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A Survey on Virtualization and Attacks on Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM)

A Survey on Virtualization and Attacks on Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM)

A Hypervisor is also known as a virtual machine monitor(VMM). It is a piece of code which runs several virtual machines(VMs). A system on which a hypervisor runs one or more virtual machines is known as a host machine, and each virtual machine is known as a visitor machine or guest machine. A system supports several guest virtual machines for sharing of resources like storage, processing. In well-known hypervisors are without delay accountable for web hosting and managing virtual machines on the host or server. The host is another identity for the physical server and hypervisor. The virtual machines that run on the host are called visitor VM or visitor working system. Furthermore, a hypervisor affords a uniform view of the underlying hardware, which capability that it can operate on the hardware of exclusive vendors. Hence, virtual machines can run on any available and supported computers, for the reason that the hypervisor isolates software from hardware. System administrators, who maintain and operate a computer machine and network, are also in a position to view their hardware as a pool of resources, which approves new functionalities that are described in the parent. It shows a number of visitor working system (window, Linux and Mac) are installed on the hypervisor.
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Survey on virtual machine security

Survey on virtual machine security

This architecture is all about virtualization-based monitoring system called VMscope[7] which gives us the same deep inspection ability as existing internal monitoring tools (e.g. Sebek) while being as transparent and tamper-resistant as existing external monitoring tools (e.g. a network sniffer). By deploying itself totally outside the VMbased honeypot, VMscope is tamper-resistant and transparent to the monitored system. Further, without require any modification to the monitored system, VMscope runs at the virtual machine monitor (VMM) layer and is able to observe, recording, and understanding the parameters and semantics of various VM-internal system events such as including a system calls. which gives us the same monitoring ability as existing internal sensors even though we do not have any sensors inside. As an example, once a sys read system call of a VM is noted, VMscope will study from outside the VM the corresponding system call parameters and it understand which is being
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ISSN: 2321-8363 Impact Factor: 5.515

ISSN: 2321-8363 Impact Factor: 5.515

Defense strategy for DoS includes prevention and attack mitigation. DoS attack can be prevented by blocking the path where the attacker already attacked or through continuous monitoring. These are the theoretical aspect by which we can defense the DoS attack, although it is very difficult to stop DoS attack. We can prevent the DoS attack in CCE to achieve availability by enforcing Service Level Agreement and the attack can be mitigated through Virtual Machine Monitor, Intrusion Detection System, Firewall and trace back with cloud filter as discussed below.
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VBD MF: A Block Device to Monitor the File System of Virtual Machine

VBD MF: A Block Device to Monitor the File System of Virtual Machine

Abstract. The virtual block device is the data carrier of virtual machine (VM) and user information, while the file system is the ultimate goal of many attackers. We proposed a security device named virtual block device mapping to file (VBD-MF) that can translate block-level operations into file-level ones by building a mapping from blocks to files. VBD-MF could provide an out-of-VM way to monitor the file system with no modification on the code of virtual machine monitor (VMM) and guest OS, and it also provided other security tools and methods with direct interface to operate the file system. We implemented a prototype on Linux and KVM. The evaluation shows that VBD-MF has a better capability of monitoring with some loss on performance of read and write. Compared to the traditional monitoring of host-based file system, VBD-MF has a better hidden and safety property.
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Research on Detection Strategies and Algorithms of the Virtual Machine Exception Under a Cloud Platform

Research on Detection Strategies and Algorithms of the Virtual Machine Exception Under a Cloud Platform

Cloud computing technology is the result of a variety of technology integration and development, and represents the future direction of computing services. Currently virtualization technology, especially the host virtualization technology in the cloud data center has been widely used. Detecting an abnormality is detected facing entities in a cloud environment (including traditional hardware servers, large-scale user virtual machine, user applications, virtual machine monitor, etc.) compared with large-scale in the traditional IT architecture, diversity and complexity and so on. So in order to protect the stability of the cloud data center for reliable operation, a need for a timely detection and effective recognition of large-scale cloud environment, the diversity of the abnormal state entities anomaly detection system [1].
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ISSN: 2321-8363 Impact Factor: 5.515

ISSN: 2321-8363 Impact Factor: 5.515

Virtualization allows for the partitioning of physical resources into virtualized containers. These containers, more commonly referred to as virtual machines, are functionally nothing more than sets of files that represent virtual hardware, executing in the context of a hypervisor. This virtual hardware provides a platform on which an operating system and applications can be installed and can be configured to provide almost any service that a physical server typically provides. These services include email, database, hosting, file and print, monitoring, management, and more. The virtualized environment consists of the underlying hardware, the hypervisor, the Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM), the virtual machines (VMs), and the operating systems and applications installed on these virtual machines.
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Green Cloud Computing Architecture

Green Cloud Computing Architecture

Virtual Machine Management Another key part of a Green Cloud structure is virtual machine picture administration. By utilizing virtualization innovations inside the Cloud, various new strategies wind up conceivable. Sit without moving physical machines in a Cloud can be powerfully closed down and restarted to ration vitality amid low load circumstances. A

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Survey on mitigation techniques of virtualization technique

Survey on mitigation techniques of virtualization technique

Cloud computing model is used for delivering the resource in a convenient way and on-demand basis from a pool of configurable resources that is being provisioned and released with minimal interaction of service provider [1]. The Virtualization is a software model that separate the operating system from the hardware physically used. These isolated machines are named as Virtual Machines (VM) [2]. Software version of the machine called as VM, which performs all activities similar to physical machine The virtual machine can be generally classified into two category based on the usage, they are a) system virtual machine b) process virtual machine. Virtual machine performs all activities like traditional OS. More number of virtual machines would be executed on single physical hardware along with various guest operating systems. These operating systems create an illusion on end users that they are working with real physical infrastructure.
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Trends in Virtualized User Environments

Trends in Virtualized User Environments

MojoPac allows for all documents and personal settings to be copied to the drive, before launching. If this happens, there will be .lnk files. Although the application does not allow access to the local hard drive once the application is started, access to the CD/DVD drive and removable drives is still possible. MojoPac implements paging between memory and the hard drive to take place on the host PC instead of on the portable drive, so remnants of activity from the drive would be in the pagefile. Browsing and multimedia history stays inside MojoPac. It has a separate registry and shell stored on the USB device. Currently it will only run on Windows XP and needs administrative rights on the host machine in order to run, unless a application such as MojoUsher is installed on the host PC for limited mode authority. MojoPac runs under the RingThreeMainWin32 process. Since there are essentially 2 XP environments running programs of the same name may be running on both the host and the virtual environments.
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Compression of Virtual-Machine Memory in Dynamic Malware Analysis

Compression of Virtual-Machine Memory in Dynamic Malware Analysis

In this paper, we develop a scheme for the lossless compression of memory dumps resulting from the repeated execution of malware samples in a virtual- machine sandbox. Rather than compress each mem- ory dump individually, we capitalize on the fact that memory dumps stem from a known baseline virtual- machine state and code with respect to this baseline memory. Additionally, to further improve compres- sion efficiency, we exploit the fact that a significant portion of the difference between the baseline mem- ory and that of the currently running machine is the result of the loading of known executable programs and shared libraries. Experimental results on a col- lection of virtual-machine memory dumps demon- strate a significant improvement over the straight- forward compression of each memory dump indepen- dently. We detail our proposed compression scheme in the remainder of the text.
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Unstructured mesh generation based on Parallel Virtual Machine in cyber physical system

Unstructured mesh generation based on Parallel Virtual Machine in cyber physical system

generation intelligent system with the advantage of flexi- bility, high efficiency, and intelligence [5, 6]. Thus, it has the potential to serve as the interconnection and collab- oration of virtual world and physical world. Besides, CPS can be described as a thematic subject rather than a dis- ciplinary topic. Multidisciplinary areas such as mecha- tronics, robotics, and CPS often begin with themes and eventually evolve into subject areas. CPS has become an important direction for academic research and industrial application, such as in computer science, communica- tion, control, and transportation [7, 8]. Therefore, the development of CPS has been supported by many gov- ernments. Specifically, applications of CPS include auto- motive systems, manufacturing, medical equipment, military systems, assisted living, traffic control and safety, process control, power generation and distribu- tion, energy conservation, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning), aircraft, instrumentation, water management systems, train, physical security (access control and monitoring), asset management, and distrib- uted robotics (remote presentation, telemedicine) [9, 10]. Furthermore, CPS can be developed in the aspect of managing data and leveraging the interconnectivity of machines to achieve the goal of intelligent, resilient, and self-adaptable machines [11].
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Implementation of Virtual Machine Based Cloudlet Architecture Using MQTT Protocol By Providing Reliability Service

Implementation of Virtual Machine Based Cloudlet Architecture Using MQTT Protocol By Providing Reliability Service

So, cloudlet is small tiny cloud services running in the client devices. Considering there are several client devices connected to the same local network like Wi-Fi network or Ethernet LAN and if we can run fraction of service on each of these client machine and combine them into small local cloud fragment that becomes Cloudlet. Then each of these devices small storage capacity used to build large storage using cloudlet. The cloudlet is used to reduce the latency between a cloud and its client thus providing a faster access of the data. We also provide reliability service within the cloudlet such that, if any client machine holding a file chunk is failed during file download request, then that particular file chunk will be retrieved using core cloud connected with it.
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Title: Comparative Study on Cloud Computing (CC) and Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC)

Title: Comparative Study on Cloud Computing (CC) and Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC)

Hybrid cloud is a private cloud linked to one or more external cloud services, provisioned as a single unit, centrally managed, and circumscribed by a secure network. It provides virtual IT solutions through a mix of both public and private clouds. Hybrid Cloud provides higher security control of the data and applications and allows various parties to access information over the Internet. Hybrid cloud also has an open architecture that allows interfaces with other management systems. It can define configuration combining a regional device, such as a Plug computer with cloud services [3].
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Impact Of Parallelism And Virtualization On Task Scheduling In Cloud Environment

Impact Of Parallelism And Virtualization On Task Scheduling In Cloud Environment

In fig-1(a) space-shared provisioning is taken for cloudlets and VMs. In space shared only one VM can run at a time. Since each VM has two cores, so at a time two tasks can be executed simultaneously as shown in fig-1(a). According to space shared policy of VMs and cloudlets estimated finish time(eft) of a task p managed by the virtual machine i is given by

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Integration of Virtual Machine with Cloud

Integration of Virtual Machine with Cloud

In the case of the virtual machine images determined by the SPARSE Extent, a static analysis using the mount of such virtual machine images is impossible if the grain directory and grain table are damaged. Also, a dynamic analysis is not possible because it cannot be operated. Thus, if the collected virtual machine images are irrecoverable, a direct investigation for such image files is required. The investigation for the images files can be carried out using a recovery method for the remained data and a method for the investigation of the metadata in a file system. Although the virtual machine images store the RAW data by fragmenting it into grains, the meaningful data can be recovered using a file carving method if the data is allocated to a continuous grain. The major subjects to recover are the files, which become evidence of user behavior like document and image files, and the information of the accessed sites is also obtained by recovering the evidence of the use of web pages and web browsers. In particular, as a virtual machine is determined by a Windows system, the information of the user’s account and trail can be obtained if a registry file with an signature of ‘regf’ is obtained using a carving method.
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AN ASSESSMENT OF VIRTUAL MACHINE ASSAILS

AN ASSESSMENT OF VIRTUAL MACHINE ASSAILS

The VM layer is secured than any OS, because of its simplicity and strict access management. Compromising the hypervisor offers the prospect of attacker’s access to all or any virtual machines controlled by it and presumably the host, that makes the hypervisor a compelling target. The unauthorized communication between guests may be a violation of the isolation principle, however, will doubtless occur through shared memory. Like physical machines, VMs are a unit liable to thieving and denial of service attacks [4]. The contents of the virtual disk for every virtual machine area unit typically hold on as a file, which might be travel by hypervisors on different machines, permitting attackers to repeat the virtual disk and gain unrestricted access to the digital contents of the virtual machine. Since VMs share resources from the physical machine, VM infrastructures have been notably liable for denial of service attacks [5] that may starve resources from all VMs on the physical machine. As luck would have it, this drawback is well fastened by limiting resource consumption per every VM. Newer merchandise solve several of those issues, but still be issues that hypervisors abundant continue to contemplate in development.
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Virtual machine placement in cloud

Virtual machine placement in cloud

proposed. Forecast of interest was performed to characterize reservation costs. In [2], K-closest neighbour calculation was connected to anticipate the interest of assets. In [11], a dynamic VM arrangement was proposed. Nonetheless, the position is heuristic-based which can't ensure the ideal arrangement. The ideal virtual machine situation (OVMP) calculation was proposed in [7]. This OVMP calculation can yield the ideal answer for the two assets provisioning and VM arrangement in two provisioning stages. In [8] present the OCRP calculation in this paper which accomplishes numerous upgrades. The issue is summed up into the numerous stage plan first. Second the diverse ways to deal with get the arrangement of figuring asset provisioning are considered. To dissect the [6] Sample Average Approximation (SAA) to be determined in the under and over provisioning level to be determined. Propelled by this past work, we present Scenario Reduction Techniques (SRT) are accomplishes more accessibility than RTUOP calculation can maintain a strategic distance from the under arrangement and overprovision issues.
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VIRTUAL THEORY OF MACHINE LAB

VIRTUAL THEORY OF MACHINE LAB

Abstract: This paper demonstrates the utilization of VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) as a tool for interactive environment for teaching learning process. We have taken a problem of Virtual Theory of Machine Laboratory to check and test effectiveness of VRML capabilities. The traditional teaching/ learning multimedia in engineering involves 2D graphics mostly created with Adobe Dreamweaver or animated .gif files whereas this paper focus on interactive 3D models, which will be more realistic to real word mechanisms. VRML enables user to explore 3D models in their working condition on any Internet browser like Internet Explorer, Chrome, Mozilla Firefox or Opera etc. The paper focus on methodology adopted for creating Virtual Models, its application and future scope of VRML capabilities in teaching learning Process.
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Efficient I/O Virtualisation in Asymmetric Multiprocessor Architectures

Efficient I/O Virtualisation in Asymmetric Multiprocessor Architectures

Interrupt Coalescing. There are an excessive number of interrupts from physical devices and virtual interrupts to notify of I/O events among the VMM, dom0 and domU. On the receiving side, a packet arrival on a device causes a physical interrupt, and the hypervisor routes it to dom0 and to domU via a virtual interrupt. On the transmitting side, domU raises a virtual interrupt to notify dom0 which fires a DMA transfer and waits for an interrupt from a device. On an interrupt, dom0 generates a virtual interrupt to notify the domU of I/O completion or an error. The number of physical and virtual interrupts increases with an increase in the number of domains. To reduce the number of interrupts, Santos et al. use an NIC interrupt throttling feature, which refrains the NIC from emitting an interrupt until a specified number of packets arrives or maximum latency is passed [Santos et al., 2008]. Dong et al. develop a technique that dynamically throttles the frequency of virtual interrupt on dom0 and domUs [Dong et al., 2011]. The interrupt coalescing technique significantly reduces the number of interrupts, but may increase latency [Salah, 2007]. Guan et al. proposed an adaptive polling technique which monitors I/O requests and switches between polling and interrupt modes [Guan et al., 2013], like Linux NAPI driver [Salim, 2005].
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Smalltalk-80 virtual machine

Smalltalk-80 virtual machine

21 push the send a second value of the receiver's origin onto argument aRectangle unary message literal frame the first instance stack the location with selector in the origin a single a[r]

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