This study showed that African breadfruit (Treculia africana) seed oil was a good source of edible oil. Its chemical composition reflected its possible use in various industries; also the volatile fatty acid composition was seen to contain appreciable quantity of fatty acid that increased during processing, hence processing can be said to increase the volatile fatty acid content of the African breadfruit seed oil. VFA not only helps in normal body metabolism but also can improve its nutritional and economic importance; the African breadfruit seed oil is also comparable to that of some conventional oils even when processed. Therefore, the oil will do well as raw ma- terial for food and other relevant industries.
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ABSTRACT: Two in vitro trials were carried out to study the effects of supplementing vitamin E (V E ) on rumen fermentation. In Trial I, four levels of V E product (purity 50%), i.e. 0, 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg dry matter (DM) of feed (equivalent to 0, 7.5, 15, 30 IU V E /kg DM) were supplemented to a typical feed mixture, respectively, as experi- mental treatments. The gas test technique of Menke et al. (1979) was used to measure gas and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production. In Trial II, the in vitro incubation technique of Zhao and Lebzien (2000) was used to determine DM disappearance rate and utilizable crude protein (uCP). Four levels of V E , i.e. 0, 7.5, 15, 30 IU/kg DM were sup- plemented to the same feed mixture as in Trial I, respectively, as experimental treatments. The results showed that supplementing V E increased total gas production (P < 0.01) and tended to increase methane (CH 4 ) production (P = 0.087). Supplementing V E also increased total VFA (P < 0.05) and propionate (P < 0.05), tended to increase acetate production (P = 0.084), and significantly increased DM disappearance rate (P < 0.05) and uCP (P < 0.01). It was concluded that supplementing V E at 30 IU/kg DM under the conditions of present trials with 11.1 IU/kg DM in the feed mixture improved in vitro rumen fermentation of feed mixture. Further research is necessary to con- firm the effects of supplementing V E using in vivo trials.
The enzymes that convert n-alkanes to acyl coenzyme A are encoded by the alk genes, which are located on the OCT plasmid (Figure 1.2) (Eggink et al., 1987a; 1987b; 1988; 1990; Kok, 1988; Van Beilen et al., 1992b). The AlkB component of the alkane hydroxylase is a major membrane protein, which accounts for 25 to 30% of the total cytoplasmic membrane protein content of P. putida (also called as oleovorans) (Eggink et al., 1987a; Lageveen, 1986). The localization of AlkS, the positive regulator of the alk system, is speculative (Benson, 1979). When alkS encounters an inducer molecule (such as n-octane), it sends a second messenger (as yet unknown) that propagates a signal to the alk promoter, thus initiating transcription of the alk operon. The AlkK is an acyl-CoA synthetase, with specificity for medium-chain-length fatty acids as the other alk-system enzymes (Van Beilen et al., 1992b). There is approximately a ten-minute time lag between the cell being confronted with an alkane or alkanol and the full induction of the alkane hydroxylase complex. It has been determined that when the alkane oxidation system is fully expressed, as much as 9% of total cell protein is a product of the alk-regulon. The product of alkane oxidation by the hydroxylase complex, as shown in the Figure 1.4, is an alkanol (R-OH). The alkanol is then dehydrogenated by the 58 kDa NAD-dependent alkanol dehydrogenase, which dehydrogenates the substrate alkanol to form an aldehyde. In the final step of alkane oxidation, the terminal aldehyde group is converted into a carboxyl (R-COOH) group by the 49 kDa NAD-dependant membrane-bound aldehyde dehydrogenase. The fatty acid products made available to the cell via alkane oxidation enzymes are generally thought to enter cellular metabolism via the β-oxidation pathway (Chapman and Duggleby, 1967; Finnerty and Makula, 1975; McKenna and Kallio, 1965; Neider and Shapiro, 1975; Ratledge, 1978; Thijsse and Van der Linden, 1958; Van der Linden and Thijsse, 1965). The β-oxidation cycle (Figure 1.5) is a high- energy yielding pathway that produces one FADH 2 and one (NADH + H + ) for every
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We hypothesised that the application of the ex- trusion process to different starch feedstuffs would have different effects on digestibility val- ues in puppies, mature or geriatric dogs. In this case, an answer to the “Which starch source can we use at different ages?” question was sought. Thus, the aim of the present study was to deter- mine and compare in vitro total gas production and in vitro true organic matter disappearance after incubation times of varying durations. Further, we wished to determine the volatile fatty acid compo- sition of the digestive fluids of extruded and non- extruded cereal and potato flours using inoculums prepared from the faeces of dogs of different ages.
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Total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration significantly (P < 0.01). In both the diets namely CF- 1 and CF-2 the A:P ratio was unaffected by CO inclusion. The inclusion of CO in CF-1 had a non significant effect in pH. However, the inclusion of CO in CF-1 and CF-2 decreased the protozoa number significantly (P < 0.01). Inclusion of oil tended to decrease Gas production (GP), Metabolizable energy (ME), Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA), True Degradability of Dry Matter (TDDM) and Microbial Biomass Production (MBP). The effect was more pronounced when CO level was 1.0µl/ml or higher. From the above gas production and fermentation parameters noticed in two diets CF-1 and CF-2 with inclusion of different levels of CO, it can be envisaged that increasing the proportion of concentrate in diets and using CO as a feed additive increases the rumen efficiency by reducing the methane concentration and gas production.
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anaerobic bacteria, are shown to decrease Salmonella cecal colonization in market-age broilers exposed to repeated Salmonella challenge. However, this low pH (5.0 to 6.0) is not bacteriostatic in itself, and that Salmonella growth is not directly inhibited by the low pH present in the cecal contents of the chicken, but rather in combination with undissociated VFAs (Corrier et al., 1990). Undissociated concentrations of VFAs are responsible for the in vivo reduction in number of Enterobacteriacea (including Salmonella) in the ceca of broilers (Van Der Wielen et al., 2000). It is suggested that the undissociated form of VFAs can diffuse freely across the bacterial membrane into the cell and inside the bacterial cell, where the acid dissociates, thereby reducing the internal pH which will cause internal damage (volatile fatty acid toxicity) (Cherrington et al., 1990; Bearson et al., 1997). Moreover, the lower pH values change the gut mircrobiota composition and prevents overgrowth by pH- sensitive pathogenic bacteria like Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridia in vivo (Cherrington et al., 1991). VFA produced by anaerobic bacteria inhibit Salmonella growth and colonization in poultry (Corrier et al., 1990). An effect of feeding a continuous flow mixture of bacteria is the increased VFA production and subsequent reduction of Salmonella typhimurium in cecal contents and (Corrier et al., 1995). This coincides with the fact that the concentration of VFA in the cecal contents of chicks increases with the establishment of indigenous anaerobic cecal bacteria (Nisbet et al., 1996). And high concentrations of volatile fatty acids are indicative that fermentations by obligate anaerobic bacteria are important (Van Der Wielen et al., 2000). Interestingly, cecal propionic acid concentrations have a direct relationship to
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Solid waste is a one of the major issues created by the society due to the improper disposal of solid waste environmental issues are created. That is air pollution, ground water contamination, soil pollution, water quality depletion & human health related problems etc. The biogas production is one of the solutions to reduce solid waste related environmental problems. In this project study was conducted to analyze the biogas production with co- digestion of sheep droppings and food wastes. The biogas production was carried out under a mesophilic temperature of 27°C to 33°C for duration of 55 days. The objectives of this project are to analyze the different ratio co-digestion of sheep droppings and food waste and also optimize the high biogas producing ratio. There are five laboratory scale samples composed of a different ratio of a sheep droppings to food wastes to make a sample D1 (100:0, D2 (80:20), D3 (70:30), D4 (60:40) and D3 (50:50). The co-digestion occurred in a 20 litre capacity of cylindrical container. The sample will be a semi solid liquid which is poured 16 litre in the container. The pH is noted over the fermentation period of 55 days. All the parameter influencing the anaerobic digestion like pH, temperature, alkalinity, total solids, volatile solids and volatile fatty acid are tested every day to find the digestion process takes place inside the digester. Sample D1 (100% sheep droppings) showed the maximum gas production 85.45 l/kg at the end of the digestion. Sample D-2 (80: 20 for 80% sheep droppings and 20% food waste) of the gas production is 62.71 l/kg. Sample D-3 (60: 40 for 60% sheep droppings and 40% food waste) of the gas production is 36.46 l/kg. Sample D-5 (50: 50 for 50% sheep droppings and 50% food waste) of the gas production is 4.25 l/kg. Keywords: Anaerobic digestion; High density poly ethylene; Liquefied petroleum gas; Microorganism; Volatile fatty acid; Waste to energy; Total solids; Volatile solids; Water hyacinth
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silage is increased (Asefa and Ledin, 2001). One other way of resolving this challenge is through the inclusion of non protein nitrogen sources such as urea in low quantity. Shoukry et al., (1999) reported that ensiling with urea was preferable to drying when feeding banana foliage to sheep. This practice is a common and cheap method of increasing nitrogen (N) supply to ruminants fed silage. The present study was therefore designed to assess the nutritive value (Antinutrients, chemical composition, Lactic and volatile fatty acid contents) and acceptability of dried banana leaves ensiled with cassava peels and urea as feed for WAD sheep.
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In this study, the cold press oil components and antimicrobial activities of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and anise (Pimpinella anisum) and white mustard (Sinapis alba) and black mustard (Brassica nigra) species seeds, which are widely used by the people for alternative medicine, were determined. F. vulgare, P. anisum, S. alba and B. nigra species seeds were obtained from cultivated areas in central Anatolia in Turkey. The oil was extracted by using a screw press (MP-001 Cold Press, Turkey), and the volatile oil components and fatty acid components in these oils were analysed by GCMS and total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP (%) method were determined. Antimicrobial activities of obtained oils were investigated by using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test by against 18 different species microorganisms. In the GCMS results, F. vulgare and P. anisum oils were found to be the most abundant components which were anethole (89.74%, 88.95%, respectively). According to these results, the plants oils didn’t show any antimicrobial activities against tested microorganisms. However especially white and black mustard oils showed strong antioxidant activity when compared with artificial antioxidants.
The main fatty acids (SFA) of roe were found similar pattern in Kutum roe by Ghomi and Nikoo (2010). Most of the studies have shown that saturated fatty acids of fish and fish products are between 20 and 30%, which it was in agreement with these studies (Rincón-Cervera et al., 2009; Rosa et al., 2009; Shin et al., 2010). Palmitic acid had highest proportions. In 15 previous studied species, the predominant SFA was palmitic acid (Rincón-Cervera et al., 2009) and this fatty acid is required for fish growth and formation of roe in females (Huynh et al., 2007). Rincón-Cervera et al. (2009) reported oleic acid as the main component of MUFA in 13 species. Brined roe had less lipid content which is possibly due to decreasing of the MUFA through processing, PUFA percentage of salted roe increased. Scano et al. (2009) suggested that the fatty acid profiles of salted and dried mullet roe were not affected by the processing.
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Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is the most common method used to separate and identify volatile compounds. The GC/MS method combines chromatographic separation with a multi-channel detector to produce qualitative and quantitative information. After a small sample is injected onto the GC, the volatiles travel through a coiled column where individual compounds are separated based on their specific chemical properties. The separated compounds then enter the MS where they are bombarded by electrons to produce ion fragments. Different compounds will produce different characteristic ion fragments. The fragmentation patterns can be compared to chemical standards and existing databases to identify which compounds are present in the food (Huston, 1997). There are two basic types of MS: quadrupole and ion trap. The quadrupole MS utilizes a quadrupole electric field to affect the motion of ions. An ion trap MS stores and concentrates ions prior to mass analysis, and, therefore is more sensitive than a quadrupole apparatus (Huston, 1997).
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In order to confirm that ELO use saturated sub- strates, we analyzed the elongation products of the strains ∆pox ∆fas and ∆pox ∆fas ∆elo1 grown with mC16:0 (Fig. 3a). Elongation of C16:0 will lead to C18:0, further desaturated into C18:1∆9, one of the main fatty acid produced by Y. lipolytica  whereas elongation of C16:1 will lead to C18:1∆11. Derivatiza- tion of the methyl ester FA products of both reactions (Fig. 3a) was performed to allow for localization of the position of the double bond and thus discrimina- tion between C18:1∆9 and C18:1∆11. For both strains, GC–MS analysis yielded two major products at m/z 173 and 217 consistent with the predicted fragmenta- tion properties of C18:1∆9 (Additional file 1: Figure S2). Only traces amount of C18:1∆11 was detected for both strains, strongly supporting the fact that YlELO uses saturated fatty acid as substrate.
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Determination of volatile compounds were carried out by GC-MS according to Krist, et al. , with modifications. Before starting the analysis, as the internal standard (IS) 0.1 mL 5- methyl 2 hexanone was completed to 10 mL with pure water and prepared for analysis. In the 30 mL vials required for use in the analysis, 3 grams of ground seeds were placed, 10 mL pre-boiled and cooled pure water was added and homogenized using a homogenizer (Heidolph Silent Crusher M, Schwabach, Germany) at 13000 rpm. Then, it was added to 10 µL internal standard and a magnetic stirrer was added. After the lid of the vials was sealed and conditioned for 5 min at 40ºC in the heating block, by immersing in an appropriate fiber (50/30 µm-thick, DVB/CAR/PDMS as the adsorbant), left to adsorb the volatile components in the peak space for 40 minutes in a heated magnetic stirrer set to 40ºC and 140 rpm. At the end of this period, the fiber was held at the injection port of the gas chromatography device for 5 min to pass the fiber-holding volatile components to the GC- MS system column. TRB-5MS (30 m length, 0.250 mm internal diameter, 0.25 µm film thickness) capillary column was used in the analyses. The operating conditions were set as follows; injection block temperature: 250ºC, detector temperature: 250ºC, carrier gas: He, flow rate: 1 mL/min, temperature of the MS source: 230ºC, MS quadrupole temperature: 150ºC, injection mode: splitless, electron energy: 70 eV, mass range: 15-210 atomic mass unit, oven temperature program; hold at 40ºC for 2 min, raise from 40 to 70ºC with 5ºC increments per min, hold at 70ºC for 1 min, raise from 70 to 240ºC with 10 C increment per min, hold at 240ºC for 30 min. Then, identifications of the components in the chromatogram were compared with the information in the Wiley and NIST libraries and the calculated retention indexes (RI). In addition, the mass spectra of the defined components and the mass spectra of the internal standard were used to calculate the amounts (µg/kg).
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The increase in world population and lack of sufficient food, begs for new sources of food and feed. As much as 60% of the world food energy intake is provided by the cereals wheat, rice, and corn . These cereals, while high in calories and carbohydrates, have small amounts of important nutrients such as proteins, minerals, vitamins (especially A and C), and fatty acids, especially long chained polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids [1,6,18]. A promising supplement for food and feed is a better utilization of marine resources. World production and harvesting of micro- and macroalgae has doubled from 2004 to 2014 . Still, 97% of the production and harvesting is found in Asia , thus there is a large potential for expansion in other parts of the world. Macroalgae is a diverse group of marine plants, informally divided into three groups: rhodophyta (red algae), chlorophyta (green algae), and phaeophyta (brown algae). An important nutritional benefit of marine
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The operating conditions used to examine methyl esters of fatty acids are as follows. Fatty acids were converted into methyl esters (FAMEs) before gas chromatography (GC) analysis according to the standard methods by Ranganna (1986). Quantitative determinations of FAMEs were conducted by using Gas Chromatograph with flame ion detector (GC-FID) and capillary column HP-88 agilent technologies (100×0.25mm×0.20µ). The injection volume was 1.0µL, with split mode of injection, oven temperature was kept at 250 °C and helium was used as carrier gas. The temperature programme increased from 40 °C to 140 °C. The retention time of the FAMEs was compared with that of the standards (FAME-37 MIX SUPELCO) for the identification and quantification.
The extracts of M. elengi showed a good antibacterial activity against trimethoprim hence can be used as an alternative of available antibiotic. GC-MS analysis representing the presence of individual components in samples shows that the seeds are rich in fatty acid composition. Thus it can be concluded that seeds inspite of having rich fatty acid composition can also be used as an antibiotic.
Fatty acids are unique macromolecules as they act as biological modulators of transcription factors and regulate their own metabolism by controlling the activity or abundance of transcription factors of fatty acid metabolism either by RNA processing and RNA stability. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR-γ) and Sterol Regulatory Ele- ment Binding Protein (SREBP-1c) are transcription factors expressed primarily in adipose tissue. We have studied the relation of fatty acid including trans fatty acid assessed in adipose tissue with the transcription factors. Adipose tissue was collected from 50 healthy subjects undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Fatty acid was assessed in the tissue by gas chromatography. The expressions of PPARγ and SREBP-1c were studied by real time RT-PCR. The expressions of PPARγ and SREBP1c were significantly correlated (r = 0.4 p < 0.005). The trans fatty acid did not show any significant correlation with expression but significant correlation was observed between DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) and PPARγ expression (r = 0.33 p < 0.03) which remained significant (r = 0.87, p < 0.0001) after being adjusted for BMI and insu- lin. An upregulation of PPARγ led to decreased levels of SREBP1c. In conclusion, trans fatty acid did not affect the expressions of PPAR-γ and SREB1c in this study.
keloid fibroblasts in relation to cell signaling pathway and identifying other volatile compounds from different organic solvents should be carried out. Investigations from molecular mechanism are also needed to deter- mine the proliferative mechanism in order to obtain bet- ter findings. Even though honey is found to have the ability to reduce scar, scar recurrence may occur. We did not investigate if honey can prevent recurrence and this needs further investigation. In conclusion, the effort to treat keloid fibroblasts using traditional medicine such as honey should be pursued as keloid responds positively to Tualang honey treatment.
The performance of the kitchen waste to generate bio gas with cow dung as an inoculum was carried out in a set of five batch reactor. The reactors performances were assessed in terms of volume of bio gas generated. This study was carried out to determine the proper proportion of cow dung with food waste, effect of pH, effect of total solids, Effect of total volatile solids and effect of alkalinity on the biodegradation of organic waste. Five one liter distilled water bottle was taken as a batch reactors. Each reactor was designed with working volume of 900 mL which was filled with the substrate and cow dung. The remaining 100 mL of the reactor was used as a gas collection chamber to collect the bio gas generated. The volume of the generated bio gas was measured by means of water displacement method. Reactor setup
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The results of Table 7 show the concentration of volatile fatty acids (acetic, propionic, butyric acids) in the rumen liquid of the 80% alfalfa hay with 20% concentrated feed when added LO oil by 0, 70, 140 and 280 micro liters / kg dry material in vitro periods after 12,24 , 48 and 72 h, The treatment T4 (62.90 mmol / L) was significantly higher (P<0.01) in concentration of acetic acid on T2 and T3 (62.13 and 62.20 mmol / L) In the samples taken from the rumen fluid after 12 hours of laboratory incubation, While there was no significant difference in the concentration of acetic acid between the treatment which were containing LO oil After 24 hours of laboratory incubation. After 48 hours of laboratory incubation, the concentration acetic acid was significantly decreased(P<0.01) in the T2 which was containing the (70 μl) LO oil at (65.26 mmol / L) compared with T3 and T4 (66.30 and 66.36) mmol / L respectively). The results showed significant differences between LO oil by 0.70, 140 and 280 μl / kg dry matter after 72 hours of laboratory incubation, that concentration acetic acid was significantly decreased(P<0.01) in the T1,T2 and T3 at (65.30,65.00 and 65.40 mmol / L) compared with T4(66.46 mmol/L), These results were consistent with Toral et al. (2009),As These results are not consistent with Atkinson et al. (2006), which added that the vegetable oil to the diet had a
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