Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Ester (WCME)

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Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on performance and 
		emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with waste cooking oil 
		methyl ester

Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with waste cooking oil methyl ester

emissions can be measured using exhaust gas analyzer. The analyzer uses the principle of Non-Dispersive Infra- Red (NDIR) for measurements. Figure-3 shows the exhaust gas analyzer used for this investigation. The technical specifications of exhaust gas analyzer are given in Table-2. Waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) produced by Transesterification process was used to run the engine for this study. The properties of WCOME, diesel fuel and ASTM standards are given in Table-3.

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Experimental investigation of four stroke single cylinder rope brake dynamometer assisted CI engine fueled with biodiesel from waste cooking oil

Experimental investigation of four stroke single cylinder rope brake dynamometer assisted CI engine fueled with biodiesel from waste cooking oil

The present work is focused on the effects of waste cooking oil based methyl ester and its blends with petrodiesel on a single cylinder, 4 stroke, naturally aspirated, direct injection, water cooled, rope brake dynamometer assisted CI engine at varying loads. The physical and chemical properties of WCO based methyl ester were determined using standard ASTM methods. The suitability of WCO based methyl ester and its blends were evaluated through determining the performance and emission characteristics of CI engine. These results were compared to petrodiesel for validation. By analyzing these results, it was observed that the performance and emission characteristics were shown both satisfactory and unsatisfactory results. This was due to lower calorific value and high viscosity of waste cooking oil methyl ester resulted delay in combustion. From the critical analysis, it was observed that B20 of WCO based methyl ester reserved 32.2% brake thermal efficiency slightly greater than petrodiesel i.e. 32% without any engine modifications. It is concluded that B20 of WCO based methyl ester is suitable with no modification in engine.
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Development of waste cooking oil methyl 
		esteras potential electrical insulating fluid for power transformer

Development of waste cooking oil methyl esteras potential electrical insulating fluid for power transformer

Due to toxicity and non-biodegradability of petroleum-derived mineral insulating oil, the use of vegetable-based oils such natural esters as insulating liquid is on grow. Although natural esters have higher flash point compared to mineral insulating oil, its high viscosity is not suitable for existing distribution transformer with natural cooling system. Thus, low- viscosity esters derived from various vegetable-based oils have been developed. In this study, waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) is proposed as potential low-viscosity insulating fluid for transformer. Waste cooking oil (WCO) is cheaper vegetable-based oil relative to crude vegetable oil. It is also abundantly available as 50,000 tonnes were reported being produced in Malaysia each year. WCOME is produced via catalysed transesterification reaction between WCO and methanol usingpotassium hydroxide (KOH). The physical (density, flash point, pour point, viscosity), chemical (water content, acidity) and electrical (breakdown voltage) properties of WCOME are presented and discussed. Results indicated that transesterification reaction produced a low viscosity WCOME fluid (14.19 mm 2 /s) that possessed a dielectric breakdown voltage (BdV) of 30 kV, which is 50% above the IEEE C57.147 BdV’s requirement for new natural ester fluids. Hence, the WCOME has a potential to be used as electrical insulating liquid for transformer.
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Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Running on Biodiesel

Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Running on Biodiesel

ABSTRACT:Alternative fuels have received much attention due to the depletion of world petroleum reserves and increased environmental concerns. The desire to reach higher efficiencies, lower specific fuel consumption and reduced emissions in modern engines has become the primary focus of engine researchers and manufacturers over the past three decades. Thus processed form of waste cooking oil (Biodiesel) offers attractive green alternative fuels to compression ignition engines. Biodiesel used in the experiment is a methyl ester of free fatty acid made from waste cooking oil (WCO).The fuel properties of biodiesel are very similar to the diesel fuel, so it can work in existing infrastructure of conventional diesel engine without any modification in the engine.The present work investigates and compares the engine performance parameters such as brake power and brake specific fuel consumption and emission characteristics such as CO, CO 2, HC and NO x emissions of direct injection Kirloskar diesel engine using various blends of waste
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Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Sulfuric Acid and Microwave Irradiation Processes

Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Sulfuric Acid and Microwave Irradiation Processes

were analyzed by a gas chromatography-mass spec- trometry (GC-MS) system incorporated with an Agilent 5975 C mass-selective detector (MSD) and an Agilent 7890 A gas chromatograph equipped with a capillary column (HP-5 MS, 5% phenyl methyl silox 30 m × 250 × μm × 0.25 μm nominal). Methyl heptadecanoate (10.00 mg; internal standard) was dissolved in 1 mL heptane to prepare the standard solution. Approximately 55 mg methyl ester was dissolved in 1 mL standard solution for GC analysis. Approximately 1 µL sample was injected into the GC. Helium was used as the carrier gas. The injection was performed in splitless mode. The parame- ters of the oven temperature program consist of: start at 80˚C with 10˚C/min intervals up to 180˚C (1 min) and up to 255˚C with 15˚C/min intervals (2 min). The Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content was calculated by use of the equation:
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The Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester and its Diesel Blends

The Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester and its Diesel Blends

Used cooking oils provide a viable alternative to diesel, as they are easily available. These contain some degradation products of vegetable oils and foreign material. These impurities can be removed by heating and filtration. Hence this does not prevent its usage as feedstock for biodiesel production [17]. It has been reported that the cetane number of used cooking oil methyl ester is around 49 and it demonstrates its potential to replace diesel [18]. However not much work has been carried out on combustion and emission studies of used cooking oils as diesel engine fuels. Earlier experimental work on used cooking oil supports some favorable results on engine performance and emission characteristics [19], [20]. Canakci [21] studied the potential of restaurant waste oils as biodiesel feed stock by analyzing their free fatty acid and moisture content. Pugazhvadivu et al. [22] had carried out engine tests using preheated waste cooking oil. Cetinkaya et al. [23] had conducted road test using Renault Megane make automobile fueled with methyl esters of waste cooking oil. Breuer [24] studied the effect of fuel properties on heat release through experiments conducted with Rapeseed Oil and its Methyl Ester. Vaughn et al. [25] arrived at the ignition delay of a number of Bio-Esters by droplet ignition delay experiments. Kinoshita et al. [26] evaluated the combustion characteristics of biodiesels derived from coconut oil and palm oil, while
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Waste Cooking oil: A Resourceful Waste for Lipase Catalysed Biodiesel Production

Waste Cooking oil: A Resourceful Waste for Lipase Catalysed Biodiesel Production

This category of oil are derivatives of plant oil (vegetable oils) and Animal fats. As such they are oil-based substance consisting of vegetable matter that has been used in preparing food and is no longer suitable for human consumption. Waste/used frying oils, beef tallow, lard, yellow grease [14], Waste Edible Oil [37] and other hard stock fats [1] as generally called are good substrate for biodiesel production. These oils are cheap, may have some drawback due to vulnerability to oxidation, high free fatty acid composition, the contents of high polymerization products and high viscosity. As a result, pretreatment of such oils become necessary in order to reduce the mentioned components, in preparation to transesterification if basic catalyst where to be used, a times even enzymes [1]. Researchers established the application of waste cooking oil as an alternative energy in the form of biodiesel. Maceiras et al. [16] investigated the used of waste frying oil and reported methyl ester 89.1 % using Candida antarctica (CALB). Al- Zuhair [31], reported methyl ester > 40 % with Pseudomonas cepacia Immobilized on ceremic beads Recent study by Liu et al. [38], reported the applicability of waste cooking oil in batch reactor by Candida sp. 99-125 (2.5 mmol/g after 30 h). Acidic oils can also be applied in the quest for the alternative fuel. Watanabe et al. [39] established the potential waste vegetable oil (acidic oil from vegetable refining) in biodiesel production, fatty acid methyl ester conversion was >98.5 wt% after a 24-h reaction, catalysed by Candida antarctica (Novozymes) , immobilized on macroporous acrylic resin. And also reported reusability of the biocatalyst >100 days without significant loss in activity. Yagiz et al. [40] using waste cooking oil obtained 92.8% methyl ester for from Lipozyme-TL IM Immobilized on hydrotalcite and zeolites. Even the free lipase from the same reaction gave 95%.
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Study on Di-Ci Diesel Engine Characteristics by Exhaust Gas Recirculation Using Waste Cooking Methyl Ester

Study on Di-Ci Diesel Engine Characteristics by Exhaust Gas Recirculation Using Waste Cooking Methyl Ester

A study was conducted on the various possible bio diesels that could be effectively used as alternatives to diesel. The various parameters that were considered for the selection of the oil are density, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, fire point, pour point etc.

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Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Cooking Oil Waste

Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Cooking Oil Waste

Biodiesel is a nonpetroleum-based fuel defined as fatty acid methyl or ethyl esters derived from vegetable oils or animal fats and it is used in diesel engines and heating systems. According to Diya’uddeen et al, the biodiesel can be defined as a monoalkyl ester of long chain fatty acids derived from a renewable lipid feedstock, such as vegetable oil or animal fat [1]. Thus, this fuel could be regarded as mineral diesel substitute with the advantage of reducing greenhouse emissions because it is a renewable resource. Sodium or potassium hydroxide and sodium or potassium methoxide are used widely as catalysts in the transesterification reaction, as they
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Optimum Ratio Between Waste Cooking Oil and Coconut Oilas Raw Material for Biodiesel Production

Optimum Ratio Between Waste Cooking Oil and Coconut Oilas Raw Material for Biodiesel Production

Abstract—Biodiesel is an energy that is processed from biological processes and employ agriculture products rather than geological processes. Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) and Coconut Oil (CO) are some of the agriculture products that have been applied for this work. The utilization of WCO enables to cycle the waste from the environment and also CO may promote local home industries. The aims of this work are to produce biodiesel from a mixture of waste cooking oil and coconut oil. This work is also to study the optimum composition between these two materials (0% to 100% WCO or CO in reverse) in producing biodiesel. Several methods were applied in this work: i.e. esterification, transesterification, washing, drying and filtering processes. Some steps of characterization were conducted to fulfil the International Standard (EN 14214). The yield of biodiesel produced was 97.65% with oil mixture composition of50% WCO and50% CO. The FAME component in 50% WCO and 50% CO showed as the nonanoic acid methyl ester (C 15 H 20 O 2 )
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Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil

Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil

Transesterification is the most common process, in this process an ester compound is exchanged by an alcohol in the alkyl group[11,17].Biodiesel can be defined as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) derived from the Transesterification of triglycerides (vegetable oils or animal fats) with alcohol and suitable catalyst [1,2,8,11,13]. Biodiesel is used as mix constituent of petroleum diesel in proportions for running a diesel engine, since using neat biodiesel has some engine issues[17,18]. Production rate, yield, product quality were the key performance indicators assessed. Biodiesel can be produced from different triglyceride sources such as vegetable oils (that can beedible, non-edible or waste oils), animal fats (mostly edible fats or waste fats) and microalgae oil [8,12]. The crops identified for biodiesel are corn, sunflower, palm, olive, canola, soybean, rape and peanutsoils, and animal-based lipid (e.g. butter)[8].Waste animal fat is also is identified to be a good feedstock for biodiesel. Economic feasibility of biodiesel depends on the availability of low-cost feed stocks [19].The key issue for large scale application of biodiesel as compared to petroleum diesel is the high cost of biodiesel which is mainly concerned with cost of feedstock oils as both the edible and non-edible oils are limited . Moreover, it has been reported that nearly 70-95 % of the total production cost is related to the cost of raw materials. This issue can be overcome by the use of WASTE COOKING OIL (WCO)as raw material which can effectively reduce the feedstock cost to 60-70% .Likewise, the cost of catalyst also affects the overall production cost. Several studies have been made to use waste materials for low cost catalyst preparation to develop sustainable biodiesel production process [5,13].
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Sustainable supply chain management and the transition towards a circular economy: Evidence and some applications

Sustainable supply chain management and the transition towards a circular economy: Evidence and some applications

Food and chemical supply chains were chosen for this study because (apart from the fact that they are two very different process industries) both supply chains have been known to have significant consequences on the environment. Additionally, according to Beamon (2008) limited research has been carried out on the food processing sector mainly because of the complexity of the supply chain, hence leaving important issues involving waste, re-use of resources, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions unaddressed (French and LaForge 2006). Regarding the chemical industry supply chain the OECD (2008) reports that despite it being one of the most regulated of all industries, there is a potential for a negative impact at every stage of its lifecycle. This situation is exacerbated by the increase use of chemicals in major economic development sectors (UNEP 2012).
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Effects of Cerium Oxide Nano Particles Addition in Diesel and Bio Diesel on the Performance and Emission Analysis of CI Engine

Effects of Cerium Oxide Nano Particles Addition in Diesel and Bio Diesel on the Performance and Emission Analysis of CI Engine

The compression ignition engines are widely used due to its reliable operation and economy. Due to the shortage of petroleum products and its increasing cost, efforts are on to develop alternative fuels especially for diesel oil for its partial replacement. Ever increasing fuel price, continuous addition of on road vehicles, fast depleting petroleum resources and continuing accumulation greenhouse gases are the main reasons for the development of alternative fuels. Many alternative fuels are identified and tested successfully in the existing engine with and without engine modification. However, research is still continuing in this field to find the best alternative fuel for the existing petro fuel.
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Characterization and Utilization of Calcium Oxide (CaO) Thermally Decomposed from Fish Bones as a Catalyst in the Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil

Characterization and Utilization of Calcium Oxide (CaO) Thermally Decomposed from Fish Bones as a Catalyst in the Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil

Thus, the development of metal oxide-based catalysts for biodiesel production is an interesting topic of research. We have reported the feasibility of calcium oxide from Achatinafulica as a catalyst for the formation of biodiesel from waste cooking oil [9]. In this study, we aim to enlarge our study’s scope by reporting the potential of using fish bones as the source of calcium oxide. Other additional benefits can be added, which include their abundance and cheap feedstock. Many studies have reported the mechanism of fish bones thermal decomposition [10-11]. The fish bones were decomposed into calcium oxide at various temperatures before being used as a catalyst in the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Waste cooking oil is an attractive starting material that can increase the economical value of vegetable oil. Calcium oxide as a base catalyst can activate short chain alcohol such as methanol and ethanol to be active species. The active species can react with glycerin in vegetable or animal oils to form methylor ethyl esters (biodiesel) and glycerin as its byproduct. This reaction is well known as the transesterification reaction. Using calcium oxide as a catalyst in biodiesel synthesis is very beneficial because it is heterogeneous, non-toxic, and environmentally benign. Therefore, the objective of this study is to produce a catalyst from renewable resources such as fish bones which calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) rich
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PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF CI ENGINE USING SIMAROUBA BIODIESEL WITH VARYING COMPRESSION RATIO AND INJECTION PRESSURE

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF CI ENGINE USING SIMAROUBA BIODIESEL WITH VARYING COMPRESSION RATIO AND INJECTION PRESSURE

Abstract: Consumption of fossil fuels and petroleum products in India is continuously rising the recent years. India is expected to at least double its fuel consumption in the transportation sector by 2030. The alternative option for conventional vehicular fuels is biodiesel, which can be produced from the feedstock available abundantly in the developing countries due to their agricultural base. Few countries, including India, have developed a keen interest in utilizing the potential of biodiesel and accordingly framed policies to promote biodiesel production and use. Indian National Biodiesel Policy does permit the production of biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oils. Bio-diesels produced from vegetable oils not only provide energy security but also reduces harmful emissions including greenhouse gases. In this regard, current work done on Simarouba Glauca finds suitability of simarouba oil as a potential source in near future. Experimentation is carried on various blends B5, B10, B20 and B30 with varying compression ratio and injection pressure. Compression ratio as 18 and injection pressure of 220 bar are the investigated as optimum parameters for single cylinder engine using 30% biodiesel
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PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FIXED OIL FROM STEMS OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FIXED OIL FROM STEMS OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA

belonging to the family of Acanthaceae which is widely used for the traditional medicine of diseases. The present study attempts to evaluate the phytochemicals and fatty acids composition from stems of Andrographis paniculata. The presence of some phytochemicals like alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids explained the medicinal action of the plant encountered in its therapeutic uses. The fatty acid compositions of the petroleum ether extract of stems of this plant were determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometer. Ten compounds were identified and the major constituent was methyl palmitate (54.22%).
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Evaluation of Alternative Valorization Options for Institutional and Industrial Food Wastes

Evaluation of Alternative Valorization Options for Institutional and Industrial Food Wastes

28 pathway and regulate yeast stress, dynamics and stability of cell membranes [122]. A food waste rich is zinc could make a good cosubstrate for fermentation of low-value products and hence avoid procurement of expensive supplements. It might be necessary to supplement these minerals in the form of micronutrient solution to achieve higher alcohol yield in cases where the food waste does not contain these minerals at sufficient concentration. Mineral supplementation in the form of trace elements was suggested as a mechanism to improve stability of food waste digestion [96], [123]. The effects of other metal ions such as Fe have proven to increase biomethane production [124], [125]. The type and concentration can strongly affect the yield and quality of products due to catalytic action [126], [127]. In pyrolysis, a high mineral content of the feedstock was found to increase the biochar and syngas yield, while reducing the oil yield [128]. Food wastes are generally rich in chlorine, as food often contains salt (NaCl); chlorine can interact with vaporized species and form hydrochloric acid (HCl) or dioxins. However, this occurs when the process temperature is in the higher range of combustion temperatures [129], [130]. The metal ions tend to pose specific effects as opposed to organic nutrients and hence it is challenging to generalize the effects of these nutrients. Therefore, inorganic nutrient composition may not be a decisive factor in choice of valorization.
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The effect of frozen storage on lipids and fatty acids content in Atlantic salmon  Case study

The effect of frozen storage on lipids and fatty acids content in Atlantic salmon Case study

It can be shown that the frozen fish oil contains high quantities of linoleic acid (C18:2) – 24,84%, oleic acid (C18:1) – 34,13% and palmitic acid (C16:0) – 10,51%. Thus, unlike fresh fish oil, the level of oleic acid (MUFA) in frozen fish oil is higher despite the linoleic acid (PUFA), an acid susceptible to oxidation.

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Preparation And Characterization Of Polyol Using Waste Cooking Oil

Preparation And Characterization Of Polyol Using Waste Cooking Oil

Theoretically, ‘Polyol’ is defined as oligomeric backbones that must contain two or more hydroxyl group (Sonnenschein et al., 2011). Since waste cooking oil (WCO) is obtained from the vegetable source, there are no presence of hydroxyl group were detected (Fan, 2011). Hence, other alternative of structural modification should be applied in order to introduce hydroxyl group at the structure of WCO. This can be actualized by performing the transesterification process.

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Chemical Extraction and Property Analyses of Marula Nut Oil for Biodiesel Production

Chemical Extraction and Property Analyses of Marula Nut Oil for Biodiesel Production

Tests were conducted in a systematic study to establish the fatty acid profile of crude marula oil using procedure and conditions described in Section 2.2. The results for marula oil composition were compared with that for a standard sample of vegetable oils prepared by Accu- Standard. For simplicity, only a single set of sample re- sults obtained from these experiments are presented and discussed in this Section. This enables the main findings of the study to be identified. The fatty acids and esters detected, which are naturally present in the oil, are pre- sented in Table 1.
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