Viral Transmission in HIV HCV and HBV

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Prevalence and characteristics of HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV coinfections in Tuscany

Prevalence and characteristics of HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV coinfections in Tuscany

Fig. 1 – HIV transmission route in HIV, HIV/HBV, HIV/HCV, HIV/HCV/HBV infected adult patients notified in Tuscany (2009–2013). were HIV monoinfected. However, these patients had a worse immunological picture at the time of HIV diagnosis compared to HIV/HCV co-infected patients, probably because the sexual transmission was the main risk factor in HIV/HBV coinfected patients, with subsequent less perception of the infection transmission risk, therefore they only performed the test after experiencing HIV-related symptoms. Moreover, they were at higher risk of having LP, AHD, or AIDS compared to HCV coin- fected patients. According with these findings, recent studies pointed out that HBV infection complicates the management of HIV infection. In fact, patients with chronic HBV at the time of HIV diagnosis had an impaired CD4 recovery, an acceler- ated immunologic deterioration, and a significantly higher risk of an AIDS or death event. 9,10 This is similar to HIV induced impairment of HBV, which in turn influences negatively the course and progression of HIV disease.
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Prevalence of HIV, HCV, HBV in Blood Donors of Golestan Province, Iran, 2012 - 2013

Prevalence of HIV, HCV, HBV in Blood Donors of Golestan Province, Iran, 2012 - 2013

Prevalence of HIV, HCV, HBV in Blood Donors of Golestan Province, Iran, 2012 - 2013 Abstract Background and Objective: The donor selection and screening of blood donors for infectious factors is the main target of blood transfusion organization. this study aimed at determining the prevalence of HCV, HBV and HIV in blood donors of Golestan province , from 2012 to 2013.

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<p>Residual risk of HIV, HCV, and HBV transmission by blood transfusion between 2015 and 2017 at the Regional Blood Transfusion Center of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso</p>

<p>Residual risk of HIV, HCV, and HBV transmission by blood transfusion between 2015 and 2017 at the Regional Blood Transfusion Center of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso</p>

Senegal 27 (HBV, 1 in 976) and Gabon 28 (HCV, 1 in 4,808; HBV, 1 in 1,775). Residual risk rates for HIV, HCV, and HBV in our study were also higher than in France 24 (1 in 2,900,000 for HIV, 1 in 7,000,000 for HCV, and 1 in 1,350,000 donations for HBV) over the period 2008–2010 and in the USA 25 (1 in 1,000,000 donations for HCV, 1 in 300,000 donations for HBV) over the 2007–2008 period. These large differences reflect the difference in the seroprevalence of these infections between developed and developing countries. Today, with the improve- ment in donor selection, advances in the biological qualifica- tion of donations, and efforts to prevent these infections in the general population, the residual risks of transmission of HIV, HCV, and HBV by blood transfusion are very low in developed countries. 24 In contrast, posttransfusion infectious risk remains a major public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa, because of the very high prevalence of these infec- tions and the lack of financial resources for the establishment of adequate infrastructure and logistics, as well as to train staff in blood-transfusion services. Moreover, insufficient
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Seroprevalence and risk factors for HIV, HCV, HBV and syphilis among blood donors in Mali

Seroprevalence and risk factors for HIV, HCV, HBV and syphilis among blood donors in Mali

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;2:900 – 9. 2. Djomand G, Quaye S, Sullivan PS. HIV epidemic among key populations in West Africa. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2014;9:506 – 13. Fig. 1 HIV, HBV and HCV prevalence during the last two decades in Bamako blood bank and medical improvements implemented . In blue are represented all information ’ s about HIV, HBV and HCV prevalence in 1999, 2002, 2007 and 2018 and in red, medical interventions that could explain reduction of HIV and HCV-prevalence in blood donors.TasP: treatment as prevention, 1 Dembele et al., Bull Soc Pathol Exot, 2004;
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Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible viral infections (HIV, HBV and HCV) among voluntary blood donors at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Gondar; Northwest Ethiopia

Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible viral infections (HIV, HBV and HCV) among voluntary blood donors at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Gondar; Northwest Ethiopia

awareness on the prevention measures, the disease, and modes of prevention. Conclusion A large percentage of the blood donors harbor transfusion- transmissible infections, 8.2% with at least one screened pathogen and 0.96% with multiple infections. The preva- lence of TTI infection high for all blood donors especially for age groups such as 20 – 29 and 30 – 39 years. Therefore, strict selection of blood donors with the emphasis on get- ting voluntary donors and highly sensitive and specific tests for screening of donors ’ blood for HIV, HBV, and HCV using standard methods are highly recommended to ensure the safety of blood for the recipient. The prevalence of HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HBV-HCV co-infection need to be studied on a larger scale for a better understanding of the impact on clinical condition and treatment response.
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Prevalenza HIV/HCV in Italia

Prevalenza HIV/HCV in Italia

WHO global systematic review of prevalence of HIV/HCV Ab co-infection based on prevalence studies in HIV+ persons stratified by risk group (where available) or general population surveys reporting HIV/HCV or HBV co-infection: burden of co-infection HIV/HCV accounts for 2.8 million people

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Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV infection among intravenous drug users in Shahr-e-Kord, Islamic Republic of Iran

Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV infection among intravenous drug users in Shahr-e-Kord, Islamic Republic of Iran

We identified history of syringe sharing as an important determinant of HBV, HCV and HIV infection as there was significant correlation between sharing syringes and infection with HIV, HCV and HBV. This corroborates the findings of previous stud- ies indicating that use of shared syringes by IDUs render them at high risk of these infections [22–24]. Our findings provide further confirmatory evidence indicating that this behaviour is the main risk factor for these infections.

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Predicting the Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV Based on National Blood of Addis Ababa Ethiopia Using Data Mining Technology

Predicting the Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV Based on National Blood of Addis Ababa Ethiopia Using Data Mining Technology

Significantly increased HBV seropositivity was observed among farmers, first time donors and age groups of 26 - 35 and 36 - 45 years. Similarly, the seroprevalence of syphilis was significantly increased among daily labourers and construction workers. Statistically significant association was observed between syphilis and HIV infections, and HCV and HIV infections. Moreover, significantly declining trends of HIV, HCV and syphilis seropositivity were observed over the study period. From the above two reviewed literature’s one can learn the methods and tools employed to analyze the result are good enough in showing statistical associations and the prevalence of the infectious diseases but the hidden patterns and knowledge’s remain untapped.
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HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis co-infections among patients attending the STD clinics of district hospitals in Northern India

HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis co-infections among patients attending the STD clinics of district hospitals in Northern India

Choy et al. screened for HCV infection in STD-infected patients 24 in New Jersey, USA and reported that inner-city obstetric patients are at high risk for HCV infection when compared with the general population. Increasing age and HIV positive status are the risk factors that are significantly associated with HCV infection. In STD clinics, integrating risk-based screening into routine clinic services is an effi- cient way to identify HIV-infected persons. 25—27 The increased risk of HBV, HCV, and HIV infection among STD patients warrants specific preventive action. 28—30 HIV, HCV, and HBV may promote each other and be related to different cultures and living habits 31 though this does not appear to be the case in our study population.
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SEROPREVALENCE OF HIV, HBV & HCV IN HIGH RISK GROUPS

SEROPREVALENCE OF HIV, HBV & HCV IN HIGH RISK GROUPS

From this study I conclude that the screening procedure for Hepatotropic Viruses and HIV should be made mandatory. Universal precautions and infection control procedures must be followed to, reduce the transmission of these viruses, in Hospital setup, to reduce the risk of nosocomial infection. Available specific prophylaxis should be advocated to prevent the long term effects, like, increase in the carrier rate in community by horizontal and vertical transmission and reduce the risk of long term hazards like predisposition to chronic liver disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Health education to People about epidemiology and prevention. We hopefully look forward for the discovery of an effective, safe and economical vaccine for HCV and HIV.
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Bloodborne Pathogens (HIV, HBV, and HCV) Exposure Management

Bloodborne Pathogens (HIV, HBV, and HCV) Exposure Management

chemoprophylaxis, after occupational exposure to HIV, are agents from five classes of drugs. These include the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs), nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), and a single fusion inhibitor associated with a theoretical decrease of approximately 79% in the risk of HIV seroconversion after percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood in a case-control study among health care providers. (Efficacy data for chemoprophylaxis means studies showing prevention
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Prevalence of viral HBV and HCV among different group patients in Gujrat Pakistan

Prevalence of viral HBV and HCV among different group patients in Gujrat Pakistan

Received 6 June 2012; revised 8 July 2012; accepted 27 July 2012 ABSTRACT In this study we analyzed blood samples collected from 400 high risk patients for the prevalence of an inflammatory viral disease hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) with the help of standard kit assay and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All the samples were selected randomly from the various places of District Gujrat, Pakistan.

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Objective: To assess the prevalence of HBV,HCV and HIV among replacement donors and voluntary

Objective: To assess the prevalence of HBV,HCV and HIV among replacement donors and voluntary

These infections also cause fatal, chronic and life threatening disorders. The TTI’s include Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), syphilis and malaria. To reduce risk of TTI, careful selection of donors is needed so that the blood is safe and is not collected from the people who are likely to be carriers of infectious agents. Evaluation of TTI are essential for assessing the safety of blood supply and monitoring the efficacy of currently employed screening procedures 6 . Poor health infrastructure, lack of health awareness camps, unhygienic life standards and failure to implement strict norms of
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Medical Management of Exposures: HIV, HBV, HCV, Human Bites, and Sexual Assaults

Medical Management of Exposures: HIV, HBV, HCV, Human Bites, and Sexual Assaults

If PEP is offered, the following information should be discussed with the patient: 1) the unproven benefit and known toxicities of antiretrovirals; 2) the importance of close follow-up; 3) the benefit of adherence to recommended dosing; and 4) the necessity of early initiation of PEP to optimize potential benefits (i.e., as soon as possible after and up to 72 hours after the assault). Providers should emphasize that PEP appears to be well-tolerated in both adults and children and that severe adverse effects are rare. Clinical management of the survivor should be implemented according to the following guidelines. Specialist consultation on PEP regimens is recommended if HIV exposure during the assault was possible and if PEP is being considered. The sooner PEP is initiated after the exposure, the higher the likelihood that it will prevent HIV transmission if HIV exposure occurred; however, distress after an assault also might prevent the survivor from accurately weighing exposure risks and benefits of PEP and from making an informed decision to start such therapy. If use of PEP is judged to be warranted, the survivor should be offered a 3–5-day supply of PEP, and a follow-up visit should be scheduled several days later to allow for additional counseling.
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Systematic review and meta analysis of HIV, HBV and HCV infection prevalence in Sudan

Systematic review and meta analysis of HIV, HBV and HCV infection prevalence in Sudan

Prevention against HBV infection can be adopted by increasing the distribution of the vaccine, especially in rural areas and in populations at risk. Moreover, when understanding that many people at risk may not know the possible routes of transmission of these viruses or behave in indifference manners due to lack of awareness or social stigma, it is recommended that people at risk should be vaccinated free of charge. Unfortunately, un- like HBV, vaccines for HIV and HCV infections are cur- rently unavailable and therefore disruption of infection transmission would rely primarily on education to improve knowledge and awareness of the transmission dynamics of the viruses. To sum up, reducing the overall burden of HIV, HBV and HCV infections in Sudan will require new measures and national strategies and the recognition of the infections as one of the country ’ s priority issues.
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Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis

Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis

• Test for anti-HBs if person has been vaccinated, but vaccine response is unknown. • Baseline testing not necessary if vaccine response is known[r]

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Management of HIV, HBV, HCV, Human Bites, and Sexual Assaults in Prison Populations

Management of HIV, HBV, HCV, Human Bites, and Sexual Assaults in Prison Populations

If PEP is offered, the following information should be discussed with the patient: 1) the unproven benefit and known toxicities of antiretrovirals; 2) the importance of close follow-up; 3) the benefit of adherence to recommended dosing; and 4) the necessity of early initiation of PEP to optimize potential benefits (i.e., as soon as possible after and up to 72 hours after the assault). Providers should emphasize that PEP appears to be well-tolerated in both adults and children and that severe adverse effects are rare. Clinical management of the survivor should be implemented according to the following guidelines. Specialist consultation on PEP regimens is recommended if HIV exposure during the assault was possible and if PEP is being considered. The sooner PEP is initiated after the exposure, the higher the likelihood that it will prevent HIV transmission if HIV exposure occurred; however, distress after an assault also might prevent the survivor from accurately weighing exposure risks and benefits of PEP and from making an informed decision to start such therapy. If use of PEP is judged to be warranted, the survivor should be offered a 3–5-day supply of PEP, and a follow-up visit should be scheduled several days later to allow for additional counseling.
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Blood Donors Status of HIV, HBV and HCV in Central Blood Bank in Tripoli, Libya

Blood Donors Status of HIV, HBV and HCV in Central Blood Bank in Tripoli, Libya

It is generally accepted that the diagnosis of infection by HBV is based on the presence of the HBsAg in the bloodstream [25]. However, screening of blood bank donors for HBsAg does not totally eliminate the risk of HBV infection through blood transfusion [26,27], since the absence of this marker in the serum does not exclude the presence of HBV DNA [28]. It is possible that, donors with occult HBV infection, who lacked detectable HBsAg but whose exposure to HBV infection was indicated by a positive anti-HBc and HBV DNA, are a potential source of HBV infection [29]. This emphasizes the need for a more sensitive and stringent screening algorithm of blood donations to improve blood safety. Finally, a national study, including a statistically significant number of blood donors from different blood donation centers across the Libya, should determine whether screening for anti-HBc in addition to HBsAg detection and introduction of PCR based screenings like NAT should also be considered for the libyan blood donors. In the meantime, blood transfusion should only be given when the benefit clearly outweighs the risk.
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HIV/HCV coinfection model: a fractional order perspective for the effect of the HIV viral load

HIV/HCV coinfection model: a fractional order perspective for the effect of the HIV viral load

non-integer-order (fractional-order) model for the coinfection dynamics. Fractional-order models have been proved in the literature to provide good fits to real data from patients suffering from several diseases, such as HIV, dengue fever, and others. We have computed the basic reproduction number and the stability of the disease-free equilibrium of the model. The numerical results suggest that the HIV viral load impacts impressively the severity of the HCV infection. The treatment efficacy is also found to influence the natural progression of HCV on the HIV/HCV coinfection.
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Comparison of HCV viral load and its genotype distributions in HCV mono  and HIV/HCV co infected illicit drug users

Comparison of HCV viral load and its genotype distributions in HCV mono and HIV/HCV co infected illicit drug users

This study was performed between April 2011 and September 2015, consisting of two main groups a) 580 HCV seropositive IDUs majority from Shiraz university of medical science- Hepatitis clinic and b) 104 HIV/HCV co- infected IDUs referred from Shiraz Behavioral Diseases Consultation Center (SBDC) in Fars Province, southern Iran. All patients referred to Prof. Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center (PACMRC) for more examination. They were interviewed face-to-face and their demographic data and risks were recorded. The liver enzyme level data were checked by reviewing of patients medical records.
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