Representatives of the following organisations in the Netherlands generously assisted in this research by affording time to answer various questions via telephone and email correspondence. The research also richly benefited from a joint UK Commission for Employment and Skills/Department for Business, Innovation and Skills study visit to the Netherlands in June 2012. This provided an opportunity to meet with policymakers, employers, employees and training providers to discuss the practicalities of the VET system. Sincere thanks go to: the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science; the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment; the Foundation for Cooperation on VET and the Labour Market; the Association for Vocational and Adult Education; Kenteq Knowledge Centre; the Regional Education and Training Centre, Central Netherlands; and OTIB (Training and Development for Technical Installation) for their assistance. The names of individuals representing these organisations have been withheld to afford them the opportunity to speak freely about the opportunities and challenges provided by Dutch VET, as they see it. Any mistakes herein remain the responsibility of the author and his alone.
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Within Australia, and in line with international trends in supporting lifelong learning (see, for example, the learning brokers research project in the UK, reported in Thomas et al. 2004), the time is ripe for further exploration of a broker- age model. The recent Australian policy document Shaping our Future: Australia’s national strategy for vocational education and training 2004–2010 (Australian National Training Authority 2003) identifies a range of strategies that support training brokerage. These include assisting clients as they navigate the vocational education and training (VET) sector, enabling training providers and brokers to partner with industry, and strengthening the role of industry in identifying skill needs and devel- oping products and services to meet those needs. In addition, Australia has a strong client-driven training culture, as well as a strong market of training providers which provide greater client choice than ever before.
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In both quantitative and qualitative cases of skills shortages, employers almost invariably look to the workforce and to the training and education system to address the situation. However, there is a view that there is very little that can effectively be done to resolve quantitative skills shortages in the short- or long-term by anyone other than the employers themselves. This would involve attention to forward planning; location decisions; expansion, training needs, succession, human resources planning; increased recruitment efforts and incentives. Given that the various drivers of quantitative skills shortages are unpredictable, training speculatively or for ‘stock’ is also seen not to be viable. This view is reinforced by a perception that because of the short lead-in time colleges and training providers cannot respond to these immediate and often very short-lived situations by providing speedy and effective responses.
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A third potentially important idea I take from Walker and McLean is their notion of an institutional capability of connectedness. Though not the heart of their work, they suggest that institutions too have to develop capabilities that allow them to respond to their goals and challenges. As I have noted, this is somewhat analogous to the VET concept of responsiveness. However, it offers a radical alternative to the narrow economism of responsiveness by being located firmly in a social justice frame. Here I think a third concept developed in South Africa may also be usefully introduced: that of receptiveness. Akoojee (2007) argues in the case of private providers that they have a particular challenge of being seen to be receptive to national development objectives, as well as business considerations. Taken together, these notions of connectedness, responsiveness and receptiveness point us towards the need to have VET institutions and systems that seek to engage with the needs and aspirations of individuals, communities, firms and the nation, and to balance economic and social rationales, rather than to simply serve single agendas.
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Quality is a word with which you cannot argue. Who would be against quality or consider it irrelevant? Suppose that one day some powerful and august body pro- posed to help users and providers of vo- cational education and training in the Eu- ropean Union to improve training and make good choices, by providing a “Qual- ity Guide of Vocational Education and Training”, showing where the best qual- ity training could be obtained. After all, if tyre manufacturers can evaluate restau- rants, the least a European organisation, like CEDEFOP for example, should be able to provide is sound information on qual- ity in its own domain. After a moment’s applause and surprise for this most wel- come of initiatives, someone would prob- ably suggest that to evaluate on quality you need criteria. “Yes”, might be the re- ply, this is a complex matter, but so is tasting food. The more sceptical discus- sants, perhaps anxious to protect a cer- tain interest that they may have, might say, “Why do we not appoint a working group to establish valid criteria for qual- ity assessment?” There would then be a sigh of relief, and an experienced indi- v i d u a l ( p e rh a p s s o m e o n e f r o m CEDEFOP), would be asked to form this committee and invite members and com- ments from various national bodies who might be suitable experts.
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This list of features is not comprehensive: we could have added several dimensions that look equally relevant. From an education system perspective the scope of courses would be interesting, since the range includes both programmes with very specific purpose (for example for licensed roles such as workplace safety, lifting, welding) and multi-year courses with high-level qualifications associated with paraprofessional occupations or degree programmes leading to prestigious occupations such as law and medicine. Another relevant dimension for this perspective is the extent of articulation between VET and higher education programmes. We could have also been more specific on target groups, such as young school leavers, women returning to working life, or the long-term unemployed or on selectivity of access. It makes a difference whether programmes are selective according to prior educational performance or if there is no selection at all, and also if companies are in charge of selection. Related to this is the question of whether VET is free of charge for the learners, if they have to pay fees or if they receive remuneration during their programme, as in the case with many apprenticeships. It would be interesting to see how varied are providers, and whether key providers also extensively provide continuing education and training, or if such provision is limited. From a labour market perspective, the dominating forms of work organisation, such as whether organisational, occupational or professional, would be interesting. We could have made a reference to the degree of regulation, such as VET leading to regulated occupations or those that are less/not regulated.
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decentralised, self-governing trend that is increasingly established in many societies. An example of this is provided by a number of Danish vocational colleges, where the entire state subsidy per student is given to the sector department, which has to make ends meet for education expenses (salaries, equipment, teaching aids, teachers’ in-service training, etc.) and pay a ‘tax’ to the common budget of the college. This ‘inclusive’ method of financial and pedagogical management highlights the need for multi-skilled school managers at many levels of the organisation. Some schools even go as far as to give teams of teachers financial and strategic planning responsibilities in order to increase their capacity to meet the needs of individual students and the local labour market. Previously, vocational colleges were mostly managed by a narrow management team that would meet daily and take all the necessary strategic and financial decisions. Now practically every teacher is involved in managing resources and identifying priorities – based on the overall values and objectives agreed within the organisation. This trend in school organisation and management will become increasingly important if providers are to secure quality in all areas of their activities, from the provision of labour market relevant education and training to financial
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There is no practical limit to the educational world. With organisations like Ofsted and ARK, some of the great names in higher education. What the British Department for International Development has done, particularly in supporting education for girls in developing nations. Some of the great innovators of educational technologies, some of whom you have a chance to meet here and at BETT. And indeed my experience on change programmes, on school autonomy, on the early years and on phonics.
Following Hodkinson et al’s (1996) theorising of school-to-work transitions, we suggest that structure and agency combine to render the process of acculturation far more complex than a passive absorption into a community of practice. Agency plays its part, since vocational habitus – and the wider vocational culture – is relational and dynamic, co-constructed partly by the dispositions of the students themselves as they construct their own identities. The vocational habitus must be a ‘choosable’ identity for the individual, one that falls within their ‘horizons for action’. Students must have social and family backgrounds, individual preferences and life experiences which pre-dispose them to orient to the vocational habitus and become ‘right for the job’. In the three sites we have considered, both gender and specific locations within the working class appear to be important in this regard (as they were for Bates’ ‘care girls’). However, although such pre-disposition is necessary, it is not sufficient, and much identity-work still remains to be done. In all three sites, our evidence confirms Bates’ (1994a) suggestion that this includes the ability to accept the disappointments (especially academic ‘failure’ and lowered career aspirations), difficulties and privations of entering the field, and to reconstruct them more positively over time.
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Besides in goals, content and processes quality of vocational education is also visible in output and effects. Many governments, especially in developing countries, claim education to be an important part of their development strategy, which on one hand educates professional employees for industrial development and on the other hand is engaged in youth unemployment. However, there is no provable relationship between enrolment in VET and economic growth (Ziderman, 1997). VET provides training, but it does not guarantee a job on itself (UNESCO, 2005). If the labour market does not have space for students, every training program is useless, how expensive and extended it might be. Therefore quality assurance is on of the main important aspects concerning the effects of VET (see the blue box above). Another important factor, which contributes to the success of VET, is the relationship with labour market; the degree of meeting their demands. In general, according to Lewin (1993) VET can play a central role in the development of flexible skills for a continuously changing labour market. But in research (Al Heeti & Brock, 1997) VET turns out to be undervalued by employers because it does not meet labour market needs, which is caused by bad contacts with industry. Therefore under the first heading the responsiveness to needs of labour market is dealt with. Foster (1987) argues that whether education is vocational or not, does not depend on the kind of education, but on the chances it offers on the labour market. Academic education could even be more vocational than vocational education. Therefore the integration into labour market after graduation will be dealt with under the second heading in this paragraph.
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policy. An internal agreement was in fact reached on certain principles, such as the advisability of solving the problem of re- gional imbalances. There were plans for set- ting up a European Social Fund (ESF), as well as a European Investment Bank. In ad- dition, Italy’s partners accepted the princi- ple of mobility of labour. Lastly, in the final phases of the negotiations, especially as a result of the pressures exerted by certain unions, the ‘Six’ also tackled the question of representation of the economic and social forces. Despite strong opposition from the West German delegates, the Treaties of Rome made provision for setting up an Economic and Social Committee, under the Commis- sion and Council, which was to have a tri- partite membership of representatives of em- ployers, the trade unions and organisations representing ‘various interests’. The ESC was, however, to be an advisory body and would not be empowered to adopt measures on its own initiative (Varsori, 1995; 1999; 2000). It is usually held that the EEC had no ef- fective social policy from its origin in 1958 up to the early 1970s. This is only partly true. The majority of the leaders of the ‘Six’ felt that problems of a social nature ought to be tackled at national level, and in those years the Community Member States creat- ed or reinforced their own national welfare systems (Le politiche sociali in Europa, Bologna, 1999). In addition, the economy of Western Europe was passing through a period of strong, steady growth, combined with close to full employment, which in the end helped to ease social tensions (Aldcroft, 1993). Nonetheless, the social issue was not altogether neglected (see in general Degimbe, 1999). The ESC fought strenuously for recog- nition as an independent body that could influence the decisions of the Commission and the Council. Within the ESC the rep- resentatives of the unions proved to be par- ticularly active, and frequent calls were made for the Community to develop an effec- tive social policy. Very soon the ESC de- veloped a clear concern for the connections between work and education, focusing its attention on vocational training, which was conceived as a useful instrument for im- proving workers’ conditions, modernising the economic system and creating closer and more effective links between the labour market and educational systems. The Ital- ian authorities also reaffirmed their interest in drawing up some form of European so- cial policy that might contribute towards
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14. The capacity of the State to shape society is questioned by Leadbeater. He argues for a shift towards building social capital, helping people prevent and solve their own problems and enabling individuals to take responsibility for shaping their own lives. Par ticularly relevant to the skills debate is the concept of social enterprise which relies upon innovation, risk-taking and creativity to build social capital and develop new approaches to local solutions, frequently involving par tnership and mutual working. The vision is of devolved approaches to local solutions with the State operating as an enabler, rather than a central planner. Integrated and holistic solutions to solve complex problems, such as youth crime, are emphasised, as is the need for education to work alongside other services. 15. Leadbeater describes a world of contrasts:
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Even without the imperative of Brexit, productivity and skills are historic problems that need solving. We have a modern Industrial Strategy that is all about making Britain fit for the future, in a world of rapid technological change… But it’s people that are at the heart of this strategy. It’s people that will make it live. By investing in our technical education now, we can make sure that everyone is qualified for the jobs of today and tomorrow… That all our young people have the opportunities they need to succeed.
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A significant proportion of young people leaving initial education and training programmes every year do so with a qualification awarded by the vocational education and training (VET) system. Frequently, individuals, employers, researchers and policy-makers argue that VET systems deserve more attention because they make a major contribution to the economy and provide knowledge, skills and competences both to employees and employers. At least two aspects need to be addressed to modernise VET systems. The first relates to pedagogy and content because a modern VET system must deliver the expected outcomes so that individuals can find a suitable job in a reasonable amount of time, and employers can obtain the knowledge, skills and competences they expect to develop and encourage in the workplace. The second aspect relates to the way the dissemination of information about VET outcomes is organised and about how qualifications are awarded. Presently, employers may not find the appropriate skills and competences they need in the market either because they do not exist – VET systems have not incorporated them in their programmes – or because employers do not know where to find them. An important challenge for the VET system is, therefore, that it be able to deliver the expected skills and competences and that it be able effectively to provide information about how the system functions. This approach is interesting because it invariably needs to address the way feedback should be organised within the VET system to offer a steady flow of information on how best to provide relevant education and training. A national qualifications system and its subcomponents, such as a qualifications framework, can address most issues related to content and information. This report focuses on the role of qualifications systems in helping to modernise VET with, where appropriate, a more specific focus on qualifications frameworks.
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The 2016 figures show progression from state schools into post-16 education in the year 2013/14. These figures are for slightly younger students than those for 2009 because they relate to students in the first year of a two-year course, so the categories are broadly comparable. The table distinguishes between school sixth-form and sixth form colleges as the former generally have the lowest proportion of students from deprived backgrounds and may be perceived as having the most elevated status. White students had the highest percentage going on to (predominantly vocational) FE colleges (36%) and the lowest percentage going on to study in (normally more academic) school sixth-forms (37%). By comparison, 22% of Asian young people, 27% of Black young people and 24% of students from other ethnic origins went to FE colleges in the same year (DfE 2016, 7). There are significant regional differences within these figures, especially between London and the rest of England. Nationally 34% of young people were attending FE colleges, 43% in the North East and only 24% in London (DfE 2016) As against earlier patterns of participation in which black youth were over represented in FE/VET the current statistics suggest that their participation has diminished, with white youth having the highest percentage of FE/VET attendance. This shift in participation warrants explanation.
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Another conclusion that emerges from carrying out a review of research RQ9(7WHDFKHUVDQGWUDLQHUVLVWKDWDOWKRXJKVWUXFWXUDOFKDQJHVDIIHFWLQJ WKH9(7ZRUNIRUFHDUHPRUHRUOHVVZHOOGRFXPHQWHGDQGHYLGHQFHGDFWXDO SUDFWLFHVRIWHDFKLQJDQGOHDUQLQJLQ9(7VFKRROVWUDLQLQJFHQWUHVDQGLQ enterprises are not. Thus one cannot confront the discourse on new learning needs and themes for VET teachers and trainers professional development ZLWKWKHUHDOLWLHVRIGDLO\ZRUN,QDGGLWLRQOLWWOHLVNQRZQRQWKHVSHFLÀFLPSDFW RIFRQWLQXLQJ9(7UHIRUPRQWHDFKHUVDQGWUDLQHUV$OVR9(7WHDFKHUDQG trainer initial and continuing professional development in terms of participation UDWHVÀHOGVWKHPHVDQGVNLOOWUDQVPLVVLRQPRGHVLVSRRUO\GRFXPHQWHG)LUVW JRRGGHÀQLWLRQVDQGVWDWLVWLFVWRPDSWKHÀHOGDUHQRQH[LVWHQW6HFRQGZKLOH VFDWWHUHGUHVHDUFKRQ9(7WHDFKHUDQGWUDLQHUZRUNSUDFWLFHVLVDYDLODEOH IRULQGLYLGXDOFRXQWULHVHPSLULFDOUHVHDUFKGRHVQRWDSSHDUWREHDYDLODEOH DWLQWHUQDWLRQDOOHYHO3ROLF\PDNHUVPD\WHQGWRÀQGWKHPVHOYHVFDXJKWLQD GLVFRXUVHWKDWLVIDUIURPDFWXDOFODVVURRPVZRUNVKRSVDQGZRUNSODFHSUDFWLFH and relates poorly to the reality of teaching and training in VET.
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The sources of students for the courses offered by Technical Education and Vocational Training institutions are mainly those who have completed their Middle and Matric Certificates. Based on the analysis done by TEVTA, of the 3,952,000 school-aged children who entered the primary schools (Class 1) in 1990, there were only 239,000 or 6.05 percent who passed the Matric in Year 2000. This means that there are about 3,700,000 out-of-school youth or school leavers annually, which become a serious social problem of the Government if not properly addressed. This particular segment of the population becomes the target for technical education and skill-based training, thus, the main source of intake for TEVTA programs. However, the entry qualifications, which are rigidly set at Matric, deprive the largest portion of school leavers from the benefits of training.
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The Lifelong Learning 2007-2013 programme was to carry out the tasks set by the Union in earlier initiatives, among others, in the Communication making a European area of lifelong learning a reality. Although after the completion of the program, signi Þ cant progress in the implementation of the idea of lifelong learning was noted, it also recognised the enormity of the new tasks to be met. It is true that the EU Member States approve of the concept of lifelong learning and make efforts to make it a reality, nevertheless progress is far from suf Þ - cient. There is an apparent difference in the implementation of ideas between the countries which are “old” EU members and the new ones. Therefore, the Council of Europe decided to continue operations for the next 10 years and established a strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (Strategic framework – Education & Training 2020), which uses the achievements of the earlier program. At the same time the program Lifelong Learning 2007-2013 has been replaced by the Erasmus+, which includes six sec- tors: school education, education and vocational training, higher education, adult education, youth education, central projects and sport.
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It is imperative to assess and evaluate the precise contribution of private sector involvement in TEVT System of the country. The Centre Management Committees (CMCs) with an objective to manage and guide the T.T.C's at local level apparently met with little success. Either the employer could not squeeze the time to attend a meeting in some cases and/or the principal of TTC failed to do the homework for fruitful collaboration. Besides the T.T.C's at local level lack requisite autonomy to introduce a change in the curricula, or duration, and entry qualification etc. for a course, hence a private/public collaboration at the level of training centres under the existing centralised dispensation is mostly of academic interest excepting the case when on the job training facilities may be offered by the local employers. Evidence on such an achievement made by any T.T. Centres is not readily available.
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Abstract: The increasing unemployment rate among youth has affected Malaysian economic growth. This youth with tertiary education were the highest to be unemployed due to lack of experience, lack of labor market information and poor employability skills such as communication. Hence, TVET has become vital field in offering solution to the employability issue. This study aims to develop a prediction model in order to estimate the probability of obtaining high-level employability skills among engineering technology students in one of the technical institutes in Malaysia. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was implemented for this purpose. Through this prediction model, factors that contribute mostly to the high-level employability skills were identified. Using a random sampling technique, 204 engineering technology students from nine technical institutes were chosen to be the respondents of the study. A set of Students' Employability Skills Questionnaire of eleven items that include of Communication (3 items), Problem Solving (3 items), Teamwork (4 items), Planning and organizing (3 items), Creativity or Innovation (3 items), Working with others (3 items), Independent Study (3 items), Numeracy skills (2 items), ICT Skills (3 items), Self-Management (2 items) and Time management (3 items) was distributed. The collected data were analysed using SPSS version 22 in order to obtain multinomial logistic regression output. The result may be utilized by the technical institutes to predict the level of employability skills among engineering technology students for future employment in the job market. This implies a practical alternative for the similar issues among TVET graduates. The identification of lacking factors through the predictive model can be used in preparing the invention programs in order to reduce the unemployment rate among engineering technology graduates who become the job feeder in TVET area. Besides that, the contribution of this study is to fill the gap of the limitation study among TVET graduates as well.