There have been many improvements in the Internet including Quality of Service, network performance, and inexpensive technologies, such as DSL. But one of the most important advances has been in VirtualPrivateNetworking (VPN) Internet Protocol security (IPSec). IPSec is one of the most complete, secure, and commercially available, standards-based protocols developed for transporting data.
servers, storage and some applications, which are provided to the company through the Internet. It is made available in a pay-as-you-go manner to the general public. Some Public cloud providers are Amazon AWS, Microsoft and Google. Private cloud is a cloud computing platform which is implemented within the company firewall and under the observation of the IT department. Private cloud is cloud infrastructure which is operated only for a single organization. It is managed internally or by any third-party . Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community or public) that remain unique entities and are bound with each other. It provides the benefits of various deployment models . Gartner, Inc. defines a hybrid cloud service as a cloud computing service which is made of combination of private cloud, public cloud and community cloud services provided by different service providers . Cloud computing providers offer their services according to several fundamental models like Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS). Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) refers to on- demand computing capacity from a service provider which is virtualized hardware and storage. Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) refers to environment for application development with seamless Integration with Cloud for application hosting. Software as a service (SaaS) refers to applications delivered as cloud services where customers are provided with applications that are accessible anytime and from anywhere . There are several cloud services available in the market like Google App Engine, Microsoft Windows Azure, Force.Com, Oracle cloud and Manjrasoft Aneka. Google App Engine provides an extensible runtime environment for web based applications developed with Java or Python, which leverage huge Google IT infrastructure. Windows Azure provides a wide array of Windows based services for developing and deploying windows based applications on the Cloud. It makes use of the infrastructure provided by Microsoft to host these services and scale them seamlessly . We have explained here Windows Azure Platform, Amazon Cloud Platform, Oracle cloud Platform and Suit Cloud Platform.
A VirtualPrivate Network (VPN) allows the provisioning of private network services for an organization over a public network such as the Internet. In other words a VPN can transform the characteristics of a public which may be non-secure network into those of a private secure network through using encrypted tunnels. This work customized a standard VPN to a newly one called EEVPN (Effective Extensive VPN). It transmits a small data size in through a web based system in a reasonable time without affecting the security level. The proposed EEVPN is more effective where it takes small data transmission time with achieving high level of security. Also, the proposed EEVPN is more extensive because it is not built for a specific environment.
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The ERTMS (European Train Management System) has been developed by the European Union (EU) to enhance safety, increase efficiency and to cross-border interoperability creating a unique solution fulfilling a standardized certification process. The ERTMS being able to automatically stop the train to overcome human errors has achieved the highest track record in terms of safety over several billion km travelled each years. GNSS positioning, bearer-independent telecoms and ATO (Automatic Train Operation) are the new features for enhancing the ERTMS in the path to fully autonomous operations. In the same period, the automotive industry has launched ambitious plans for the connected cars and autonomous driving applications are emerging as the next wave of innovation. This paper evaluates the chal- lenges to sharing intelligent infrastructure means, by combining the strengths of the safety benchmark achieved on the rail transport with the mass produc- tion capability of the automotive industry to lower the costs. In this scenario, rail and automotive becoming tightly intertwined can get a grip in the race towards a fully automation affordable and safe, giving birth to autonomous vehicles able to travel within virtual rails as “trains” on the road. To this aim we will introduce the two test bed in Italy respectively for validating the ERTMS with GNSS positioning and public telecoms networks and for testing FCA Ducato vans to operate at SAE level 3 automation exploiting the new GALILEO and 5 G services.
A consortium, consisting of Ascend Communications, 3Com, ECI Telematics, U.S. Robotics, and Microsoft, developed the PPTP specification for the tunneling of data across the Internet.The PPTP protocol  is built on the well- established Internet Communications Protocol PPP (point- to-point protocol), and TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol).Multiprotocol PPP offers authentication as well as methods of privacy and compression of data. IP is routable, and has an Internet infrastructure. PPTP allows a PPP session to be tunneled through an existing IP connection, no matter how it was set up. An existing connection can be treated as if it were a telephone line, so a private network can run over a public one. Tunneling is achieved because PPTP provides ncapsulation by wrapping packets of information (IP, IPX, or NetBEUI) within IP packets for transmission through the Internet. Upon receipt, the external IP packets are stripped away, exposing the original packets for delivery. Encapsulation allows the transport of packets that will not otherwise conform to Internet addressing standards. PPTP encapsulates Point-To-Point Protocol (PPP) frames into IP data grams for transmission over an IP-based Internet work, such as Internet. To encapsulate PPP frames as tunneled data, PPTP uses a TCP connection known as PPTP control connection to create, maintain and terminate the tunnel & a modified version of Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE). PPTP inherits encryption or compression or both, of PPP payloads from PPP. Authentication that occurs during the creation of PPTP-based VPN connection uses the same authentication mechanisms as PPP connections, such as:
By reviewing publications on Virtual Organization (VO) [7, 8, 9, 12, 14], a majority of them are optimistic about global collaboration, and the successful examples are based on researchers (working in different terminals) who are familiar with the software tools. There are not many usability cases for those who are unfamiliar with the system. Therefore, another usability test was designed – getting another two new users (who were unfamiliar with the software tools), and both were asked to repeat the process that Researcher A undertook. Similarly, these two new users experienced the same problem. This further confirms the earlier statement that majority of VO publications are optimistic, as it requires highly-trained researchers who are familiar with the software tools and command lines. In this paper, another objective is to argue that VO should made the learning or collaborative process as easy as possible, otherwise it is difficult to justify the purpose of setting up the entire infrastructure. In the usability test, the presence of the trainer (Researcher B) had improved the learning curve for new users and has assisted the users to achieve their tasks. This type of learning is also known as Interactive Learning (IL), which is the combination of e-Learning and face-to- face learning . Therefore, if IL can be fully integrated with VO, and the development, existence and added-values for VO can be fully justified.
Today, most of large enterprises and business companies are spread their offices on different locations. Computing networking and Internet are used to connect between their business branches and head office. In the past, company and organization are used various WAN technologies such as Frame Relay, ATM or T1 for Internet and WAN connections. But current network traffic and security concern, those technologies are not enough for the WAN connectivity. Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) replaces other WAN technologies due to higher reliability and higher performance. To maintain security problems, layer2 VPN is used in a non-scalable enterprise network. MPLS VPN provides scalability to partition large companies into smaller networks. It becomes very useful in IT organizations that must provide isolated networks for their departments. Large companies are interested in MPLS VPN because it offers a new option for WAN connectivity.
connectivity via complex LAN configurations, Oracle SDN defines connectivity entirely in software using a supremely elegant resource: the privatevirtual interconnect. A privatevirtual interconnect is a software-defined link between two resources. It enables you to connect any virtual machine or server to any other resource anywhere in a data center. Connect in seconds without inflexible network configuration, and gain the flexibility and agility you need in order to take control of your cloud.
L2TP can be used as a tunneling protocol for site-to-site VPNs as well as remote-access VPNs. In fact, L2TP can create a tunnel between Client and router,NAS and router & Router and router. The long-term direction for secure networking, IPSec is a suite of cryptography-based protection services and security protocols. Because it requires no changes to applications or protocols, you can easily deploy IPSec for existing networks. IPSec provides machine-level authentication, as well as data encryption, for VPN connections that use the L2TP protocol. IPSec negotiates between your computer and its remote tunnel server before an L2TP connection is established, which secures both passwords and data. L2TP uses standard PPP-based authentication protocols, such as EAP , MS-CHAP, SPAP, and PAP with IPSec. Encryption is determined by the IPSec Security Association, or SA. A security association is a combination of a destination address, a security protocol, and a unique identification value, called a Security Parameters Index (SPI).
Abstract: This application note provides technical information on VirtualPrivate Networks (VPN) and how this relates to the Thomson Gateways. In the introduction a brief background on VPNs is presented. The subsequent sections give detailed information on user scenarios and how to configure a Thomson Gateways. The last section explains services that can be enabled on a VPN.
While distance learning benefits are not challenged by most, it is difficult to estimate the impact on education overall. It should be measured by the content of the cur- riculum, which should be based on the process, percep- tion, product and the mode of delivery. As such distance learning should be scrutinized just as traditional curricu- lum has been in the past and continue to be so. The only "change" should really be the medium of dissemination. Not the content per se, not the overall approach, and cer- tainly not the end product, which is the education of the students, health professional and, the patients them- selves. The differences between classical teaching and learning, and the new and modern form of teaching as well as learning is substantial in this new era. Instead of confined classroom teaching and learning, the entire uni- verse has become a workplace, a learning environment, anywhere, anytime, 24 hours a day. This creates a sense of shared knowledge and virtualnetworking alliances. The demand for distance learning stems from the common sense of its applicability, but it requires the same stand- ards of production, and evaluation of such programs. The main reasons to implement distance learning in health education are:
Facebook‟s now 1 billion users primarily use the site for social purposes such as maintaining a network of offline relationships (Bryant & Marmo, 2012; Tong & Walther, 2011). One important SNS function is as a platform for active communication between friends and whānau, complementing offline relationships, allowing users to continue relationships online and adding to their overall wellbeing (Burke, Marlow & Lento, 2010). Kennedy (2010) states that Facebook is used as a vehicle for facilitating and maintaining whānau connections, “the common relationship, that of being kin, is sufficient to make and maintain a connection, and enables whānau to state their place within the whānau through the network forum” (Kennedy, 2010, p. 16). The rapid uptake of SNS by Māori is creating new contexts within which fundamentals like whanaungatanga are being played out. Whanaungatanga, once limited as a face-to-face practice, has become common in virtual spaces where families (existing and new connections) and friends are maintaining and strengthening ties and relationships.
Our first use case illustrates how new QoS schemes could be introduced in existing networking infrastructures using the network virtualization concept. In this use case, a virtualized VoIP service with a two-dimensional QoS scheme is realized as follows: At the lowest level, we find the physical networking infrastructure (owned and man- aged by a Physical Infrastructure Provider), on top of which a first VNet (VN1) is instantiated and operated by a Virtual Infrastructure Provider. The latter deploys in VN1 a new QoS scheme enabling the differentiation between different classes of traffic (e.g. conversational, streaming, interactive, and background traffic classes), based on their resources requirements. Building on VN1 capabilities, a second VNet (VN2) is instantiated and deployed by a ser- vice provider offering sophisticated VoIP services and a session prioritization scheme enabling the distinction be- tween sessions based on their level of importance from the user’s perspective. This scheme, which constitutes a second QoS dimension, would enable the user to choose the appropriate class for each call (e.g. silver, gold, and platinum) based on its level of importance. We note that the value added in this scenario consists in the support of a two-dimensional QoS scheme and the support of so- phisticated VoIP services. This value was added via the in- stantiated virtualization layers, without affecting the
To provision a templated application into a virtual environment, Virtuozzo creates all required copy- on-write links back to the master template. Even for large templates, the whole process only takes few seconds, since very little data is copied. From an administrator standpoint, provisioning an application to a virtual environment is as simple as running a single command or a wizard. UPDATING A TEMPLATE
It has been reported (Steel and Fowler, 2010) that some applications use user information for purposes other than providing utility for users. If third-party applications were hosted on trusted servers, then it might be possible to control how they consume user data. Yet, third-party applications are hosted on untrusted servers. Delivering user data via the extension API to an untrusted server puts the data at risk. A simple example is the selling of user information to marketing companies. In short, there is no guarantee that third-party applications are benign, and that they use user data in accordance to the purpose of the applications. While the above problem has to do with the misuse of legitimately accessible information, this work is instead about an even more challenging problem: i.e., through the extension API, malicious applications may obtain some private information for which they are not authorized.