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DECREASE THE OUTLET WATER TEMPERATURE OF CROSS FLOW COOLING TOWER

DECREASE THE OUTLET WATER TEMPERATURE OF CROSS FLOW COOLING TOWER

To reduce the water outlet temperature in the DCW cooling tower the one of the practically possible method is make a water path cooling in the inlet pipe of cooling tower it’s like a lake through which the inlet pipe of cooling tower passed so the hot water from heat exchanger first cools from the artificial water path by nearly 3°celcius. After that it will go to the cooling tower so the range of the cooling tower increase more if it’s calculated from the water path cooling.the structure of water path cooling will be showed in the figure 1.
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Numerical evaluation of the performance of an indirect heating integrated collector storage solar water heating system

Numerical evaluation of the performance of an indirect heating integrated collector storage solar water heating system

Table 5.1 presents the service water outlet temperature; heat gained by the service water (q), power required to run the system and initial cost of the service water tube for all cases investigated. It was observed that heat gained increased as the mass flow rate increased, while the outlet temperatures for the higher flow rate was less than for the lower flow rate. This means that the increase in flow rate enhanced the heat exchange process, which is expected. The increase in the heat gained by the service water means increase in the energy acquired from solar radiation. Moreover, there was not much temperature difference (1-2 o C) between type A and B tubes, but there was up to 70 percent reduction in the power required when tube B was used. The elliptical tube gave higher outlet temperature than the circular one for the same length and same cross sectional area.
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Samurai range. Screw Type Water Chillers Cooling Only & Heat Pump Versions

Samurai range. Screw Type Water Chillers Cooling Only & Heat Pump Versions

To integrate the chiller in the global building system, you must request this interface. This interface allows the connection of up to 4 chillers to a global management system using the LONWORKS communications protocol. The system is easy to install, since with two wires it is possible to achieve communication between the chillers and the systems control unit through the HARC-70CE1. From there it will be possible to manage the unit’s ON/OFF and select the desired value of the cold water outlet temperature.

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Numerical evaluation of the performance of an indirect heating integrated collector storage solar water heating system

Numerical evaluation of the performance of an indirect heating integrated collector storage solar water heating system

Table 5.1 presents the service water outlet temperature; heat gained by the service water (q), power required to run the system and initial cost of the service water tube for all cases investigated. It was observed that heat gained increased as the mass flow rate increased, while the outlet temperatures for the higher flow rate was less than for the lower flow rate. This means that the increase in flow rate enhanced the heat exchange process, which is expected. The increase in the heat gained by the service water means increase in the energy acquired from solar radiation. Moreover, there was not much temperature difference (1-2 o C) between type A and B tubes, but there was up to 70 percent reduction in the power required when tube B was used. The elliptical tube gave higher outlet temperature than the circular one for the same length and same cross sectional area.
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Experimental study of 
		heat transfer characteristics of solar water heater collector with 
		addition wavy fins on pipe

Experimental study of heat transfer characteristics of solar water heater collector with addition wavy fins on pipe

Utilize the potential of solar energy there are two kinds technology already applied, there are solar thermal technology and solar photovoltaic. Solar water heater collector is one of the utilized solar energy. One way to improve the efficiency of collector solar water heating is to add external fins on pipes. This experimental was carried in environment Mechanical Engineering ITS, located in -7.27˚LS and -112.79˚BT. It is used to cover clear glass with angle of solar collector 10 ° and flow rate variation 75 l/h, 150 l/h and 225 l/h. Date is collected every one hour from 09.00 am - 15.00 pm for each variation. The measured parameters are upside glass temperature, underside glass temperature, water input, water output, pipe, absorber plate, surrounding, solar radiation and wind speed. The results obtained from this study are the highest efficiency of collector at the flow rate of 225 l/h is 63.87%, and the highest outlet temperature of water at the flo w rate of 75 l/h is 46°C. The addition of wavy fins on pipes can improve the efficiency of the collector.
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StreamFlow 1.0: an extension to the spatially distributed snow model Alpine3D for hydrological modelling and deterministic stream temperature prediction

StreamFlow 1.0: an extension to the spatially distributed snow model Alpine3D for hydrological modelling and deterministic stream temperature prediction

In a recent study, Leach and Moore (2015) reviewed the approaches implemented in some of the most popular stream temperature models for approximating the temperature of the subsurface water flux. Based on a comparison with data col- lected in a small Canadian watershed, they concluded that none of them performed well, except for the method im- plemented in the HSPF model approaching the observations relatively closely. More interestingly, the authors pointed at large discrepancies between the predictions of the various models. As a further step, we propose here to investigate the effect of the modelled subsurface flux temperature on the simulated stream temperature at the catchment outlet. To this end, three StreamFlow simulations are run with the same configuration as above – namely lumped reaches and the in- stantaneous routing scheme – except that the temperature of the subsurface flux is computed each time based on a differ- ent method out of the three available ones (see Sect. 2.1.2). It should be mentioned that, in virtue of the modular structure of StreamFlow, changing from one method to the next sim- ply requires one line to be modified in the configuration file. The simulation results are displayed in Fig. 10, and the cor- responding error measures can be found in Table 5. It can be observed that the approach used to compute the temperature of the subsurface flux has a strong influence on the accuracy of the modelled stream temperature. The method originally implemented in StreamFlow appears to perform worse (NSE of 0.56, RMSE of 2.06 ◦ C), followed by the HSPF approach (NSE of 0.70, RMSE of 1.69 ◦ C). The method based on the depth-averaged soil temperature is associated with the best performance measures (see above). Overall, the three meth- ods seem to determine the temperature of in-stream water to a large extent, leading to variations of more than 4 ◦ C be- tween the different curves (see Fig. 10). These observations point at the strong need for additional field investigations of the dynamics of the subsurface flux temperature, as already mentioned by Leach and Moore (2015).
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Development of a Tube-ball Coal Mill Mathematical Model Using Particle Swarm Optimization (P.S.O.)

Development of a Tube-ball Coal Mill Mathematical Model Using Particle Swarm Optimization (P.S.O.)

The Tube Ball mill used by EDF is a motor driven tumbling barrel charged with steel grinding balls as shown in Figure 2. The mill drive is via a 1.6MW, 740 RPM, 3.3KV 3ph 50 Hz constant speed electric motor through a reduction gearbox. The speed of the mill barrel is 15 RPM being 75% of the critical speed. Raw coal is delivered to the mill via drag link variable speed coal feeders. The coal feeder outlet chute delivers the coal. Hot air is swept through the mill by two 1.75mtr diameter variable speed exhauster fans. Hot air at 280 O C is available to the mills from the main boiler airheaters and facilities for raising this temperature up to 500 O C are available by the use of boost gas. Pulverised fuel (p.f.) flows via the discharge end of the mill to two static vane type M.E.L classifiers before being delivered by the variable speed exhausters to the p.f. burners. There are 4 p.f. burners per exhauster and the p.f. is equally distributed by splitter box arrangements at the exhauster discharge [6, 7, 8].
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Septic System Management Plan for Above Grade Systems

Septic System Management Plan for Above Grade Systems

Water usage rate. A water meter or another device can be used to monitor your average daily water use. Compare your water usage rate to the design flow of your system (listed on the next page). Contact your septic professional if your average daily flow over the course of a month exceeds 70% of the design flow for your system.

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Durability Of Mortar Made With Non Potable Water With Lime

Durability Of Mortar Made With Non Potable Water With Lime

cross sectional area and same number of square prisms of 160X40X40 mm were cast for compressive and flexural strengths. Tests were performed at 3 days, 7 days, 28 days and 90 days for compressive and flexural strengths. The compacted specimens in moulds were maintained at a controlled temperature of 27 P

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Experimental Study on the Performance of Cross Flow Regenerator in Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

Experimental Study on the Performance of Cross Flow Regenerator in Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

Desiccant cooling technology is an emerging technology in the field of air conditioning system which controls humidity levels for conditioned air spaces to great extent. Desiccant is a material which has strong affinity for moisture. These materials absorb moisture due to difference in vapor pressure. Desiccants are of two types namely solid desiccant and liquid desiccant. Some of the solid desiccants are silica gel, calcium chloride. A liquid desiccant is a hygroscopic liquid used to remove water. Some liquid desiccants are glycols (diethylene, tri ethylene, tetra ethylene). The liquid desiccants can be regenerated. Regeneration means that the water absorbed by these substances can be separated from them and again they are used for dehumidification of air. The selection of the desiccant depends on their ability to hold large quantities of water, their ability to be reactivated and cost. Desiccant system works in conjunction with conventional air conditioning system to dehumidify the air. Liquid desiccant has several advantages over solid desiccant. The pressure drop through the liquid desiccant is lower than that through a solid desiccant system and can be stored for regeneration by some inexpensive energy. As the desiccant vapor pressure increases due to the presence of moisture that it has attracted, the desiccant material is transferred to a reactivation/regeneration process. In regeneration process, hot air passed over the desiccant. The vapor pressure of hot air is lower than the desiccant surface and this difference in vapor pressure forces the moisture to transfer from the desiccant surface into hot air stream.
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Experimental Investigation on Heat Transfer of Water in Engine Cylinder Jacket with Porous Media

Experimental Investigation on Heat Transfer of Water in Engine Cylinder Jacket with Porous Media

Bin Chen and Li Zhang 2 investigated the effect of increasing specific heat and influence of charge cooling of water injection in a TGDI engine. They concluded that charge cooling has a smaller impact to increase to increasing specific heat on the variation of in cylinder temperature and pressure. Mashadi and Kakaee 3 established low temperature rankine cycle to increase the waste heat recovery from the internal combustion engine cooling system. Experimental study of pyrolysis combustion coupling in a regeneratively cooled chamber was carried out in order to check two parameters i.e. Heat transfer and coke formation by Taddeo L 4 He observed that combustor heat exchange efficiency increases with fuel mass flow rate. Experimental investigation of two phase flow and heat transfer performance in a cooling gallery under forced oscillation was carried out by Xeoli Yu and Dong Yi 5 . Their result showed that heat transfer in turbulent flow was quite stronger than in transition flow. Azzam S 6 performed experimental investigation of the impact of geometrical surface modification on spray cooling heat transfer performance in the non-boiling regime. Aqiang and Jie 7 evaluated mass injection cooling on flow and heat transfer characteristics for high temperature inlet air in a MIPCC engine. Jindong Z 8 investigated improvement of desorption efficiency using engine cooling water in natural gas vehicle tank. He concluded that using the engine cooling as the heating source of heating jacket can greatly improve desorption performance of gas tank in natural gas vehicle. Large eddy simulation of transpiration cooling in turbulent channel with porous wall was carried out by Xuefeng and Guangbo 9 . He concluded that transpiration cooling process can take a large amount of energy away from the wall thus achieving high efficiency. Xiao and Zhao 10 numerically investigated transpiration cooling for porous nose cone with liquid coolant. Transpiration cooling for additive manufactured porous plates with partition wall was done by Gan and Zhang 11 . K Anirudh and S Dhinakaan 12 investigated the effect of Prandtl number on the forced convection heat transfer from a porous square cylinder.
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Research on heating system of electrical assisted solar energy thermal storage

Research on heating system of electrical assisted solar energy thermal storage

(3) When the temperature achieves the transformation temperature, the temperature of the heat storage material in the thermal accumulator, the maximum temperature is 61.5 ℃ and the lowest is 57.2 ℃ , maintains at 58±3 ℃ ; The temperature distribution in the thermal storage device is almost uniform. The heat that the thermal accumulator collected can reach the phase change heat storage material phase transition temperature (56-58 ℃ ). The temperature difference between inlet and outlet of the thermal accumulator can reach the phase transition temperature in three hours since the system operated.
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REVIEW ON SPRAY DRYING TECHNOLOGY

REVIEW ON SPRAY DRYING TECHNOLOGY

Creating a shell-like structure around the granular allows spray drying to be used for the manufacture of controlled-release products. Future impacts Spray drying is presently one of the most exciting technologies for the pharmaceutical industry, being an ideal process where the end-product must comply with precise quality standards regarding particle size distribution, residual moisture content, bulk density and morphology. The production of particles from the process of spraying has gained much attention in recent years. Multistage processes, new spray techniques, and temperature-gradient systems hold promise for future pharmaceutical application (Masters, 1991). Classic equipment designs are being used more and more in the United States as a means for preparing pharmaceutical products of various types. Their versatile output capacity, continuous operation and controllability are desirable features.
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Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of Thermoacoustic Refrigerator

Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of Thermoacoustic Refrigerator

Abstract: Thermoacoustic deals with the conversion of heat energy to sound energy or vice versa. Therrnoacoustic cooling devices use the thermoacoustic principle to move heat using sound. They consist of a standing wave tube in which a stack of fractional wavelength creates a temperature gradient across the stack, facilitating heat flow. These devices are simple in design and have no harmful effects on the environment. However, their efficiencies are lower than the conventional vapor-compression refrigeration systems. In this study, the refrigerator was fabricated and performance of the device was then tested. The stack length and the position of the stack in the resonator have a significant impact on the overall performance of the thermoacoustic device. Air at standard temperature and pressure is employed as the working gas. The acoustic power source was a l5 W speaker operating at a frequency of 450 Hz. Based on a numerical study, the stack length was set equal to 3 cm with its center located at a distance of 5 cm from the driver-end of a 38.5 cm long resonator tube. The temperature difference between the two ends of the stack was set equal to 25 K. Preliminary experimental results have shown that a temperature difference of as high as 23 K was established across the stack. In order to exploit the thermoacoustic effect for heat pumping; heat exchangers were attached at both ends of stack. Water at ambient temperature was chosen as the working fluid for the heat exchangers to facilitate heat transfer to or from the stack. A pump was used to circulate water through both heat exchangers. Experimental results have shown that water temperature difference of 3 K for cold heat exchanger and 7.5 K for hot heat exchanger were established. The maximum coefficient of performance (COP) of this device was l.5. Further research and development is needed in order to explore the full potential of the device in refrigeration applications.
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design and Analysis of a Heat Exchanger Network

design and Analysis of a Heat Exchanger Network

exchangers and (ii) sizing heat exchangers for a particular application. Rating involves determination of the rate of heat transfer, the change in temperature of the two fluids and the pressure drop across the heat exchanger. Sizing involves selection of a specific heat exchanger from those currently available or determining the dimensions for the design of a new heat exchanger, given the required rate of heat transfer and allowable pressure drop. The LMTD method can be readily used when the inlet and outlet temperatures of both the hot and cold fluids are known. When the outlet
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Experimental Study of Performance of Spark Ignition Engine with Gasoline and Natural Gas

Experimental Study of Performance of Spark Ignition Engine with Gasoline and Natural Gas

Abstract The tests were carried out with the spark timing adjusted to the maximum brake torque timing in various equivalence ratios and engine speeds for gasoline and natural gas operations. In this work, the lower heating value of gasoline is about 13.6% higher than that of natural gas. Based on the experimental results, the natural gas operation causes an increase of about 6.2% brake special fuel consumption, 22% water temperature difference between outlet and inlet engine, 3% exhaust valve seat temperature, 2.3% brake thermal efficiency and a decrease of around 20.1% maximum brake torque, 6.8% exhaust gas temperature and 19% lubricating oil temperature when compared to gasoline operation. The results also revealed that, over the entire range of engine speed and equivalence ratio, the exhaust gas temperature and the lubricating oil temperature for gasoline operation is higher than that of natural gas operation while the exhaust valve seat temperature for natural gas operation is higher. Keywords Engine performance, spark ignition engine, gasoline, natural gas, lower heating value
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Article: Production performance of lettuce (Lactuca sativa): aquaponics versus traditional soil

Article: Production performance of lettuce (Lactuca sativa): aquaponics versus traditional soil

The water quality parameters of the fish tank remained within the suitable range for aquaculture. As observed, the mean pH value in fish tank water was 7.58 ±0.21 that was within the acceptance level of both tilapia and magur (Swingle, 1968; Chervinski, 1982; Tanusri, 2013). In aquaponic system, nitrifying bacteria require pH within 7.2 to 8.2, whereas nitrification is subdued below the pH value of 5 (Villaverde et al., 1997). The reported mean dissolved oxygen content (DO) in the tank water over the study period was 4.3±1.2 ppm suggesting slightly lower value than ideal condition (DoF, 1996), although within the tolerance range of tilapia and magur (Balarin et al., 1986; Islam et al., 1986). The nitrifying bacteria (Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter) resided on the root systems of aquaponic plants could have contributed to oxygen depletion through water recirculation (Sutton et al., 2006). As the present experiment was conducted in the winter season (December to March) the average temperature was slightly lower that varied from 17° to 23.5°C. Nevertheless, this temperature was quite suitable for fish culture as magur grow well within this range (Tanushri 2013) and the lethal temperature threshold for tilapia is below11° C and above 42°C (Balarin et al., 1986). Moreover, temperature range of 7 to 35°C is needed to keep the nitrifying bacteria active in aquaponic system that was avail during the study period (Wortman and Wheaton, 1991).
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Porcia, 20 novembre 2012

Porcia, 20 novembre 2012

9 LAYOUT CLEANING AREAS WATER JACKET WATER POCKET WATER EXCHANGER PIPES EXHAUST OUTLET WAYS... 10 LAYOUT SPIDER CLEANING SYSTEM WITH SPRINGS EXHAUST OUTLET EXPANSION CHAMBER/PLENUM.[r]

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Comparative Analysis on Thermal Performance of Different Natural-draft Dry Cooling Towers under Crosswind Condition

Comparative Analysis on Thermal Performance of Different Natural-draft Dry Cooling Towers under Crosswind Condition

Fig. 3 schematically shows the domain of the flow field and appropriate boundary conditions. There is a symmetry plane along the wind direction. All gradients of the dependent variables are set to zero normal to the symmetry plane. The ground and solid walls of the cooling tower and also windbreakers are insulated surfaces and the no-slip condition is used in the momentum equations for these particular boundaries. The wall function approach is used to encounter the turbulence characteri st ics near the walls [20]. The far field boundary is located as far as possible from the cooling tower. The velocity vector and temperature are invariant and equal to the inlet values on the far field boundary. All dependent variables are linearly extrapolated from the inner cells on the outflow boundary. An experimental fully developed velocity profile corresponding to the velocity of 10 m/s at the middle height of the radiators is used as the inlet boundary condition [7] as
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Online Full Text

Online Full Text

In this paper, the reactor was modeled with three different methods. In the first method, using laboratory data obtained from Amir-Kabir Olefin unit and the Table Curve 2D software, an optimal value of COT for Ethylene and Propylene is obtained. In the second method, using the Linde software, cracking reactor is simulated at actual temperature, pressure… of operation condition. In the third method, using modeling based on mass balance and energy on the differential element of the coil of reactor and using the model provided by Masoumi et al, the optimum Cot to produce Ethylene and Propylene is obtained. This model was selected because of its acceptable results in comparison with the results obtained from experimental and Linde software. In the third methods, the effect of temperature is studied with constant residence time and constant dilution steam ratio in reactor.
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