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Preparation of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Waste Cotton Fabrics Using Gamma Irradiation

Preparation of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Waste Cotton Fabrics Using Gamma Irradiation

An increasing number of textile industries, especially in Indonesia can improve the economy, but will also have a negative impact to the environment such as abundant waste cotton fabrics. Generally, these waste leftover materials of textile industry end in waste stations and are usually landfilled or incinerated which can create environmental pollution. Various processes for waste cotton fabrics recycling have been developed to increase the value-added products such as preparing cellulose derivative [1], composite fillers [2], bio adsorbent [3], and bio energy [4]. Cellulose content in the waste cotton fabrics is very high at around 95 - 99%, so one potential way to high value utilization is to extract them as microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). Due to an excellent compatibility and low chemical reactivity, MCC has been used in the pharmaceutical industry [5], in food applications as a texturizing agent and fat replacer [6], and additive in composite [2].

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Production And Energy Characterisation of Briquettes: Produced With Agroforestable Waste Cotton And Wood Saws For Burning In Steam Generator For Process

Production And Energy Characterisation of Briquettes: Produced With Agroforestable Waste Cotton And Wood Saws For Burning In Steam Generator For Process

For the elaboration of this work several bibliographic sources were used through articles and books already published, in which data and information about the briquettes sector were collected. For Protássio et al (2011) in view of the growing worldwide concern to increase the use of energy from renewable sources, waste from various sources emerges as interesting energy alternatives. In Brazil there is a waste production from agroforestry biomass if not reused can cause environmental damage ranging from siltation of rivers and lakes, contamination of watercourses, occupation of large areas in industries and air pollution from open burning.

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CHARACTERISATION OF BIODIESEL DERIVED FROM WASTE COTTON SEED OIL AND WASTE MUSTARD OIL

CHARACTERISATION OF BIODIESEL DERIVED FROM WASTE COTTON SEED OIL AND WASTE MUSTARD OIL

Bio-diesel is an alternative to petroleum-based fuels derived from vegetable oils, animal fats, and used waste cooking oil including triglycerides. Vegetable oils are widely available from various sources, and the glycerides present in the oils can be considered as a viable alternative for diesel fuel. Due to the increase in price of petroleum products and environmental concern about pollution coming from automobile emission, biodiesel is emerging as a developing area of interest. The world is confronted with the twin crises of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. [1][2][4][6]

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Soil Stabilization using Waste Clothes (Cotton Clothes and Synthetic Clothes)

Soil Stabilization using Waste Clothes (Cotton Clothes and Synthetic Clothes)

From the above experimental study we concluded that, we can stabilize the soil with the help of waste synthetic clothes or fabrics. Because the synthetic clothes are not absorb the more water or moisture content as compare to cotton clothes and synthetic clothes or fibre have a high tensile strength. The waste cotton clothes cannot be used as reinforcement in the soil stabilization projects, because it is absorb high moisture content and has a low tensile strength.

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Soil Stabilization using Waste Clothes (Cotton Clothes and Synthetic Clothes)

Soil Stabilization using Waste Clothes (Cotton Clothes and Synthetic Clothes)

From the above experimental study we concluded that, we can stabilize the soil with the help of waste synthetic clothes or fabrics. Because the synthetic clothes are not absorb the more water or moisture content as compare to cotton clothes and synthetic clothes or fibre have a high tensile strength. The waste cotton clothes cannot be used as reinforcement in the soil stabilization projects, because it is absorb high moisture content and has a low tensile strength.

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Investigation into the supramolecular properties of fibres regenerated from cotton based waste garments

Investigation into the supramolecular properties of fibres regenerated from cotton based waste garments

Examination of the ATR-FTIR crystallinity indices of the fibres indicated that the ReCell-1, ReCell-2 and ReCell-Denim fibres have slightly higher TCI and LOI than the Lyocell fibres, Table 3. The TCI of Lyocell fibres was 1.10 whereas the ReCell-2 and ReCell-Denim fibres have a TCI of 20-26% higher than the Lyocell fibres. In contrast the TCI value for the ReCell-1 fibre was almost identical to the Lyocell fibres. The LOI for Lyocell fibres was 0.42 and the corresponding ReCell-1 and ReCell-Denim fibres had a LOI of 12-14% higher than the Lyocell fibres. The higher crystallinity indices of the ReCell-type fibres was probably due to the high molecular weight and degree of polymerization (DP) of the cotton pulp as previously reported (Haule, Carr & Rigout, 2014) which was again observed in the molecular weight of the fibres, Table 1. Although the Lyocell and ReCell fibres were regenerated by the same method, the nature of the feedstock appears to influence dissolution, fibre formation and structural development. Indeed previously it has been reported that the structure and formation of the solvent spun fibres is affected by the dissolution, spinning and regeneration conditions (Fink, Weigel, Purz & Ganster, 2001). Rheological parameters such as DP, viscosity and cellulose concentration are defined at the dissolution stage and have impact on chain orientation and fibres formation at subsequent stages (Chanzy, Paillet & Hagège, 1990; Fink, Weigel, Purz & Ganster, 2001; Kim, Shin, Cho, Kim & Chung, 1999). Blending of 80% wood pulp and 20% waste cotton reclaimed pulp produced fibres (ReCell-2) that demonstrated a clear increase in TCI and LOI values,

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Stabilization of Expansive and Weak Subgrade by using Waste Generated in M Sand Industry

Stabilization of Expansive and Weak Subgrade by using Waste Generated in M Sand Industry

The value of Liquid limit of a soil is a good indication of its expansive nature. Experiment is conducted based on IS: 2720 (Part 5) [12]. The value of liquid limit of the soil taken for the present study is 59%, indicating that the soil is highly expansive. FQD is mixed with the soil in various proportions, i.e., 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50 (FQD : Virgin soil). At 50:50 mix proportion, liquid limit of the mix is reduced to 34%. With this reduced liquid limit, the soil changes from CH to CL indicating that the soil has become less expansive with the replacement of soil by 50% of FQD. Chart 1 shows the variation of liquid limit of the black cotton soil mixed with various proportions of FQD.

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Effect of Tyre Shreds and LDPE Waste on Behaviour of Black Cotton Soil

Effect of Tyre Shreds and LDPE Waste on Behaviour of Black Cotton Soil

Assuming the volume of the specimen to remain contact area of specimen to increase uniformly with decrease in length, the deviator stress is calculation the basis of changed area at varying and strain for each test. A graph is plotted between strain as abscissa and deviator stress as ordinate, from which the maximum value of deviator stress is read. A Mohr circle is drawn for each test at failure. A common tangent to the Mohr circles gives the failure envelope from which the parameters Cohesion and angle of friction of black cotton soil is 0.4 kg/sq.cm and 19 0 .

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Soil Stabilization by using Waste Material   Brick Dust

Soil Stabilization by using Waste Material Brick Dust

These openings are usually more than 50mm wide and several millimeters deep. Cracks disappear during wet season but an uneven soil surface stays as a result of irregular swelling and heaving. The black cotton soils have low strength and are susceptible to excessive volume changes, making their use for construction purposes very difficult. Instability of these soils cause more damage to structures, than any other natural hazard, including earthquakes and floods, unless proper black cotton soil stabilization performed.

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Preparation and physical properties of regenerated cellulose fibres from cotton waste garments

Preparation and physical properties of regenerated cellulose fibres from cotton waste garments

The increasing number of fashion seasons in the retail market has led to shorter and shorter “lifetimes” for textiles garments and an increase in discarded clothing associated with the changing fashion. Accordingly the percent contribution of textiles within municipal waste is increasing (DEFRA, 2006 and DEFRA, 2009) and leading to an increase in land fill tax (Ali and Courtenay, 2014). Therefore there is need for exploring alternative solutions that are more sustainable and lessen the environmental impact of waste textiles. Some of the alternatives for the recycling of cotton waste garments involve conversion of the cotton based waste garments by various methods into alternative renewable energy resources (Hong et al., 2012, Shen et al., 2013, Jeihanipour et al., 2010 and Jeihanipour and Taherzadeh, 2009). While the approach of converting waste garments into renewable energy resources helps in reducing the environmental impact of waste garments unfortunately there is no reduction in the pressure on water and land requirements for the production of cotton and synthetic fibres.

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Comparative Study of Black Cotton Soil Treated With Cement and Industrial Waste

Comparative Study of Black Cotton Soil Treated With Cement and Industrial Waste

mechanical stabilization, chemical stabilization, freezing and heating, reinforcing earth technique etc. The alteration of the geotechnical properties to satisfy the engineering requirements using numerous kinds of industrial wastes along with lime as admixture to improve engineering properties of black cotton soil. This study provides details of changes in properties of black cotton soil like specific gravity, liquid limit, plastic limit, Maximum dry density, Optimum moisture content and plasticity index with varying percentages of industrial waste by taking optimum content of lime

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Soil Stabilization using Industrial Waste (Wheat Husk and Sugarcane Straw Ash)

Soil Stabilization using Industrial Waste (Wheat Husk and Sugarcane Straw Ash)

Pinar Terzioglu (2012) uses the wheat husk ash to produce the magnesium salt using the Fourier transform series. This research is done to solve the waste problem and contribute enormously in the recovery of industries. Wheat husk is burned at an optimum temperature then it is chemically reacted with the sodium hydroxide with flame to extract the silica. The obtained ash was composed of different elements and silicon dioxide has the highest percentage consists of 44%. Thus, obtained ash has completely amorphous structure. This element is suitable to synthesize the required outcomes. The research proves that study does not affected the chemical composition of the magnesium silicate [10]. Ogunribido(2012)utilizes the wheat straw ash for the stabilization of some soils. He basically stabilized soil by collecting different samples of soil from different locations. The quantity of wheat straw ash ranges from 2 to 10% to analyze the properties of the soil like specific gravity, compaction, California bearing ratio, shrinkage limit etc. The results are amazing which concluded that prior to the addition of the cane ash the tests are poor but adding the ash as sub grade material ameliorates the geotechnical

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Stabilization of Expansive and Weak Subgrade by using Waste Generated in M Sand Industry

Stabilization of Expansive and Weak Subgrade by using Waste Generated in M Sand Industry

The soaked CBR test is performed on both the virgin soil sample and the mix containing 50% of soil and 50% of FQD based on IS: 2720 (Part 16) [15]. Chart 3 shows the results of CBR tests. With the addition of FQD, the CBR value increases. There is an increase of 136% for soil mixed with 50% of FQD compared to virgin black cotton soil.

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Promising Effect of Metallic Mordants on Colorimetric Physiognomy of Dyed Cotton Fabric Employing Banana (Musa Sapientum) Agricultural Waste

Promising Effect of Metallic Mordants on Colorimetric Physiognomy of Dyed Cotton Fabric Employing Banana (Musa Sapientum) Agricultural Waste

Abstract This analysis intends to unveil the effect of metallic mordants on colorimetric properties of ecologically dyed cotton fabric using banana floral stem sap (BFS).Natural dye retrieved from banana floral stem by roller squeezer machine. Pre-mordanting action was performed by potassium alum, iron (II) sulphate, copper (II) sulphate and tin (II) chloride. Pre-mordanted specimens were dyed at 100 ℃ for 60 minutes. Dye fiber binding actions was determined by FTIR-ATR spectra. Effect of metallic mordants were calculated using CIE L * a * b * color

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Soil Stabilization by using Waste Material   Brick Dust

Soil Stabilization by using Waste Material Brick Dust

Brick dust with its component burnt brick powder is a waste powder generated from the burning of bricks with the soil covered by surroundings. Due to burning of soil bricks it hardened and at the time of removal the set-up we get the powder form of brick. It has red color and fine in nature. It has great ability to reduce the swelling potential of black cotton soil. Brick due to burning of soil bricks it hardened and at the time of removal the set-up we get the powder form of brick. It has red color and fine in nature. It has great ability to reduce the swelling potential of black cotton soil.

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Effect of pretreatment on the saccharification of agrowastes

Effect of pretreatment on the saccharification of agrowastes

The result of the figure 3 showed that there was gradual increase in the glucose release with increase in the alkali concentration. For most of the wastes studied, 10% alkali treatment was found to be best compared to other lower concentration of alkali. Groundnut shell waste showed maximum glucose release (387 mg glucose / g of agrowaste) at 10% alkali treatment. But the pretreatment studies of sugarcane bagasse revealed that maximum glucose was released for the treatment without any acid or alkali. Production of ethanol is historically a well-known process and in principal it is carried out by fermentation of plant sugars into ethanol using strains of yeast. However, plant biomass is made of polymers of sugars, ordered in a matrix called lignocellulose, which is not as easily fermented. In order to produce ethanol, this material must undergo degradation to for the yeast more accessible components, e.g. mono- and dimers of sugars. This degradation can be made by hydrolysis of biomass using added enzymes, called enzymatic hydrolysis (EH). To help the enzymes to perform well and degrade the lignocellulose efficiently, the fibres in the raw material need to be accessible to the enzymes. A pretreatment in some way is needed to expose the fibres. If the pretreatment is too harsh, liberated sugars can be degraded to enzyme- and yeast- inhibiting compounds lowering the overall yields. On the other hand, if too weak pretreatment conditions are used this will result in low enzyme accessibility and the same drawbacks (Hinman et al., 1992).

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Influence of Marble and Aluminium Waste Powder on the Performance of Bricks

Influence of Marble and Aluminium Waste Powder on the Performance of Bricks

The first replacement material is a waste “Marble Slurry”, the waste is generates from the marble industries. During the cutting of marbles the white grey dust produces and that was mixed with water in the machine. That slurry has the most important ingredients like Lime and Alumina which is responsible for the higher strength in the bricks. The marble slurry is mixed with a the black cotton soil, red soil, fly ash and water with the different proportion 5%, 10% and 15% of the weight of Red soil.

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Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil by using Waste Gypsum

Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil by using Waste Gypsum

Soil is defined as sediments or other accumulation of mineral particles produced by the physical or chemical disintegration of rocks plus the air, water, organic matter and other substances that may be included. Soil is typically a non-homogeneous, porous, earthen material whose engineering behaviour is influenced by changes on moisture content and density. Based on the origin, soil can be broadly classified as organic and inorganic. Organic soils are mixture derived from growth and decay of plant life and also accumulation of skeleton or shell of small organism. Inorganic soils are derived from the mechanical or chemical weathering of rocks. Inorganic soil that is still located at the place where it was formed is referred to residual soil. If the soil has been moved to another location by gravity, water or wind, it is referred to as transported soil. Black cotton soils are highly clay soil grayish to blackish in color. They contain montmorillonite clay mineral which has high expensive characteristics. BC soils have low shrinkage limit and high optimum moisture content. It is highly sensitive to moisture changes, compressible subgrade material. Hence the subgrade and its undesirable characteristics to be modified using a suitable stabilization technique. Stabilization involves the methods used for modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance. In the construction pf road and airfield prevents the main objective of stabilization is to increase the strength or stability of soil and to reduce the construction cost by making best use of the locally available materials.

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Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil with Sea Sand, Lime, Plastic Waste

Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil with Sea Sand, Lime, Plastic Waste

Hence, finally i would conclude that plastic waste, sea sand and lime can be used as stabilizing agents for improving the performance of black cotton soil of athukuru region, But where the proportion of soil 45% Soil + 45% Sea Sand Gives Better Results Compared to Lime And Plastic Waste soil samples, so that the soil(45% Soil + 45% Sea Sand) can be used as sub grade material for pavement construction which is cheap & economical compared with remaining processes.

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Production of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on Substrate Composed from Wheat Straw, Waste Paper and Cotton Seed Waste

Production of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on Substrate Composed from Wheat Straw, Waste Paper and Cotton Seed Waste

After sterilization, the substrates were transferred to transparent polyethylene cultivation bags (65cm length and 45cm width) for easy supervision of the growth of the mycelia and presence of contamination. After cooling under normal temperature, each substrate (500g) with 70% moisture was mixed with 10% spawn (dry weight/wet weight basis) under laminar flow hood and the inoculated polythene bags were then tightly tied with string made from cotton cloth. Pin holes were made by sterilized needle through bags (1/100 cm 2 ) or (10-14) per bag for drainages and aerations [19]. Then the inoculated bags were kept in a spawn running room at room temperature (23-25°C) in the dark until primordial were formed.

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