The proportion of those living with HIV who had reported sharing their HIV status with their sexual partners varies widely (Antelman, Fawzi, Kaaya, Msamanga, Hunter and Fawzi, 2001) in a study of 1078 HIV positive women. The study revealed that in two months diagnosis, only 22% of participants had disclosed their HIV conditions to their sexual partners. This study showed how much self-concealment is detrimental to VCT seeking behaviour. On the other hand participants in a study in western Kenya swore not to reveal their status to their sex partners, although women with higher level of education showed willingness not to self-conceal in the study, (Songkok and Andayi, 2003). This study indicated that education play a significant role in reducing risk factors in HIV spread. We could deduce that self-disclosure as opposed to self –concealment is a crucial benefit from voluntarycounseling and testing.
Abstract: HIV/AIDS is a major development concern in many countries and is destroying the lives and livelihoods of many people around the world. This study is aimed to assess the demographic and HIV related risk behavior factors that may affect HIV status of the visitors of VCT centers. A cross sectional study was conducted in Gamo-Gofa districts, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional State of Ethiopia. A total of 4028 sample were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected with a designed questionnaire from 20 voluntarycounseling and testing center of the districts. If the clients visit VCT center is HIV-infected, it is categorized as HIV positive and if the client test is indicated not HIV- infected, then the visitor categorized as HIV negative status. The Binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the data using the SPSS software. The results of the study revealed that the probability of an individual being HIV positive was 0.0286 and the predictor’s variables age, marriage status, education level, alcohol use, knowledge about HIV, monthly income, condom use and residence of the individual were significantly effect on being HIV-positive. Health professionals and responsible bodies should work on these significant variables to reduce the probability of being HIV positive.
A number of studies have been carried out in Africa to emphasize on the risk of infection and impact of HIV among Health Care Providers encountered daily in their workplace and the ultimate reason that they all require VoluntaryCounseling and HIV testing. The potential risk of HIV infection among health providers especially through percutaneous injuries is very high as found in a study done in Nigeria. In that study, 91% of health care workers (HCWs) considered themselves very concerned about their occupational risk of HIV acquisition. The Nigerian study was done in 2003 to characterize the epidemiology of percutaneous injuries of health care workers. It highlighted the details of needle stick and sharp instrument injuries on HCWs at University Hospital and Clinics in Ile–lfe Nigeria. The results revealed that, needle stick accidents during the previous years were reported by 27% of the 474 HCWs, including 100% of dentists, 81% of surgeons, 32% of non surgical physicians and 31% of nursing staff. All HCWs, in this study were aware of the potential risk of HIV transmission through percutaneous injuries (Adegboye et al., 2005). In a similar study carried out in 2005 in the same country ( Nigeria ), on occupational risk of infection by HIV as well as Hepatitis B Virus ( HBV) , it was shown that the risk of acquiring HIV and HBV infection by health workers in the course of performing their duties was apparently high ( Ansa et al., 2006)
Abstract: Background: Voluntarycounseling and testing (VCT) is an integral component of HIV prevention and care strategies worldwide. Methods: A cross sectional study design was used to collect data. The collected data were entered in Epi Info version3.5.3. Data analyses were done using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the data. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association between the dependent variable and independent variables calculating odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Statistical significance was set at α. ≤ 0.05. Multivariable analyses were applied to identify the relative effect of explanatory variables on the dependent variable. Result: The prevalence of HIV testing was 52.8%. The finding also showed that students who are sexually active (AOR=1.261, CI=1.134, 1.822), youth having a boy/girl friend (AOR=1.233, CI=1.211, 2.923), youth having sex with their partner (AOR=3.823, CI=1.891, 7.730), who are willing to pay for VCT(AOR=2.233, CI=1.633, 3.052), those who discuss HIV/AIDS with their family (AOR=1.504, CI=1.029, 2.199), colleague utilized VCT (AOR=1.775, CI= 1.269, 2.482), were more likely to be tested. Conclusions and Recommendations: The results indicated that there is still less number of students utilized VCT service: therefore there is a need of further information, education and communication program with regard to increase VCT service uptake, expanding youth targeted VCT service.
Findings: Institution based cross-sectional study was performed from November 3, 2008 to December 29, 2008 and 384 voluntarycounseling and testing (VCT) clients were investigated. Data on socio demographic and HBV risk factors was collected using structured questionnaires. Blood samples were collected and screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HIV by commercially available rapid test kits. The prevalence of HBsAg in this study group was 5.7%. Fourteen percent of HIV positive subjects (8/57) and 4.3% (14/327) of HIV negative subjects were positive for HBsAg. Significantly high prevalence of HBsAg was observed among individuals who had history of invasive procedures, like tooth extraction, abortion and ear piercing; history of hospital admission, history of unsafe inject and HIV positives.
This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study designed to evaluate the attitude of health care workers towards voluntarycounseling and testing of HIV/AIDS at Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH). The study was conducted between November 2008-October 2009. ISTH is a tertiary medical institution located in a rural area of Nigeria. The hospital is located in Irrua, Edo Central Senatorial District, along the Benin-Abuja highway at about 87 kilometres of north of Benin City, the Edo State Capital.
disproportionately higher incidence of the infection among Most at risk populations (MARPs), particularly fe- male sex workers (FSWs); men who have sex with men (MSM) and injecting drug users (IDUs). HIV Sentinel Surveillance data (2010-2011) indicates that 7.1% of IDU, 4.4% of MSM and 2.7% of FSW are HIV positive, while the prevalence among ANC clinic attendees, considered proxy for general population, is low at 0.40% . To gain control over the spread of HIV in the country, effective interventions are needed for these MARPs . Scaling-up of VoluntaryCounseling and Testing (VCT) for HIV has been one of the key interventions for re- ducing this epidemic . However, NACO estimates that only 50% of those currently infected with HIV are aware of their status and therefore there is still significant work to be done in this area .
Background and aims: Behavioral counseling centers are the main health organizations which are responsible for providing treatment and care for the patients living with HIV (PLWH). HIV- positive patients receive services through a unique counseling process called voluntarycounseling and confidential testing (VCCT). Although there are reports regarding VCCT evaluation from other countries, not such an evaluation was found in Iran until this study, to the best of our knowledge. The study was performed to fulfill this necessity.
The Thai PMTCT programme provides free services for two rounds of Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) for all pregnant women, at first antenatal (ANC) visit and at 28 weeks. The reason for the second VCT is to detect the newly HIV infected during pregnancy. HIV infected preg- nant women receive free antiretroviral drugs, breast milk substitutes for 12 months and counselling with their part- ner to test their newborn at 12 and 18 months. The Min- istry of Public Health (MOPH) purchases drugs and artificial milk in bulk and distributes it via its regional net- works .
Among barriers to VCT, the perception of fear of a positive HIV test result was the most common reason for not being tested. In addition, no-one indicated that they felt "wor- ried other people would be told test results without con- sent" was a barrier to them. The fear of discrimination represents an important barrier to testing and counseling [20,21]. A potential explanation for this inconsistency with previous studies is that different geographical regions, cultures and economic levels have different atti- tudes toward VCT. Another possibility is that the subjects of this investigation were voluntary, while the subjects in
they were not at risk of contracting HIV infection, while approximately 79% were willing to undergo voluntary HIV screening. The study found the rate of consistent condom use was low. In another study, in 2003, an interviewer- administered survey of 209 Nigerian military and affiliated personnel presenting for annual physical and other medical examinations in a military hospital in Jos, northern-central Nigeria, was performed. The study revealed that 93.8% of unmarried participants reported sex within the previous 6 months, while 34.0% reported inconsistent condom use (never/sometimes). 16
Very few surveys have evaluated the level of know- ledge, the attitudes, and the practices towards VCT among individuals who accessed these services [7-10], seemingly studies have not been done to explore similar questions in Italy. Thus, there is a need for additional studies because an understanding of these topics is cru- cial for the development of interventions for the disease control, since misconceptions may contribute to prevent individuals from making right choices, decisions, and taking appropriate prevention strategies. The purposes of the current epidemiological survey among individuals who presented for the first time to the VCT public ser- vices in Italy were to: (1) conduct a detailed exploration regarding the knowledge, the attitudes, and the practices regarding HIV testing and counseling services; and (2) identify the predictor characteristics of self-reported knowledge about HIV infection, fear of contracting HIV/AIDS, and having received the HIV test.
HIV/AIDS continues to be a major public health challenge in the world, despite the major efforts and resources allocated to combat the epidemic. Interventions such as HIV counseling and testing service has been shown to reduce HIV prevalence by promoting safer sexual behavior and serving as a key entry point for HIV treatment and care. Ethiopia has shown an encouraging improvement in the expansion of VCT centers and antiretroviral therapy programs over the past decade that has reduced HIV prevalence at the national level. 2–5,10 Nev-
Secondary outcomes would include: the proportion of men who accept voluntarycounseling and testing for HIV, provide moral and financial support to their spouses to adhere to antenatal care and PMTCT guide- lines; indicators of male participation in PMTCT activ- ities; men’s knowledge of PMTCT; men’s knowledge of MTCT of HIV; proportion of men who approve PMTCT; determinants of male involvement in PMTCT programs and ANC; percentage of women receiving VCT for HIV and obtaining their results; percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women accepting ARVs; couple uptake of VCT; number of men coming for services as a result of provider invitation; barriers to male partner participation in ANC and PMTCT activities: we will col- late all the barriers to male partner participation as reported by the authors; suggestions for improving male involvement in ANC and PMTCT activities.
Results: Of the 113 respondents, 89.4% were from Arba Minch, 43.4% were at least 25 years of age, 73.4% had formal education at primary level or above, 100% reported acceptance of voluntarycounseling and testing, 92.0% were knowledgeable about mother-to-child transmis- sion, and 90.3% were aware of the availability of the PMTCT service in the health facility. Of 74 HIV-positive women in PMTCT, only three (4.1%) had had skilled birth attendants at delivery. There was an unacceptable degree of loss of women from PMTCT. Maternal edu- cational level had a statistical association with income (P , 0.001) and voluntarycounseling and testing for pregnant women (P , 0.05). Factors that determined use of PMTCT included culture, socioeconomic status, and fear of stigma and discrimination.
Abstract: Youth (15-24 years) are particularly vulnerable to HIV, because of the strong influence of peer pressure and the development of their sexual and social identities. The aim of the study was to assess voluntarycounseling and testing utilization and associated factors among young people in Birbir town, Southern Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study design was conducted from August 13-16, 2016. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 400 young’s. Semi structured questionnaire was used. The data was collected by trained Nurses. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Binary and Multivariable Logistic regression was performed with 95%CI, COR and AOR respectively. The finding was presented by tables, and figures. In this study a total of 378 youth were participated with response rate of 94.4%. The mean age of the participants was 20.6 years with SD (±2.7). The majority (96%) of respondents were heard about the confidential voluntarycounseling and testing service. The prevalence of voluntarycounseling and testing utilization was 64.3%. The factors such as: peer encouragement [AOR=3.81, 95%CI, (2.302, 6.285)], knowing definition of voluntarycounseling and testing [AOR = 13.38, 95% CI, (1.501, 119.338)], willingness to test [AOR = 10.65, 95% CI (1.268, 89.459)], health institution encouragement [AOR=1.989, 95%CI (1.076, 3.676)] and Method of testing [AOR = 0.51, 95% CI (0.289, 0.889)] were the factors associated with voluntarycounseling and testing utilization. The study shows that voluntarycounseling and testing utilization was 64.3%. Knowing definition of voluntarycounseling and testing, methods of testing, willingness to test, health institution encouragement and peer encouragement were the factors associated with voluntarycounseling and testing utilization. Health office has to work with and facilitate youth clubs to promote voluntarycounseling and testing utilization and strengthen facility based testing.
Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of health care providers on voluntarycounseling and testing (VCT) patients for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or counseling those living with the virus. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 Tanzanian HIV counselors in different health service clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The interviews were analyzed using a qualitative method. Three themes emerged from the interviews: a person-centered approach is necessary to build trusting relationships to negotiate for behavioral change; challenges in the variations in counseling sessions as well as the maintenance of confidentiality; and the Confidentiality requirement for privacy and disclosure only with the patient/client's consent. The health care providers, who all had considerably long experiences of VCT, showed confidence in the counseling situation and were aware of the many challenges and barriers they encountered at work as a counselor. They stressed that the basis for creating a trusting relationship between a counselor and a patient was a person-centered approach. Patient confidentiality was an important factor in the counseling work, but confidentiality could also be a challenge and dilemma to protect both the patient and sexual partners at risk, and this should be taken into consideration in counseling guidelines.