV infection in immunocompetent mice was reported in genetically humanized mouse CD81 and occludin (OCLN) (11, 12). However, the differences in infection courses
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Sero-prevalence of Anti- HCV among Yemenis Blood Donors Attending National Blood Transfusion and Research Centre in Sana'a: Yemen

Sero-prevalence of Anti- HCV among Yemenis Blood Donors Attending National Blood Transfusion and Research Centre in Sana'a: Yemen

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a serious global public health problem is one of the most frequent infections associated with blood transfusion [1]. It has been reported that, HCV responsible for 90- 95% of post transfusion, previously known as Non A Non B (NANB) transfusion-related hepatitis [2,3]. The estimated prevalence of HCV infection worldwide is 2.8% [4], whereas 3 to 4 million people are newly infected each year [2,3,5] and 2% of the world’s population have chronic HCV infection [4].

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Immunodiagnosis of viral hepatitides A to E and non-A to -E.

Immunodiagnosis of viral hepatitides A to E and non-A to -E.

HCV genome, viral genes, and antigens. As shown in Table 1, HCV is an enveloped virus about 55 nm in diameter. Despite frequent efforts, HCV has not been serially passaged in tissue culture systems. HCV has a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome of about 9.5 kb that has a single open reading frame encoding a polyprotein precursor of about 3,010 amino acids. The precursor polyprotein is posttranslationally cleaved into the unique structural proteins (core and envelope) and the products of the nonstructural genes, NS-2, NS-3, NS-4, and NS-5, which are functionally analogous to those of flaviviruses (Fig. 2). The coding region is flanked by the most conserved, 340-base 5 9 -untranslated region, which is critical in viral repli- cation, and a variable 3 9 -untranslated region. The C gene en- codes 191 amino acids to form the nucleocapsid, and the next 190 amino acids are encoded by the E1 gene to form the first envelope protein. The protein product of the E2/NS1 gene is a glycoprotein of 70 to 72 kDa. Okamoto et al. (57) demon- strated that the most reliable PCR and EIA for HCV are based on the most conserved sequences of the 5 9 -untranslated region and the C gene products, respectively. Antibodies to HCV envelope proteins E1 and E2 reacted with both linear and conformation-dependent epitopes of E2, and probably E1, in chronic HCV infection (17). The occurrence of anti-E2 closely correlated with that of HCV RNA in serum (47). The four nonstructural proteins, NS2, NS3, NS4, and NS5, are targets for the development of better screening EIA for anti-HCV (18). A rapid succession of improvements in the EIA has led to a current algorithm of EIA screening followed by supplemen- tal testing by recombinant immunoblot assays (RIBA). For a lucid and comprehensive review of this evolution and the clin- ical significance of improving EIA, see reference 25.
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PREVALENCE AND CORRELATION OF VIRAL INFECTION (HEPATITIS B OR/AND HEPATITIS C) AMONG HYPERTENSIVE AND DIABETIC PATIENTS IN MALAYSIA AND INDONESIA WHO UNDERWENT HEMODIALYSIS

PREVALENCE AND CORRELATION OF VIRAL INFECTION (HEPATITIS B OR/AND HEPATITIS C) AMONG HYPERTENSIVE AND DIABETIC PATIENTS IN MALAYSIA AND INDONESIA WHO UNDERWENT HEMODIALYSIS

From the Table 1, it can be seen that hepatitis C was the biggest number patients among others infection (hepatitis B and B & C infection). That finding is similar to Pradip Bhaumik & Kalyan Debnath studied whereas they reported hepatitis increase among hemodialysis patients due to blood transfusion 20 . Blood transfusion is the common reason that caused hepatitis C among those patients whereas that treatment was needed due to anemia complication as a causal for reducing of erythropoietin hormonal in kidney failure 7 .
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Search | Preprints

Search | Preprints

Background: Cytokines and chemokines are critical regulators of innate and adaptive immunities during viral infection. We examined innate and adaptive immune responses to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) at baseline and against controls. Methods: Twenty-seven cytokines were evaluated before treatment in 27 patients with chronic hepatitis C(CHC) [genotype1 (n=20), genotype2 (n=7), HCVRNA 5.72±3.17LogIU/ml] and 12 chronic hepatitis B(CHB) [e-antigen (Ag) (+) (n=5), e-Ag (-) (n=7), HBVDNA 6.19±1.31Logcopies/ml] and against controls(n=5). Results: Th1 and Th2 cytokines were significantly higher (p<0.05) in CHB than in CHC. The levels of IL-IL10 in CHC and CHB, and IL15 in CHC(genotype2) and CHB were significantly lower (p<0.05) than in controls. The levels of CXCL8 in CHC and CHB, IL12 in CHC and CHB [e-Ag (-)] and CXCL10 in CHC and CHB were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in controls. IFN- γwas higher in CHB than in controls. Conclusion: Cytokines levels differed between CHB and CHC before treatment. Innate immune responses were impaired in CHB with HBeAg(-) and CHC, but not in CHB with HBeAg(+) with high viral loads. Adaptive immune responses were impaired in CHB and CHC and appear to reflect the distinct state of virus-host immune interactions between CHB and CHC.
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Serological markers of posttransfusion hepatitis C viral infection

Serological markers of posttransfusion hepatitis C viral infection

We report on the use of a semiautomated dot blot immunoassay for detecting anti-HCV responses in transfusion recipients; this assay is done with a panel of purified recombinant HCV prote[r]

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