In this paper we explore the potential of a virtual water- science laboratory to overcome the aforementioned prob- lems. A virtual laboratory provides a platform to share data, tools and experimental protocols (Ramasundaram et al., 2005). In particular, experimental protocols constitute an es- sential part of a scientific experiment, as they guarantee qual- ity assurance and good practice (e.g. Refsgaard et al., 2005; Jakeman et al., 2006) and, we argue, are at the core of re- peatability and reproducibility of the scientific experiments. More specifically, a protocol is a detailed plan of a scien- tific experiment that describes its design and implementa- tion. Protocols usually include detailed procedures and lists of required equipment and instruments, information on data, experimenting methods and standards for reporting the re- sults through post-processing of model outputs. By includ- ing a collection of research facilities, such as e-infrastructure and protocols, virtual laboratories have the potential to stim- ulate entirely new forms of scientific research through im- proved collaboration. Pilot studies, such as the Environ- mental Virtual Observatory (EVO – http://www.evo-uk.org), have already explored a number of these issues and, ad- ditionally, the legal and security challenges to overcome. Other example projects related to hydrology, which are ex- ploring community data sharing and interoperability, include DRIHM (http://www.drihm.eu), NEON in the USA (http: //www.neoninc.org), and the Organic Data Science Frame- work (http://www.organicdatascience.org/). To sum up, vir- tual laboratories aim at (i) facilitating repetition of numerical experiments undertaken by other researchers for quality as- surance, and (ii) contributing to collaborative research. Vir- tual laboratories therefore provide an opportunity to make hydrology a more rigorous science. However, virtual labora- tories are relatively novel in environmental research and their essential requirements to ensure the repeatability and repro- ducibility of experiments are still unclear. Therefore, we have undertaken a collaborative experiment, among five universi- ties and research institutes, to explore the possible critical is- sues that may arise in the development of virtual laboratories. This paper presents a collaborative simulation experiment on reproducibility in hydrology, using the Virtual Water- Science Laboratory, established within the context of the EU funded research project “Sharing Water-related Informa- tion to Tackle Changes in the Hydrosphere – for Operational Needs (SWITCH-ON)”, (http://www.water-switch-on.eu/), which is currently under development. The paper aims to ad- dress the following questions:
Interactions between humans and the natural system have always been part of human history, probably starting at rel- atively small scales, but gradually increasing in scale as the range and command of the technology became greater. Early civilisations, such as the Sumerian empire (3rd–2nd millen- nium BC), built their wealth on irrigation. Urbanisation was only possible if there was a reliable supply of food from spe- cialised farmers; this need led to large-scale agricultural de- velopment, specialisation, and division of labour, followed by the need for administration and the development of writ- ten language. More importantly, it triggered technological development in the field of geodesy, mathematics, hydraulics and engineering. Yet, apparently it was hard to make such interventions sustainable. The Sumerian empire is known to have collapsed due to the ecological impacts of salin- ization for which the Sumerians did not yet have the tech- nology (Ponting, 1991). The need to administer water in a water-dependent society led to the establishment of a gaug- ing network, of which the Nilometer ( ∼ 1500 BC–1000 AD) is the most well-known example. The Nile was equipped with several gauging stations where water levels were mea- sured. This information was used in Egypt to plan the start of the irrigation season and to tax irrigators, but more gener- ally, to gain control over the complex interactions between humans and society. Another example of a complex sys- tem that was developed to provide a reliable water supply in a semi-arid environment is the qanat system, which taps groundwater resources. This technology was invented during the Persian empire (about 600 BC) and proved successful not in the least because of the well-anchored and robust insti- tutional arrangements among users. This technology spread throughout the Middle East, where qanats are still in use (see www.waterhistory.org/histories/qanats). Similar to sur- face water irrigation in the more water-rich regions of the world, the development of qanats for groundwater explo- ration required specialisation, the development of mathemat- ical and technological skills, institutional development, and cooperation among stakeholders.
Despite the scientific evidence-base, which is rapidly evolving in an effort to underpin the utility of qPCR for bathing water-quality assessment, there remain uncertainties over the desirability of wider deployment of this method for regulatory monitoring (Oliver et al. 2014). Efforts focus on the science and technology development with relatively little resources going into wider societal and cultural contexts and impacts (both positive and negative) concerning the use of ‘‘rapid methods’’ for informing the public about bathing and recreational water quality. It is understandable that signifi- cant effort has been invested in qPCR development with respect to bathing waterscience given the increased attention of method suitability in the US and a general interest in the value of rapid methods from the rest of the world. However, beach environments are also social environments, a source of well-being for beach users and others, and a key source of income revenue for some local economies (Quilliam et al. 2015). With that in mind, it is essential that the wider social ramifications of method transition are suitably explored to enable a coupling of science and technology developments with end-user needs and their assumptions and perceptions about risk and the cognitive and noncognitive behavioral contexts in which they are willing, able, or inclined to act. Currently, this coupling is weak because of a lack of socioeconomic and cultural investigation surrounding the potential impacts of qPCR deployment for quantifying microbial compliance parameters. Little appreciation of the breadth and extent to which methodological transitions might impact on wider society exists. Redressing this imbalance is now a priority, and one that offers considerable opportunity for interdisciplinary research.
A study commissioned by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) (Zemadim, McCartney, Langan, and Sharma, 2013) highlights the successes and challenges encountered when establishing community- based monitoring networks in the three watersheds of Miziwa, Meja and Dapo in the Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia. Within these watersheds, community members were trained to monitor streamflow, overland flows, sediment load, shallow and deep groundwater bodies (Zemadim, et al., 2013). Although some success stories are noted in the formation of networks, in Bergville, Potshini, located in uKhahlamba Local Municipality in KZN, there have also been some failures. Two of the three selected farmers could not consistently record data due to their involvement in other farming initiatives (Zemadim, et al., 2013). Other challenges reported in hydrological monitoring systems include theft, vandalism, post-installation damage due to floods, and policy barriers that hinder the implementation of the system (Zemadim, et al., 2013). River health monitoring using biomonitoring tools such as miniSASS in a catchment empowers communities with waterscience knowledge that helps them to trace and understand the causes of pollution. The science knowledge stays with them for a very long time and presents an opportunity for transfer of knowledge from one generation to the other.
The issues of what interests are served by science in politics needs to be faced directly. Since scientists in water policy and similar areas that are technically constructed are in fact deeply involved in decisions that help some and hurt others, they have social obligations. The fact is that science is going to be used by the state and powerful interests. Science is likely even to be distorted by these interests in ways favorable to them. At the same time, there is a considerable experience of science that challenges power by pointing out the omissions, gaps, and misstatements in science justifications. Dorothy Nelkin (1992) has chronicled the number of cases in which science has been used by community and environmental groups to challenge authority in such areas as nuclear safety, registration of pesticides, risks of food additives, and the like. There is a long tradition within water resources of the use of science to question bureaucratic plans and special interest schemes. Consider the ways in which hydrology and waterscience has been used to accomplish underdog victories such as the defeat of dams in the Grand Canyon and the passage of the Arizona Groundwater Act. Other professionals regularly recognize that left to the market, many would not be able to get access to their skills. To avoid the resulting inequities they donate a portion of their time. Consider the pro-bono work done by lawyers or the charity clinics staffed by physicians. Socially responsible scientists might well follow this model.
As part of a series of workshops on linking waterscience to policy, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME, 2002) conducted a Water Reuse and Recycling workshop. The aim was to communicate the results of new research and management practices to senior decision makers and policy makers as a means for scientists and policy makers to contribute expert input into water programs. A range of options for maintaining and expanding on the dialogue were recommended in the workshop report. These were, to create a committee/ task force of academic, industry and government experts to develop a relevant context for recycling; identify short- term and long- term implementation opportunities; refine research needs; convene periodic follow-up workshops for both the science and policy communities; and the use of electronic networking as a means of ensuring information flow. Given the need to improve understanding between scientists, policy makers and managers of recycled water, these recommendations would appear a practical starting place for addressing communication issues between these groups. The workshop report stated that ultimately, the logic for bringing researchers and public policy managers together is to make better public policy decisions. Alignment among these expert groups is necessary for better managing the public communications challenges.
infiltrates into the groundwater system from within the Basin provides recharge for the Guarani Aquifer, one of the largest continental groundwater reservoirs in the world. Some 67 million people live in the basin (it includes the capital cities of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and this results in demands for river transport, irrigation, hydroelectric power, waste disposal and fisheries. Major climate-driven variability in the hydraulic regime and vulnerability to erosion add complexity to the transboundary management of water and habitat use. GEF interventions developed in a piecemeal fashion that focussed on issues in the sub basins as well as the Pantanal, the estuarine Rio de la Plata and the Guarani aquifer. Each of these employed a mixture of local and foreign scientists to meet project objectives; indeed, the FREPLATA project (for the brackish and marine part of the system) and the Guarani project are exemplar. Our analysis revealed enthusiastic collaboration across the science community. This co-operation in an early stage contributed to a more comprehensive project design, ensuring a multi-disciplinary framework for linking results. Most of the work was done by local scientists, who contributed not only in the identification and provision of basic data, but also in wider scientific work.
The readability score of 18 requires the reader to have achieved a university degree and for a score of 17 they must have received a level of further education beyond high school, whereas for the readability level of 13 the reader must have completed high school. All of the material reviewed produced readability score over the recommended reading level of grade/year 9. When examining this in the light of wider Australian literacy level data, the Australian Bureau of Statistics note that just over 80% of Australians aged between 15-74 have a literacy level of less than Level 3 (the minimum reading level required to meet complex demands of everyday life and work) (Hay & Eagle, 2016, p. 5, Table 3). While people at Level 3 can read, identify, interpret or analyse dense, lengthy text (37.9%). At Level 2 people can only perform simpler tasks such as matching text and information (30.1%) and the remaining 14.1% are at or below Level 1, where they can read relatively short and simple text material to locate single pieces of information (i.e. they cannot analyse or synthesise information). The analysis of water quality information indicates that many communications may be written in language too complex for a substantial percentage of the Australian population. It should be noted that the nature of the text used in the agri-industry uses large amounts of three syllable words for example: management and government, which has an effect on the overall readability score. To test for bias, three syllable words imposed by managing guidelines were removed from the document to compare the scores. In all cases the document score reduced only by one to two grades.
Mosher: One of the main challenges facing the industry with respect to managing corrosion of crude oil transmission pipelines is the difficulty in predicting internal corrosion. Most internal corrosion in crude oil transmission pipelines is caused by the settling of solid particles that can carry water to the pipe surface. Transmission tariffs are set to limit basic sediment and water (BS&W) to <1% (often 0.5%). The solid particles tend to be encapsulated by a layer of water that may concentrate water on the pipe wall surface. This creates the potential for corrosion to occur if the flow conditions of the pipeline system allow for these solids to settle out.
82 Data collected by citizen scientists is increasingly being used to create policy and make management decisions (Danielsen et al., 2005). It is critical that these decisions are based on sound data. Without access tools that do not require the use of comparable data collected by professional scientists, such as the data quality index presented in this study, data may go unvalidated. Because of the ability of citizen scientists to gather large data sets from wide geographic areas, there is often is a need to rely on data collected by citizen science projects However, without assessment tools such as the index presented in this study, we may be using data of unknown quality to create policies and make decisions that impact health and safety. This data quality index can help to bring transparency to the data quality and in turn can help address critics’ concerns that data collected by citizen scientists is unreliable and not fit for its purpose (Caitlin-Groves, 2012; Cohn, 2008; Hunter et al., 2013). Putitkammer et al. (2016) state that “strong data quality is a precursor for strong data use” (p.104). Data assessment tools like the data quality index presented here can provide the evidence needed for scientists to feel confident in using data collected by citizen scientists.
Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China, firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract: Adopting the split sections design method, the influences of water-saving and anti-drought combined technological measures (bed-irrigating sowing, seedling stage mending irrigation, and ridge plotted field water conservation) on maize yield formation factors and water utilization efficiency (WUE) in semi-arid region in china was studied. Through the intensive studies on the dry matter accumulation status, on changes to leaf area, to LAD, to net assimilation rate, to yields and to WUE under different technological measures, the relations between maize yield and the amount of limited water supply and ridge plotted field were obtained, and through the optimization analysis, the regress equations of maize yields under the conditions with and without ridge plotted field were established respectively, and the extent of the water amount for bed-irrigating and mending irrigation were proposed in the paper. [Nature and Science. 2005;3(1):88-94].
Bacteriological, physicochemical and mineral analysis of water used in abattoirs in Ado- Ekiti, Southwest Nigeria is studied by Odeyemi and coworkers.  Water Quality Investigation by Physicochemical Parameters of Drinking Water of Selected Areas of Kureken Sani, Kumbotso Local Government Area of Kano is studied by Aminu Sharif Hassan and coworkers.  Analysis of Water for the Presence of Pollutants by using Physicochemical Parameter in Control Water, Polluted and Treated Hussainsagar Lake Water, Hyderabad, Telangana, India is studied by Sreenu Noothi and coworkers.  Analysis of water quality parameters of groundwater near Ambattur industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India is studied by K. Saravanakumar and coworkers. 
Currently, guaranteeing access to safe drinking water is one of the most problematic in the global world (Alicia et al., 2020). The access to water is crucial for life, prosperity, and all human activities and Water resources must be used effectively to meet the demand of the ever-growing population, considering the limited and decreasing water availability (Taha et al., 2020). A water distribution system is a complicated combination of hydraulic control parameters connected together to transmit of water from sources to consumers(Abhijeet, 2018) and Network condition is deﬁned as collectively
approaches, e.g. the scipy.optimize method and pyPCGA (Lee et al., 2016). In addition, we also intend to explore and apply other open-source Python-based optimization modules such as SALib (Herman, J., & Usher, 2017) and SPOTPY (Houska et al., 2015) to refine our existing methods of sensitivity testing and model calibration. The ability to plug-in new tools to our analysis pipeline as they are developed and as we become aware of them is one of the great advantages to maintaining the workflow in the Python ecosystem. The groundwater model has already, and will likely continue to expose data gaps, which can be prioritized in the future. These include, developing additional monitoring well capacity and additional constraint on mountain front recharge behavior in the Tafuna-Leone Plain area. Ultimately addressing the issues of sustainable yield and salt-water intrusion remains as the primary goal of the groundwater modeling component and we anticipate the tools developed here to be an important part of laying the foundations for these efforts to improve the water resources sustainability in American Samoa.
A critical review of the last 25 years of dioxin policy in the Elbe river catchment is presented along seven main theses of the River Basin Community (RBC)-Elbe background document “Pollutants” for the Management Plan 2016–2021. In this period, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/-furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) will play a major role: (i) as new priority substances for which environmental quality standards (EQSs) need to be derived (Directive 2013/39/EC); (ii) in the search for innovative solutions in sediment remediation (i.e., respecting the influence of mechanical processes; Flood Risk Directive 2007/60/EC); and (iii) as indicators at the land–sea interface (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56/EC). In the Elbe river catchment, aspects of policy and science are closely connected, which became particularly obvious in a classic example of dioxin hot spot contamination, the case of the Spittelwasser creek. Here, the “source-first principle” of the first cycle of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) had to be confirmed in a controversy on the dioxin hot spots with Saxony-Anhalt’s Agency for Contaminated Sites (LAF). At the Spittelwasser site, the move from “inside the creek” to “along the river banks” goes parallel to a general paradigm shift in retrospective risk assessment frameworks and remediation techniques for organic chemicals (Ortega-Calvo et al. 2015). With respect to dioxin, large-scale stabilization applying activated carbon additions is particularly promising. Another important aspect is the assessment of the ecotoxicology of dioxins and dl- PCBs in context of sediment mobility and flood risk assessment, which has been studied in the project framework FloodSearch. Currently, the quality goals of the WFD to reach a “good chemical status” are not met in many catch- ment areas because substances such as mercury do and others probably will (PCDD/Fs and dl-PCB) exceed biota-EQS values catchment area-wide. So far, relating biota-EQS values to sediment-EQSs is not possible. To overcome these limitations, the DioRAMA project was initiated, which has led to improved approaches for the assessment of dioxin- contaminated sediment using in vitro bioassays and to a robust dataset on the interrelation between dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in sediments and biota.