Water is one of the three major components of the environment, there exists a close linkage between the quality of water and the environment which bears an almost importance for ecosystem. Natural bodies of water are not absolutely pure as various organic compounds and inorganic elements remain in dissolve form . The physical and chemical quality of water vary according to the basin depth, shape size , penetration of light, temperature , pH and nature of soil etc. The quality of drinking water is of vital concern for human health and life. Fresh water supply provides water for domestic use for population. Water resources are critical importance to both natural ecosystem and human development. It is essential for domestic purposes for cleaning, cooking bathing and in agriculture for irrigation, power generation fisheries etc. Acquiring potable water is day to day struggle for most of the people, Indian water bodies are being progressively degraded. Water quality of a system is influenced by both natural and anthropogenic effects which include local climate, irrigation practices, planned water management etc. A healthy lake or pond or water body could conserve natural and social balance by contributing healthy environment of its location.
Water is an inorganic solvent and covers about 70% of the earth’s surface. Quality and quantity of water are affected by an increase in anthropogenic activities and any pollution either physical or chemical which causes change to the quality of the receiving water body. Water samples were collected at three locations along Ase creek and analyzed for temperature, pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) using standard methods. Results obtained ranged as follows: 26 - 28˚C for temperature; 6.48 - 6.75 for pH; 6.50 – 8.50 mg/l for DO; 0.50 - 1.50mg/l for BOD; 1.50 -2.50mg/l for COD. The pH values for the water samples were slightly acidic. The BOD/COD ratios for all the sampling points were less than 1 indicating that the water samples have a biodegradable nature. The results obtained were within WHO permissible limit for drinking water except DO. There is thus the need to examine periodically water quality parameters of water bodies prior to use in order to ensure that they are free from organic and other pollutants. This in the long run will help to promote a healthy condition needed for sustainable development.
There are some uncertainties associated with the radon mass balance approach. The most prominent of these un- certainties lies in the assignment of the appropriate ground- water end member. Other minor sources of uncertainty for the model involve diffusive inputs from lake sediments and appropriate estimation of the radon flux to the atmosphere. Hence, for an improvement of the radon model these param- eters should be subject of future investigations, especially in Boreal environments. Furthermore we neglected surface wa- ter as a potential radon source to the surface water body, be- cause riparian peat several metres thick is present in both wa- tersheds and surrounding both lakes, while all surface water moves across this peat. The water, even if it is in contact with shallow groundwater, is not in direct contact with radon pro- ducing rocks or sediments. Surface runoff typically cascades from pool to pool down the peat surface during snowmelt
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Various water types identified at YNP are ultimately pro- duced from a single deep sulfide-rich parent water body. According to Truesdell et al.  the chloride and sulfate concentrations and temperature of this water body are 8.74 mmol L −1 , 115 μmol L −1 , and 360°C, respectively. Fournier  proposed values of 11.3 mmol L −1 for Cl − concentration and 335–340°C temperature. In this work we based our quantitative interpretation of the data on the model proposed by Truesdell et al. . This model is based on the observation that composition of most YNP thermal waters can be explained by steam loss during adiabatic cooling of mixtures of a single deep parent water body with shallow, cold waters. Water-rock interactions as well as dilution and boiling alter water composition. Mix- ing with oxygen-rich subsurface waters leads to oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfuric acid, which was proposed to occur by both abiotic and microbial processes [9,10].
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So, for the current study a religious water body in the city of Kurukshetra, Haryana is considered where millions of people perform religious activities on the occasions like solar eclipse and new moon day. But the periodic maintenance and cleaning of the water body is neglected. This negligence lead to deterioration of water quality of such water bodies. This has forced the planners and policy makers to take cognizance of these religious water bodies. Therefore, the current study is about carrying the water quality tests on the water body for finding out the suitability of water for the purpose of taking bath and other rituals.
The water molecule is about 75% of body weight, their hydrogen atoms are also easily exchangeable with deuterium in the aqueous phase, and only a fraction of the hydrogen atoms in organic compounds body is inter- changeable. From calculations based on these facts, it was observed that hydrogen from water body constitutes at least 95% of the total weight of exchangeable hydro- gen. When the total amount of deuterium injected is di- vided by the concentration in serum after one hour, the resulting figure should represent a precise estimate of TBW. Urinary excretion of deuterium is negligible in the short period of time involved .
would a female A. coluzzii survive in the midst of the DS compared with her granddaughter during the RS if this was the primary mechanism of her aridity tolerance? Notably, there was considerable overlap in the seasonal distributions of DT despite being different statistically (Fig. 7). A similar magnitude of difference in DT was recorded between various species and populations of A. gambiae s.l. (Gray and Bradley, 2005; Gray et al., 2009; Lee et al., 2009), which was presumably smaller than anticipated. Even in hibernating Culex pipiens, reduction of RWL in diapausing females amounted to merely 46% of that of non-diapausing females (Benoit and Denlinger, 2007). Based on these considerations, we suspect that, unless higher DT is manifested only by aestivating mosquitoes while in hidden shelters (which are yet to be found), the physiologically elevated DT as measured here in A. coluzzii contributes less to its persistence throughout the 7 month-long DS than its behavior (Huestis and Lehmann, 2014). Unlike hibernating insects that withstand the winter mostly immobilized by near- freezing temperatures, A. coluzzii can move around and replenish its body water content from blood meals, sugar sources and water in or near wells or water pots in houses (although these water sources are not suitable for reproduction). Their hitherto unknown refugia might provide elevated RH and optimal temperatures (Huestis and Lehmann, 2014; Kessler and Guerin, 2008). Despite the growing understanding of the mechanisms allowing their presence in arid conditions, integrating the physiological and behavioral adaptations of these species to an empirically demonstrated strategy remains to be achieved.
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The subjects received 15 balneoprocedures in geothermal water baths daily five times a week for 3 weeks. The participants were immersed to below the armpits in warm water of 34°C. The exposure time for balneoprocedure for Group I was 15 minutes; and for Group II was 20 minutes. It was recommended that the subjects slightly moved around while in the bath. In case of unpleasant sensations, weakness or heart problems, they could seek medical attention, and their behavior and changes in appearance were monitored and observed during the treatment. The enrolled patients completed the balneotherapy treatment as outpatients, with no change in their daily routine or work attendance. According to the methodology a questionnaire about the health and about the skin condition of the women were used; the skin moisture and elasticity was measured with a Soft 55 Catellani 1930 measurer; the BMI and skin fat were measured with an Omron body fat measurer and with scales; the skin ridge was measured with a caliper; and the other sizes were measured with a tape-measure. The participants were examined before the procedures and immediately after the treatment; while the remnant effect of the 15-min treatment was evaluated 1 and 4 months after the treatment.
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Water resources are great significance for various activities such as drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture and power generation. The importance of sustained hydrological studies on Indian waters is now recognized in water resource management due to exploitation of fresh water resources. Report of the scientists at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, finds an alarming prevalence of various diseases causing microbes in drinking water and recreational water. The use of this water may lead to several life threatening diseases. Different authors also reported that Indian River system is polluted mainly because of the human impact [1, 2,3]. Significance of water as a potent ecological factor can be appreciated only by studying its physico-chemical and microbial characteristics. Water is essential to sustain life and a satisfactory supply must be made available to consumers .
To examine the relationships between body composition, energy expenditure and daily energy intake, hierarchical multiple regression was used. B, unstandardized beta coefficient; SE, standard error; , standardized beta coefficient; ED, energy density; RMR, resting metabolic rate; TDEE, total daily energy expenditure. *p < 0.001. 1 , R 2 = 0.617 for Step 2 (p < 0.001). 2 , R 2 = 0.478 for Step 2 (p < 0.001). 3 , R 2 = 0.506 for Step 2 (p < 0.001).
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In recent years, several studies have shown a relationship between high body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syn- drome . However, not all obese individuals shows evi- dence of metabolic syndrome [2, 3]. Thus, there have been several attempts to identify a correlation between body shape and metabolic risk factors. Typically, people who have metabolic syndrome have been characterized as having apple-shaped (abdominal fat) bodies rather than pear-shaped (peripheral fat) bodies . In contrast to peripheral fat mass, visceral fat mass is strongly asso- ciated with obesity-related complications such as cardio- vascular disease and Type 2 diabetes . Additionally, waist circumference and the waist-to-hip ratio are used to predict metabolic syndrome . Recently, the exist- ence of a metabolically obese, normal weight phenotype associated with normal weight and obese characteristics was proposed [7, 8]. Even with a low BMI, there is a high
Our methods used for assessing nutritional status and muscle strength also provide extra parameters in add- ition to the criteria as de ﬁ ned by Fearon et al and Evans et al . Protein need and energy need used to estimate the risk of malnutrition from the NRS and PG-SGA were lower for patients of both cachectic groups. The BIA method used to measure the SMI also provides extra parameters related to the body composition. FFM and TBW were signi ﬁ cantly lower ( p<0.001) for patients of both cachectic groups. RZ was signi ﬁ cantly higher ( p<0.001) for patients of both cachectic groups. XC and PA were signi ﬁ cantly lower for the patients of the cach- ectic group only in case the criteria of Evans et al were applied (table 5B; p=0.0145 and p<0.0001, respectively). XC, PA and prealbumin were unchanged in the Figure 2 Kaplan-Meier estimation of the survival analysis and multiple Cox regression for all patients as separated in cachectic and non-cachectic; in 2A according to Fearon et al and in 2B according to Evans et al. a Reference=primary location=other
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skin blood flow are lower at the same core temperature for the dehydrated compared with the euhydrated state. Body temperature rises faster during exercise when the body is dehydrated. The reduced sweating response in the dehydrated state is probably mediated through the effects of both a fall in blood volume (hypovolemia) and elevated plasma osmolarity (i.e., dissolved salt concentration) on hypothalamic neurons. As explained previously, as core temperature rises towards about 39.5° C (103° F), sensations of fatigue ensue. This critical temperature is reached more quickly in the dehydrated state.
The hydrodynamics of larval fish considered in the present study may occur in fish of any size or stage of growth. For example, an adult fish that is swept downstream in a current also experiences a pressure gradient of flow. As in larval prey, the size and mass of the body of an adult fish will affect the relative flow velocity and, hence, the signal detected by the superficial neuromasts. However, an adult may extract additional information from this stimulus owing to differences in their lateral line system. Most notable among these differences are the canal neuromasts, which are present in adults but not larvae. Like a superficial neuromast, a canal neuromast generates a neurobiological signal from the flow-induced deflections of its cupula (Dijkgraaf, 1963). However, a canal neuromast resides within a channel beneath the scales. Flow is induced through the channel when a pressure difference is created at the pores that open the channel to the surface of the skin. As a consequence, a canal neuromast functions as a pressure gradient sensor that does not require a difference in velocity between the body and water to detect a signal (van Netten, 2006). Therefore, despite similarities in the hydrodynamics of adult and larval fish, the lateral line system may detect different signals at these two stages of growth.
In contrast, electrolytes are chemical compounds that do disassociate into ions in water. Since ions are charged particles, they can conduct an electrical current — that’s why they’re called electrolytes! For the most part, electrolytes include organic salts, some proteins, and both organic and inorganic acids and bases. Electrolytes have much greater osmotic power than non electrolytes because each electrolyte molecule disassociates into at least two ions. For instance, a molecule of sodium chloride (NaCl) contributes twice as many solute particles as glucose, and a molecule of magnesium chloride (MgCl2) contributes three times as many.
The isotope dilution technique for measuring total body water (TBW), and the doubly labelled water (DLW) method for measuring energy expenditure, are both sensitive to small variations in the ratio of the hydrogen to oxygen-18 dilution space. Since the dilution space ratio varies between individuals, there has been much recent debate over what causes this variability (i.e. physiological differences between individuals or analytical error in the isotope determinations), and thus which values (individual or a population mean dilution space ratio) should be employed for TBW and DLW calculations. To distinguish between physiological and analytical variability, we injected 15 non-reproductive and 12 lactating mice (Mus musculus, outbred MF1) simultaneously with deuterium, tritium and oxygen-18. The two hydrogen labels were administered and analysed independently, therefore we expected a strong correlation between dilution space ratios based on deuterium and tritium if most of the variation in dilution spaces was physiological, but only a weak correlation if most of the variation was analytical. Dilution spaces were significantly influenced by reproductive status. Dilution spaces expressed as a percentage of body mass averaged 15.7 % greater in lactating mice than in non-
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To successfully run on water, an animal must not only produce supportive, upward forces, but also minimize any downward forces that might induce sinking. These downward forces primarily result from drag acting on the feet during their retraction from the water. As an animal pulls its foot upward, hydrodynamic drag acts to pull the animal down. Therefore, reducing drag production during foot retraction mitigates the necessary supportive forces for staying above the water. Grebes retract their feet from the water laterally, indicating that they use a different drag reduction mechanism than basilisk lizards. A critical aspect of water running in basilisk lizards involves retracting the feet through air cavities formed during underwater stroke (Glasheen and McMahon, 1996a,c). Air has a lower mass density than water, and therefore imposes less resistive drag. As a basilisk lizard slaps the water and pushes its foot downward, an air bubble forms behind the foot. Missile drop experiments on basilisk lizard feet indicate that foot size determines the time it takes for the cavity to seal and collapse (Glasheen and McMahon, 1996a,c). To reduce drag, basilisk lizards pull each foot through the air bubble before its collapse by retracting their feet underneath their body (Hsieh, 2003). Grebes, however, use a different movement during foot retraction: the metatarsophalangeal joint makes a broad arc out of the water, exiting the water lateral to the bird (Fig. 3C and Fig. 4A). Because grebes still slap the water surface medially under the body, a lateral foot retraction prohibits them from utilizing an air cavity. Although it is unknown why grebes would use a lateral retraction, this movement might reflect a constraint on the underwater stroke foot motion. Diving grebes use a medially directed power stroke to produce lift (Johansson and Norberg, 2001). Rushing grebes may use a similar tactic to support their body weight, necessitating a lateral retraction of the foot out of the water. Regardless of its potential benefit, the lateral retraction observed during rushing suggests that grebes do not use the same air-cavity tactic as basilisk lizards for reducing drag during foot retraction.
Two lakes have been selected from Udupi district of Karnataka. Manipalla lake, Manipal, and Brahmavara, Chantaru lake. Five Sampling stations will be selected in each lake. The water samples will be collected twice in a month from the selected sampling sites. The water samples will be analyzed for water temperature, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD, pH, nutrients like phosphate and nitrates and the phytoplankton will be analyzed following the standard methods for the examination of water analysis.
The body wrinkles, tries to grip water, head under the water now that she has satisfied all material wants and can go unto water without telling any soul. Here are two scenarios u de the ate , sea, ity i e , ithout telli g a y soul, os osis leaki g the ody s ate ial i to its e i o e t. A d ith it hat ou ts? Mo ty! u li g up, if u les e e s oke,