Voluntary Movement

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An Electrophysiological Study Of Voluntary Movement and Spinal Cord Injury

An Electrophysiological Study Of Voluntary Movement and Spinal Cord Injury

The first patient was a young man who had been in a car accident. His T7 vertebra had been crushed, leaving him paralyzed below his armpits. He was diagnosed with a complete spinal injury (ASIA-A — no motor function, no sensory feedback). He volunteered for a joint study involving Caltech, UCLA, and the University of Louisville [8]. After a year of physical therapy failed to improve his condition, an array of electrodes was surgically implanted into the epidural space between his spinal cord and his vertebra, positioned over his lumbosacral enlargement. This enlargement of the spinal cord contains both the neurons that innervate the legs and a sensory feedback loop that stabilizes muscle activity during standing and walking. Researchers applied electrical current in a steady 30-Hz stimulation pattern across the patient’s lumbosacral enlargement to reactivate this postural control circuit, and the patient was able to stand on his own legs again (Figure 1.4a). Remarkably, after seven months of treatment, the patient regained voluntary movement. This treatment has since been repeated with multiple patients all of who regained standing and voluntary movement of their legs [37] (Figure 1.4b).

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Ankle voluntary movement enhancement following robotic-assisted locomotor training in spinal cord injury

Ankle voluntary movement enhancement following robotic-assisted locomotor training in spinal cord injury

In terms of functional capacities, the results obtained for the clinical assessments show an improvement of mobility (i.e., TUG) and over-ground walking speed (i.e., 10MWT) after one month of Lokomat training for our iSCI subject group. These observations are con- sistent with the literature on robotic-assisted gait de- vices showing a beneficial effect on the ambulation capacities [15,16,18,22]. The improvement in walking speed is particularly noteworthy; we observed an aver- age increase of 0.08 m/s, which is greater than the minimally important difference of 0.05 m/s reported by Musselman after a BWS treadmill training [73]. Two factors evaluated in this study might contribute to the ob- served gain in mobility and velocity: (i) improvements in the strength of the ankle plantar-flexor muscle group, which provides most of the energy required for forward progression [53,54], and (ii) enhancements to the dorsi- flexion voluntary movement, which allows for adequate clearance during the swing phase [8].

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EMG and kinematic analysis of sensorimotor control for patients after stroke using cyclic voluntary movement with visual feedback

EMG and kinematic analysis of sensorimotor control for patients after stroke using cyclic voluntary movement with visual feedback

were larger than those from the unaffected side, which implied that the damage in brain had affected both sen- sory perception and motor action abilities in the affected side. Patten et. al. [27] and Ju et. al. [28] evaluated the sensorimotor control in hemiparetic adults with elbow tracking task. In Patten’s study, subjects performed an elbow flexion and extension task against a low-resistance isotonic load at 3 speeds: 25, 45, and 65 deg/s from 10 deg of extension to 75 deg of flexion. The best perform- ance occurred at a velocity of 45 deg/s for the affected side [27]. Ju et al. compared the tracking performance among three different loading conditions: no assistive or resistive loading. They found a non-significant decrease of RMSE in the affected sides when the external loading was applied [28]. The objective of this study was to minimize the external effect during cyclic voluntary movements, which was different from the above- mentioned studies in the following part: first, external torque was applied to the elbow in Patten and Ju’s work, which might have affected the voluntary tracking result; second, the moment of inertia of the systems in their studies and our previous study [29] might also have been considerable, which would inevitably affect the elbow voluntary movement; furthermore, the friction torque in the robotic systems might affect the voluntary elbow movement. The significant negative correlation between average RMSE with different tracking velocities and Fugl-Meyer shoulder-elbow score showed its relation- ship with clinical scores in quantitatively evaluation of motor function for patients after stroke. Since wrist and hand did not contribute to the elbow movement, there was no significant correlation between average RMSE with different tracking velocities and Fugl-Meyer wrist- hand score.

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Energetic cost determines voluntary movement speed only in familiar environments

Energetic cost determines voluntary movement speed only in familiar environments

We have shown that fish do not adjust their voluntary speed to minimise aerobic metabolic cost, except when moving in a familiar environment at their long-term acclimation temperature; under these conditions, energy expended during voluntary movement does not increase with increasing integrated cost of locomotion as it does under all other conditions. The implications of these data are that the energetic costs of exploring and dispersal into novel environments are greater than those of movement within familiar home ranges. Search behaviour is common to most animals, and there is a trade- off between exploiting known environments and exploring novel environments (Hills et al., 2015). Our data show that in addition to a cognitive dimension to search behaviour (Hills et al., 2015), there is also a shift in the way animals move. In known environments, animals adjust movement speeds to minimise metabolic cost, but the motivation to explore unfamiliar environments seems to override energetic optimisation of movement speeds. The risks of exploring new environments in terms of failing to find resources and unknown predation pressures, for example, are therefore exacerbated by increased energy expenditure.

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A qualitative motion analysis study of voluntary hand movement induced by music in patients with Rett syndrome

A qualitative motion analysis study of voluntary hand movement induced by music in patients with Rett syndrome

Abstract: Patients with Rett syndrome are known to respond well to music irrespective of their physical and verbal disabilities. Therefore, the relationship between auditory rhythm and their behavior was investigated employing a two-dimensional motion analysis system. Ten female patients aged from three to 17 years were included. When music with a simple regular rhythm started, body rocking appeared automatically in a back and forth direction in all four patients who showed the same rocking motion as their stereotyped movement. Through this body rocking, voluntary movement of the hand increased gradually, and finally became sufficient to beat a tambourine. However, the induction of body rocking by music was not observed in the other six patients who did not show stereotyped body rocking in a back and forth direction. When the music stopped suddenly, voluntary movement of the hand disappeared. When the music changed from a simple regular rhythm to a continuous tone without an auditory rhythm, the periodic movement of both the hand and body prolonged. Auditory rhythm shows a close relationship with body movement and facilitates synchronized body movement. This mechanism was demonstrated to be preserved in some patients with Rett syndrome, and stimulation with music could be utilized for their rehabilitation.

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Power spectral density analysis of physiological, rest and action tremor in Parkinson’s disease patients treated with deep brain stimulation

Power spectral density analysis of physiological, rest and action tremor in Parkinson’s disease patients treated with deep brain stimulation

movement registrations during the action tremor test we found that hand or foot tapping was hindered when action tremor started to become more dominant (see Figure 1A and B). The relative tapping power (i.e. the relative power <3.5 Hz) decreased with increasing relative power in the tremor band when tremor was present or absent. A balance between the power in the low frequency range associated with movement, and tremor power is either in favor of performing movements or in generating tremor. Similar to the results of the rest tremor test, a power con- centration of 50% within the tremor band seemed to be the breaking point in this process. These findings support the hypothesis that the inability to suppress the activity of pathological oscillator(s) responsible for the action tremor may play a fundamental role in akinesia associated with PD [4,33-37]. Thus, voluntary movement may suppress rest tremor if the power in the low frequency band starts to dominate (>50%) due to the movement. In contrast, movement may be inhibited if the power in the tremor band is dominating. This can also be concluded from the negative correlation between the relative power in the low frequency band and the relative power in the tremor frequency band (Table 3).

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On the Incommensurability of Feeling and Doing: The Illusion of Free Will  (Review of: Wegner, Daniel (2003) The Illusion of Conscious Will  MIT Press )

On the Incommensurability of Feeling and Doing: The Illusion of Free Will (Review of: Wegner, Daniel (2003) The Illusion of Conscious Will MIT Press )

There is also a world, to which those feelings may somehow be related. When a feeler feels that it is getting colder, the temperature may or may not be dropping; if it feels it has moved its limb, the limb may or may not have moved (if it has a limb at all). And if it feels it has moved its limb voluntarily, it may or may not have been voluntary: It may have moved because a physician tapped a reflex point or even just pushed the limb, and the feeler mistakenly felt it as a voluntary movement .

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Cellular mechanisms underlying behavioral state dependent bidirectional modulation of motor cortex output

Cellular mechanisms underlying behavioral state dependent bidirectional modulation of motor cortex output

Neuronal activity in primary motor cortex (M1) corre- lates with behavioral state, but the cellular mecha- nisms underpinning behavioral state-dependent modulation of M1 output remain largely unresolved. Here, we performed in vivo patch-clamp recordings from layer 5B (L5B) pyramidal neurons in awake mice during quiet wakefulness and self-paced, voluntary movement. We show that L5B output neurons display bidirectional (i.e., enhanced or sup- pressed) firing rate changes during movement, medi- ated via two opposing subthreshold mechanisms: (1) a global decrease in membrane potential variability that reduced L5B firing rates (L5B suppressed neurons),

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Effects of a Unilateral Injection of Botulinum Neurotoxin Subtype-A in the Subthalamic Nucleus of a Parkinsonian Rat Model

Effects of a Unilateral Injection of Botulinum Neurotoxin Subtype-A in the Subthalamic Nucleus of a Parkinsonian Rat Model

Another study by Antipova and colleagues (2013) examined the effects of an ipsilateral injection of BoNT-A (1 or 2ng) in the striatum of unilaterally 6-OHDA lesioned rats. A reduction in apomorphine rotations was found but no motor improvement was found in the rotarod or open-field tests 126 . Although Antipova (2013) did not see improvements in forced or voluntary movement, they found neither neuronal death in the striatum nor evidence of an inflammatory response following BoNT-A injections 126 . The results of prior studies are promising as they demonstrate that a BoNT-A injection directly in the brain, at the doses they tested, does not cause tissue damage while also improving some aspects of motor performance. A recent study by Tsang, Rajakumar, and Jog (2019) examined the effects of a BoNT-A injection in the GPi of 6-OHDA lesioned rats compared with sham lesioned rats 127 . An injection of 0.5ng of BoNT-A in the GPi significantly reduced pathological rotations in the apomorphine rotation test and improved various parameters of gait as measured by the CatWalk XT apparatus. They found that rat’s speed, body speed variation, cadence and walking pattern was returned to pre-lesioned performance, and the improvements persisted for up to 1-month post BoNT- A injection 127 . These results suggest that BoNT-A injections at the GPi can improve

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Using fMRI to Explore the Influence of Road Network Patterns on Geospatial Cognition

Using fMRI to Explore the Influence of Road Network Patterns on Geospatial Cognition

Abstract: Road networks play an important role in our daily life. People strongly interact with roads in commuting and tourism. The road network patterns influence human cognition, behaviour and the road safety. However, how the influence takes places remains unclear. In this paper, we experiment with fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) to explore the influence of regular and irregular road networks on spatial cognition. Nine subjects were asked to accomplish orientation and shortest-route-selection tasks in both a regular and an irregular road network using street view. SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) was used to analyse the brain activities in the process. The results of orientation tasks show more activation in the middle frontal gyrus, relating to cognition, the superior frontal gyrus, relating to voluntary movement and eye movement, and the medial frontal gyrus, relating to executive process in irregular road network. The results indicate that the orientation task in an irregular road network is more demanding and requires more information. For shortest route selection tasks in both road networks, no common active brain areas among different subjects were found. This indicates that the associated cognition process is hardly influenced by road network patterns. In summary, orientation tasks are harder for subjects in irregular road networks, while the cognition difficulty is almost the same for shortest-route-selection tasks in regular and irregular road networks. Besides, subjects tend to use egocentric frame of reference more and switch between ego- and allocentric frame of reference more frequently in irregular road networks.

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The School Day and Year (England)

The School Day and Year (England)

• compulsory schemes are much less popular than voluntary schemes amongst parents and school staff. But voluntary schemes can struggle to run economically and there are also adverse selection issues where those who may benefit the most – often the most deprived – would not attend. We suggest that it does so via an extended day premium, distributed on a per pupil basis, which schools can opt into receiving on the condition that they then run a longer day and which is mandatory for pupils within that school. Such a decision, with associated funding, would be analogous to opting in to Academy status.

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Factors Influencing Taxpayers' Voluntary Compliance Attitude with Tax System: Evidence from Gedeo Zone of Southern Ethiopia

Factors Influencing Taxpayers' Voluntary Compliance Attitude with Tax System: Evidence from Gedeo Zone of Southern Ethiopia

Abstract Taxpayers’ voluntary compliance attitude with tax system is influenced by demographic, individual, social, institutional and economic factors. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the factors influencing tax voluntary compliance attitude with tax system the case of Gedeo Zone. To this end, the author used mixed research approach. The target populations of the study were tax authority and taxpayers in Zone. A sample of 323 taxpayers was randomly taken from the 1,678 taxpayers in the Zone but tax officers were judgmentally selected by the researcher in order to collect sufficient and relevant information required to prepare the report of this study. Both primary and secondary data were collected. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire and interview with officers and taxpayers representatives. The secondary data were also collected by reviewing of related published and unpublished materials. Binary logistic regression model was employed to analysis the data through Stata software application version 12.0 and SPSS version 23.0 were used to present the results of this study. Then, the result of this study showed that out of fourteen explanatory variables incorporated in the model, seven variables such as gender, age, lack of tax knowledge, simplicity of tax system, awareness on penalty, probability of being audit, and perception on tax rate were found to be key factors influencing taxpayers’ voluntary compliance attitude with tax system in the study area. Whereas variables such as education level, tax authority efficiency, peer influence, occupation, income level of taxpayers, perception on government speeding, and perception on fairness and equity have no significant influence on tax voluntary compliance attitude. Finally, the findings of the study may inform policy makers about the factors influencing voluntary compliance attitude towards tax system in the Zone and supports to formulate constructive policy in order to achieve the goal of raising required tax revenue to promote the economic development of the country.

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Voluntary work and wages

Voluntary work and wages

Prouteau and Wolff (2006) employ a switching regression model on a French survey to control for selectivity bias in the wage equation. Their analysis includes only those who take on responsibilities in associations, but all types of associations are considered (from recreational to professional), leading to mixed evidence of a wage premium: results do not demonstrate a wage premium for volunteers in the public sector, whereas in private sector they find a negative premium. Because of these results, they reject the investment motive for volunteering, claiming that only consumption motives lead individuals to engage in voluntary activities. But the absence of a wage premium can be also the result of some limitations of their analysis. A wide range of associations is considered and therefore associations with explicitly leisure purposes, such as a golf or tennis clubs, are also included. The authors argument that by focusing only on participants with managerial tasks, they implicitly limit the analysis to genuine volunteers, because French law prohibits financial compensation for such tasks in associations, other than the reimbursement of expenses. The argument is not fully convincing for three reasons. First, compensation can be hidden under the label of reimbursement or other benefits and therefore many individuals observed may not in fact be unpaid volunteers. Second, the managerial position in the association can be the output and not the input of the networking activity, when it represents the additional benefit in terms of prestige and social consideration of a working career at the peak of the wage profile 1 . Though it is difficult to think of the president or of the treasurer of a golf club as a volunteer, they are probably engaged in networking activities, with investment purposes, oriented toward social prestige and not toward higher wages. This intuition is indirectly confirmed by the same authors when they find a positive effect of managerial responsibilities in associations on the number of gatherings with friends, which they explain as a relational (consumption) motive for volunteering, but which could also be a networking (investment) motive. Therefore, when

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The relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement in elementary-school children

The relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement in elementary-school children

reported that volunteerism was primarily fueled by citizen- driven, political movements, such as the Joseph McCarthy (McCarthyism) movement, the Civil Rights movement, the Viet-Nam War and the John Birch Society. Volunteerism was also advanced through political groups, such as Parents without Partners, the Salk (polio) Vaccine Program, day care centers, the expansion of local and state Chambers of Commerce, and the Council for Financial Aid of Education. In 1961, John Kennedy’s administration created the Peace Corps, which challenged and supported young Americans to volunteer in the world’s developing nations. This

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Voluntary Control of Desire

Voluntary Control of Desire

It might be pointed out that the foregoing example only shows that some beliefs are not voluntary, such as strongly held beliefs. To make a case for saying beliefs are not under our basic voluntary control it helps to have a wide range of examples. Let us consider a belief that is not one we would be likely to be firmly committed to. Suppose I hear a weather report that says it is ninety percent probable that it will rain tomorrow. I form the ten- tative belief that it will rain tomorrow. Can I will not to believe it will rain tomorrow, just like that? It may seem that I can, but only because I can do certain things, such as watch for a later weather report, think about how the weather report has been inaccurate in the past, and the like. What seems obvious to me is that I cannot just de- cide not to pay attention to the weather report and will to form the belief that it will not rain tomorrow. I will argue that a similar point holds for desires.

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EUROPEAN MIGRATION NETWORK  PROGRAMMES AND STRATEGIES IN IRELAND FOSTERING ASSISTED RETURN TO AND REINTEGRATION IN THIRD COUNTRIES

EUROPEAN MIGRATION NETWORK PROGRAMMES AND STRATEGIES IN IRELAND FOSTERING ASSISTED RETURN TO AND REINTEGRATION IN THIRD COUNTRIES

T he number of voluntary assisted returns facilitated by IOM has increased since 2007. In the context of difficult economic conditions and budget cuts across government departments it can be seen as positive that funding to IOM has increased. Cost saving initiatives on the part of IOM, such as the use of the Amadeus system, have also improved value for money spent. However, the number of deportation orders issued each year generally well exceeds the number of people returned voluntarily, despite the fact that the former figure has declined considerably since a 2004 peak. From a resource perspective this situation is unsatisfactory. From the perspective of the migrant it is also a very negative outcome: individuals may abscond and continue to live in Ireland as irregular migrants, and if they are detected and deported their future mobility will be limited. As the data in Chapter 4 showed, voluntary return is financially much more advantageous to the State than deportation. The low rate of enforcement of deportation orders (21 per cent in 2008) also has cost implications particularly in terms of Garda resources.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 07148, 5 April 2019: The School Day and Year (England)

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 07148, 5 April 2019: The School Day and Year (England)

• compulsory schemes are much less popular than voluntary schemes amongst parents and school staff. But voluntary schemes can struggle to run economically and there are also adverse selection issues where those who may benefit the most – often the most deprived – would not attend. We suggest that it does so via an extended day premium, distributed on a per pupil basis, which schools can opt into receiving on the condition that they then run a longer day and which is mandatory for pupils within that school. Such a decision, with associated funding, would be analogous to opting in to Academy status.

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Online Volunteering, A Way to Reduce Health Inequalities: A Review Study

Online Volunteering, A Way to Reduce Health Inequalities: A Review Study

Online Volunteering has many advantages over face to face volunteering. This approach "allows individuals to do volunteering work through a computer at home or at work, which is not influenced by time constraints, personal priorities, disabilities, or family obligations, which prevent them from volunteering." (33) . The elderly and people with disabilities, those who have been victims of bias in a volunteer environment can now volunteer online. On the other hand, online volunteering has special benefits for nonprofit and voluntary organizations. Performing relatively inexpensive work is known as the primary reason for many organizations to engage in online volunteers (14, 33) . However, there are always costs of employment, training, and supervision.

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The Effect of Financial Statement Disclosure on Changes in Stock Prices: Empirical Evidence of Colombo Stock Exchange

The Effect of Financial Statement Disclosure on Changes in Stock Prices: Empirical Evidence of Colombo Stock Exchange

The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of financial statementdisclosure on stock price movement with special reference to Colombo Stock Market. Thestudy attempts investigate the existence of abnormal return of share prices around the periodof the financial statement disclosure by using eventstudy methodology. The data collected form secondary sources.

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Voluntary Organisations: Vital Contributors

Voluntary Organisations: Vital Contributors

The voluntary sector is the heart of civil society. Regardless of size, form or purpose, voluntary organisations provide independent views of politics, culture, leisure and all activities of life in which humans engage. They also provide the important means for individuals to influence their own lives and the conditions of society at large. As Putnam has convincingly argued, societies with a history of forming associations have a stronger civic culture, the trust from which tends to result in more effective democratic institutions and healthier economies. 1 Recent trends in the voluntary sector have translated into a direct impact on economic health. The following extract from Douglas Rutzen’s presentation to an NGO conference in Malta illustrates this: “non-profit organisations provide 4% of total

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