Kannisto  has demonstrated the utility of other indicators developed to measure the reliability of data on centenarians. Those pertaining to age overstatement, age heaping and sex selection have been tested in countries with reliable data. In those countries, the rapid depletion of the population at these ages, on the one hand, and the increasing size of successive cohorts of centenarians, on the other, mean that the proportion of those aged 105 and over among all centenarians is expected to be less than 5 %, and to be smaller for men than women (table 2). Reference countries with population registers judged to have a high standard of mortality statistics, such as Sweden, Finland, France, England and Wales, adhere to this norm. The ratio for Canadian data, however, exceeds it, at 7.8 % for men and 8.5 % for women during the 1951- 1995 period, indicating overstatement of age at death in Canadian data.
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With Windows Server 2012, Hyper-V supports network virtual- ization, multi-tenancy, vhdx disk format supporting virtual hard disks as large as 64TB, offloaded data transfer, cross-premises connectivity and Hyper-V replica. And with Windows Server 2012 R2 also supports shared virtual hard disk, storage quality of services, enhances session mode . Multiple physical servers can be easily consolidated into comparatively fewer servers by implementing virtualization with Hyper-V. Consolidation accommodates the full use of deployed hardware resources. Hyper-V also helps in ease of administration as consolidation and centralization of resources simplifies administration and scale-up or scale-out can be accommodated with much greater ease. With Hyper-V and with virtualization, in general, there are significant cost savings. As separate physical machines are not required for every host and multiple virtual machines can be easily setup on a single physical machine. Hyper-V can be easily managed and a comprehensive Hyper-V management so- lution is available with System Center Virtual Machine Manager. Additional processing power, network bandwidth, and storage capacity can be accomplished quickly and easily by assigning additional resources from the host computer to the guest virtual machinws .
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83 A trifecta of explanations concerning why general MRA fails to explicitly achieve the maximum possible ESS for a sample of data comes to light. Theoretically, general MRA is formulated to maximize the proportion of var- iance in overall satisfaction ratings explained by a linear model, and the proportion of variance explained is not classification accuracy—which is the “objective function” that all ODA models explicitly maximize. 3 Arithmetically, attributa- ble to the combination of a distributional skew and the use of discrete measurement levels— both of which constitute violations of assump- tions underlying MRA 3 , the general MRA tem- plate is overly conservative for estimates of the overall satisfaction ratings used by a minority of the sample. This characteristic of correlation was demonstrated experimentally, and further simulation research is needed to understand the factors creating suboptimal predicted ratings by general MRA. 2 Paradoxically, it is unlikely that the restrictive assumption underlying all linear models—that all independent variables apply equally to all the observations in the sample, are satisfied in the present research. 7 Indeed, there is evidence that use of a general linear model induces Simpson’s Paradox presently, because ESS achieved using a single rating—amount of attention paid to the patient—to predict overall satisfaction via UniODA (38.2, in both training and LOO analysis) was greater than ESS for the general MRA model (34.6 in training, LOO not available) involving four ratings—one of which was amount of attention paid to the patient. 8,9
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According to an application to the multidimensional family household projection model developed by Zeng, Vaupel and Wang [55,56], the family household structure and living arrangements of the Chinese elderly will change dramatically during the first half of the 21 th century. Base population and other required data for the Chinese family household projection are derived from the 1% data file of the 1990 census, the 1988 two-per-thousand Fertility and Contraceptive Survey, and the 1985 In-Depth Fertility Survey (see , for more detailed resources, estimates and discussions). We present two major scenarios with the same medium fertility, but different (medium and low) mortality assumptions, which are described in the endnotes 1 and 2 of this paper. The assumptions about first marriage, divorce, remarriage, and leaving the parental home for the two scenarios are the same. The rural and urban propensities of divorce are assumed to increase from 6 and 10 percent in 1990 to 15 and 25 percent in 2050, respectively [Note 9]. By the middle of next century, the propensities of remarriage after divorce and widowhood are assumed to decline by 20 to 50 percent in rural and urban areas. The rural and urban proportions of parents who have at least one married child but do not live with any of them are assumed to increase by 30 to 45 percent. The proportion of population residing in urban areas is assumed to increase from 26.5 percent in 1990 to 70 percent in 2050. It should be emphasised that the nature of the above assumptions in our scenarios is purely for policy analysis to answer “what if” questions, and we do not intend for precise predictions.
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As far as the total imports in 2015, B&H has imported products that fall under 37 different tariffs. In percentage values B&H has mostly imported products under tariff no. 16 – Preparations of meat, fish, crustaceans, molluscs or other aquatic invertebrates in the amount of 25,38%, then under tariff no. 17- Sugars and sugar products in the amount of 24,75%, tariff no. 19 - Cereal based products, flour, starch or milk; confectionery (16,78%) and tariff no. 15 - Fats and oils of animal or vegetable origin and their cleavage products; prepared edible fats; animal or vegetable waxes (11,30%). All other rates do not exceed the value over 3%. (see Appendix 2)
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would get in maternity benefit (at fixed prices). To this amount we have added the child allowance paid in the same year (also at fixed prices). The sum would give the major part of her cash benefits during the first year after entry into motherhood if she took out all her maternity leave continuously for the statutory number of months just after her first birth. (The system actually allows her much greater flexibility than this .) We have then computed an index for the years 1985 through 1989 by dividing the annual sum by the corresponding sum for 1989. For 1991 through 1996 we have divided by the sum for 1991. This two-tier procedure avoids problems that would have arisen if we had produced an index for all years in the whole period, because Sweden had a major tax reform in 1990. We have plotted the indexes for the two sub- periods in [Figure 12] and are struck by the close resemblance with the curve for Model 2 in [Figure 9]. We see this as evidence of an influence of directed public policies on first-birth behavior in the Swedish population.
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We estimate two models, both with the same dependent variable, and the same set of standard explanatory variables. However, in Model 1 a binary sex-composition variable is used. It equals one, if the first two children are of the same sex, zero otherwise. A significantly positive coefficient of this variable indicates a preference for a sex-mix in a country. This model does not provide any information yet, however, whether there is any preference for a specific gender. This is investigated in Model 2, where we insert three dummies for the sex combinations of previous children in the equation. Regarding the sex composition of children already born, we differ between boy-boy, girl-girl and sex mix, where the latter is used as reference category. If none of the sex-combination dummies shows a significant effect on the parents’ propensity to have another child, we interpret this as an indicator for no gender preferences. If the first two children are of the same sex, either boys or girls, and both respective dummy variables have a significant positive effect on the dependent variable, we regard this as pointing to a preference for a sex- mix. This means, a couple continues childbearing, hoping for their offspring to be of the opposite sex as compared to the children they already have. If the two children born first are boys (girls, respectively) and this has a significant and positive effect on the dependent variable, we assume a preference for girls (boys, respectively). Eventually, it is tested, whether the coefficients for boy- boy and girl-girl are significantly different from each other. Only then, we will speak of a significant boy-, or girl-preference in a specific country.
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In reaching the conclusion to deny the injunction, the court followed closely the case of Kirchner v. Miller, 39 N.J.Eq. 355, … . In that case, as so indicated, the plaintiff and the defendant were owners of adjoining lots, the plaintiff employed a surveyor to fix the dividing line which he mislocated, and the plaintiff, supposing that he was building on his own land, inadvertently placed his house a few inches on the lot of the defendant who was not aware of the encroachment. The court held that equity would not enjoin an action of ejectment by the defendant against the plaintiff to recover possession of the strip of land on which he built the house in question. In that case it appeared, also as previously indicated, that the plaintiff could have removed the part of the building on the lot of the defendant at an expense of $75.00 and the defendant admitted that the loss of the strip would cause no injury to his house but would reduce the value of the lot in the amount of $150.00. It is evident that the court in the Kirchner case was influenced by the lack of hardship sustained by the plaintiff by reason of his mistake, for in the opinion the court said “Where there is no hardship there is no ground for interference. This case is not one for the application of the doctrine.” In the Kirchner case, in commenting upon the holding in McKelway v. Armour, 10 N.J.Eq. (2 Stock.) 115, in which it was held that the plaintiff was entitled to be paid for the improvements by the landowner or that the landowner was required to sell his property to the plaintiff at a price to be fixed by the court or to exchange properties with him, the court, by way of dictum, said: “The exercise of such a judicial power, unless based upon some actual or implied culpability on the part of the party subjected to it, is a violation of constitutional right.” The same statement, also by way of dictum, appears in the opinion in the Cautley case and it also appears, as a citation from the Kirchner case, in the opinion in Olin v. Reinecke, 336 Ill. 530, 168 N.E. 676. In no other of the many cases that have been considered does any such statement appear. Such statement, being mere dictum, is contrary to the holdings in numerous cases previously cited in this opinion, in which the conveyance of the improved property by the landowner was required and held to be proper. Of course, in an ordinary situation, no court could or would undertake to require a person to convey his land to another who might desire it, but such conveyance may properly be required in litigation in which the rights of the parties, including such landowner, are involved and which are subject to determination upon principles of equity.
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dysmenorrhoea. The leaves contains alkaloids, a glycoside and colouring matter, whereas the oil extracted from seeds contain sterols, alkaloids and a bright colouring matter, Celapanin, Celapanigin, Celapagin, Celastrine and paniculatine are the some important alkaloids present in the seeds (1). The oil also contains sesquiterpene like dipalmitoyl glycerol and alkaloids also. Folklore experience is that Malkangni leaf has good analgesic activity (2). However, the analgesic assessment of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extract from C. paniculatus leaf are still not reported. Therefore, in the present investigation we attempted the study on the leaf extracts of C. paniculatus grown in India.
The sheer volume of cases the Supreme Court takes can also hinder its opinions. Joseph A. Ignagni found that the case load of the Court has increased dramatically over the decades. In 1930, 1,039 cases were docketed for the Court to hear, growing from 5,144 in 1980, all the way to between 7,000 and 8,000 in 2016. 33 Out of the thousands of cases, the Court only hears oral argument for about 80 per term. Their massive workload illustrates the unrealistic expectations placed on the Justices. Due to the extensive case load that they preside over, their ability to remain impartial in decision making diminishes. It causes stress and can make Justices form conclusions that may not have been reached in a reasoned matter. Due to this immense burden, Ignagni believes that the “Justices must often rely upon a simple decision-making structure.” 34 When coupled with Simon’s theory on the limits of human rationality, Supreme Court decisions absent of a core set of determined principles can inhibit the accuracy of their decisions. Ignagni emphasizes that Justices, “do not have the time, resources, or intellectual capacity to make all of their decisions in a more comprehensive manner.” 35 A refined tests such as the Lemon test can help relieve the stress and
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According to Seza REİSOGLU (Reisoğlu, 1986); “Collective labor agreement is a private law contract composed in the consequence of free will of the parties. Normative quality of majority of the provisions of the agreement does not matter with respect to consider the agreement as a private law contract. Just as the other private law contracts, parties are free to assign the scope of the agreement and to exclude some workers from the scope. Exclusion of workers operating at listed tasks from the scope is indeed a natural result of the bargaining between parties. Exclusion from the scope may be based on many different reasons. For instances, employer may insist on exclusion of some workers performing some certain tasks in order to provide more superior rights than collective agreement”. In Clause 2 of Article 14 of 274 numbered Trade Unions Law, the provision of “Professional associations established in accordance with this law have to comply with parity among their members” is included, and hence, whether some workers who are member of the union shall be excluded from the scope or not was discussed. Supreme Court clearly accepted that members of the signatory union can be excluded from the scope as well in the last period. According to supreme court, individuals excluded from the scope of collective labor agreement are subjected to provisions of law but not provisions of collective labor agreement in severance pay calculation (9.C.C. 6.5.1974, 24604/8465, Employer, October, 1974, p.21; 9.C.C. 16.2. 1976).
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avoid dehydration. The fixed oil from fruit is used in nourishing hair and the fruit is regarded as an aphrodisiac agent.  The present study aimed to establish the acute and sub-chronic toxicity profile of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of C. nucifera leaf in adult Swiss albino mice.
making payment, but also involves the meaning of accept the remitted policy and take the responsibility of payment in timed and acceptance credits. For letter of credit payment, the applicant bank blocks a guarantee amount from importer at least as letter of credit amount before taking the payment responsibility. Confirming bank takes the payment responsibility referring to its correspondent bank relation with applicant bank and its agreement also. This means, confirming bank will not add confirmation for every letter of credit letter even their content is appropriate, could add confirmation only with the condition that existing a correspondent bank contract between them. While the letter of credit payment provides a kind of bank assurance to beneficiary about cost receipting, exporter firms need to show complying presentation for taking advantage of this guarantee. Complying presentation is defined in article 2 of UCP 600 as ‘’ it means a complying presentation for letter of credit conditions, practicable provisions of these rules and appropriate international standard banking application’’. The implied statement in ‘’International standard banking application ‘’ sentence is, UCP 600 and ISBP 745 5 which is broadcasted as complement of UCP 600.
The establishment of the General Agreement on Trade in Service (GATS) is one of the major achievements of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations. All the trades in services fall within the GATS through four modes of delivery under Article I:2 of GATS. Among the modes, the liberalization of mode 4: Movement of Natural Persons which relates the removal of restrictions on workers travelling abroad temporarily, upon which developing countries have comparative advantage, remains one of the least negotiated issues of the WTO, while the other 3 modes upon which the developed countries have dominance have been liberalized substantially. This study elucidates some logical arguments that mode 4 is the victim of the North-South conflict of economic interests. Besides, this study furnishes arguments how liberalization of mode 4 can be economically beneficial for both North and South. The structural weakness in Articles, Schedules and Annexes of GATS entailing mode 4 needs to be restructured so that developing countries are able to participate meaningfully in the world trade in services and see their economic interests are protected equitably with the developed countries so that the economic interests of both developed and developing countries in trade in services can become mutually supportive.
Air freight is not only the products that are being carried by aircrafts but also passengers are the air freights that are being moved from one destination to another. As a result of the correlation of the passengers and the cargo which is carried under-deck of the aircraft, there is a capacity relation between seat capacity and cargo capacity in aviation logistics. Seating and freight capacity of the airlines in Turkey has also shows this natural relation and besides it proofs the increasing trend after 2003 as in the Figure 2. (İstatistiklerle Ulaştirma Denizcilik ve Haberleşme, 2003- 2014: s.43)
While decision makers are doing paired comparisons between the criteria, in order to measure if they are consistent or not, Consistency Ratio (C.R) must also be calculated. In this calculation, assuming n is the amount of criteria; depending on that amount random index numbers are used. If the value at the end of the calculations reaches below 0.10, comparison matrix is deemed to be consistent. Otherwise comparison matrix should be corrected again (Rao, Chandran, 2009, p.2).
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The district health office received a death notification of a foreigner from a temporary detention centre (DTS) by the nearby hospital in June 2012, due to septic shock secondary to leptospirosis with multiorgan failure.The objective is to verify the cause of death, identify whether leptospirosis outbreak occur, identify cause(s) of death/outbreak and identify control and preventive measures. Investigation and control team was formed immediately. Investigation done by reviewing medical records, active case detection among other inmates, passive case detection from 2 clinics and 2 hospitals near-by, laboratory tests for other inmates at risk as well as environment risk assessment the detention centre. 3 days food samples were taken for dietary assessment. Definitions of leptospirosis and thiamin-deficiency disorder were used. The case was detained for 4 months, brought into the near-by clinic and hospital twice before admitted for vomiting, hemoptysis, melena, jaundice, hypotension, bilateral ankle edema and low-grade fever, without respiratory symptoms or hepatomegaly. No laboratory investigation for leptospirosis or nutrition- deficiency was done. No similar case found among inmates. Blood test for leptospiral infection for other inmates was negative. The detention cell was overcrowded, although clean. Daily food sample contained 50% energy, 13% protein and 30% thiamine as compared to Malaysian RNI. The case was not likely leptospiral infection, but clinically thiamin-deficiency. There was no outbreak occured. Supplied food for the detainees was nutritionally inadequate. All detainees were given Vitamin B complex tablet daily, food supply was monitored closely by the DTS and health department and biweekly health assessment was done. Nutrition and environment assessment done every 6 months while number of detainees was strictly monitored by the authority.
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For each union the following dates and characteristics are recorded: union status (married vs. cohabiting) at time of union formation, date of marriage, the reason for union disruption if one had occurred (whether the respondent broke the union or his/her partner or both partners, or whether the partner died). To arrive at a compact representation for the covariate ‘dissolution form of the preceding union’, we have used only three alternative levels: separation (regardless of who ended the union), widowed and no answer. In our data set 91.1 (95.5) per cent of all female (male) respondents recorded a union disruption, 4.2 (1.5) per cent recorded that their first partner had died, and 4.6 (3.0) per cent gave no answer (Appendix, Tables 2 and 3). We include the dissolution type of the preceding union in our analysis since the fact whether second unions have come about because of divorce or of widowhood is likely to influence their character [Burgoyne and Clark 1981].
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Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems are closely linked with compromised IAQ, specifically in terms of poor design or improper maintenance. The building design and positioning of occupancy plays a role when designing a HVAC system as the supply and return duct shall be placed close as possible to the occupants as well as the volume of supply and return need to be considered. Inspection of the ducts and intakes are also essential as even worn insulation can lead to fibers/particles being drawn into the HVAC system. Wet insulation or insulation with stains can also be breeding ground for microbes. Air intake shall be placed away from potential sources of pollutants (cooling towers, garbage dumpsters) and shall be inspected for blockage (bird nests, dry leaves). Legionnaire‘s disease is one of the notable incidents involving disease causing organisms associated with poor IAQ. Legionella pneumophilia bacteria, which cause this disease, can be found in water systems such as drip pans and cooling towers of the HVAC system. The bacteria is transmitted through air (mist/aerosol) and when inhaled, can cause pneumonia like disease with fever, chills, general aches and pains within two days to a week after exposure. What can I do to achieve acceptable IAQ? Communication is one of the main tools to address issues related to poor IAQ. Established hazard and risk communication at workplace, serve as a tool to communicate concerns related to compromised IAQ. These concerns can be channeled to the Industrial Hygiene practitioner as well as the building owner or maintenance crew for further investigation. One measure is to check on the effectiveness of the HVAC system by carrying out an IAQ assessment.
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The app was designed by our research team at the Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA) in Terengganu, Malaysia. The content and format of the app was outlined and consistently reviewed in meetings with the research team consisting of dieticians, nutritionists and behavioural scientists. The app had two key functionality specifications: 1) to record nutritional-related symptoms and food intake (only online virtual storage and functionality) and; 2) to provide nutritional guidelines and healthy Malaysian recipes for cancer patients. To allow for continuous update, the target system was designed to permit upload of recommended recipes by our team. The general principles in cancer food suitability were used for the recipe selection – no red meat, no raw food and no spicy food with less odour and less oil. To maintain appropriate nutritional values, the foods recommended are ideally required to be energy-dense, high protein, not too sweet and also importantly – simple to prepare. In addition to this guide, the recipes chosen are common favourites and represent all regions in Malaysia – North, South, East and West of Peninsular Malaysia as well as East Malaysia, so as to cater for the taste of all strata and ethnicities of the population. The aim was to provide at least 40 different recipes for a start, categorised into breakfast, main dishes, snacks, vegetables and soups nutritionally-suitable for consumption during cancer. For functionality via the Symptom Diary, users are initially requested to log in their personal details for customization of their personal records and to prevent duplicate registrations. The time frame for development was approximately four months, with the framework and interface being developed over the first two months (Jan - Feb 2016) and the iterative