Abstract: The concept of 24X7 water supplies has generated significant interest in India. Now with the Urban local bodies, small towns are also focusing on delivering continuous watersupply to every consumer throughout the day, in all the days of the year. This involves rehabilitating the distribution network, reducing non-revenue water (NRW), and introducing volumetric tariffs. By considering various problems associated with intermittent watersupplyschemes and the availability of water resources, continuous watersupply gives more better and economical solution. The paper based on the review of two case studies of continuous watersupplyschemes implemented successfully in towns Malakapur and Kulgaon-Badlapur.
Rural water accessibility is very fundamental for equitable and sustainable distribution of watersupplyschemes in our rural communities. Although, the population of a place is very fundamental when the issue of water coverage is to be addressed, water accessibility looks beyond population issue. Where waterschemes are actually sited is also of paramount importance. This implies that for equitable distribution of safe waterschemes for our rural populace, accessibility should be seen to satisfy the tenets of equitability and sustainability. Compromise of these tenets could likely result in underutilization, mismanagement and neglect of the facility. Nigeria has water policy and rural water programmes should be implemented to guarantee accessibility to safe water delivery to the rural communities nationwide. In Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria, preliminary investigation shows that in the present dispensation, this does not seem to be the case in rural communities and this development makes one wonder if the policy is sacrificed on the altar of political patronage. This observed poor access to rural watersupplyschemes could be attributable to the fact that many of our planners and other decision makers may not have considered the national water policy in the implementation of water projects; the attendant effect of which is the result of inequitable distribution of water facilities against the backdrop of accessibility criteria stipulated in the water policy. This could be one of the possible reasons why some of the water facilities are underutilized to the detriment of some communities that have none and have to drink from a very inhumanly unimproved source. The situation has been of great concern which has necessitated the present research to investigate the number and location of waterschemes in rural Akwa Ibom State and examine the accessibility levels of waterschemes in rural areas of the State.
Wise utilization of water resources is becoming very important as world faces water crises. The main objective of this study was to investigate the rural watersupply systems with case study in Adama area, in central Ethiopia. Both quanti- tative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed. Four sample waterschemes were selected and totally 148 (63 were female) representative households were selected for answering the questionnaires. Key informant interviews and group discussions were also conducted. The study assessed issues such as community participation, water committee empowerment, management and governance of watersupplyschemes, women participation, functional status of watersupply scheme, sanitation and hygiene issues, external support, and monitoring system of watersupplyschemes. The findings indicated that the community participation in planning and implementation was very good while monitoring mechanism of operation and management as well as community participation on choice of technology was poor. The waterschemes were located at reasonable distances i.e. less than 2 km in most cases and the time taken for round trip to fetch water from source was less than or equal to 30 minutes in most cases, however the queuing time was more than an hour. The watersupply was inadequate as only about 15% of beneficiaries could get 20 liters of water per day per capita. The water sources were exposed in many cases to human waste, wild life, livestock and uncontrolled flooding. Sanitary practices in the study area were poor as only about 3.4% had ventilated and improved pit latrine and open pit and/or open field defecation were widely practiced.
importance of carriage of water, the solution is of course the pipe conduit. To address the emergence and consequences of fault in the water distribution network a study has been conducted in 29 Piped WaterSupplySchemes in and around Guwahati City, which is the second largest metropolitan region in Eastern India after Kolkata. The 29 PWSS that have been extensively visited and field data collected. In this study total six linear models have been developed from the collected extensive field data for PVC and Flexible Quick Coupling GI Pipe networks. The developed models can predict the first fault location in a distribution network if either of Clear Water Pumping Main discharge, discharge at fault location or age of pipe and pipe material are known.
are totally illiterate. The highest percentage (55%) among this 100 respondents belongs to primary level education. So it indicates that more than half of the respondents have completed their primary level education. As primary level education is mandatory for the people of the Bangladesh, that’s why this percentage is higher. We found that 21% percent people are secondary level of education among this 100 respondents. So it indicates that one-fifth of the slum population are in this range of education. The percentage (6%) of higher level of education among this 100 respondents is very low. Due to poverty they don’t have enough money and facilities to complete this level of education. Only 2% people go to college or university. Because it is much more expensive for a slum people to bear the educational cost. From this above result, it is clear that the percent is decreasing rapidly from primary education to higher studies. One main cause is poverty as well as most of the parents have an expectation that their children will earn money after completing their primary level of education. Due to lack of proper education, the slum people don’t have enough knowledge and consciousness about safe drinking water, hygiene and waterborne disease.
B1.Relieving the local budget from the investment effort in water area. According to the Contract of concession, the obligations to achieve Service Quality Levels at European standards are achieved by the Concessionaire’s own financial effort (ANB), under the limits of the tendered tariff for the whole duration of 25 years, without resorting to financing resources from the local budget. Thus, S.C. APA NOVA BUCHAREST S.A. undertook the tasks and investments instead of Municipality, with maximum efficiency (at a visible and competition tariff). This transfer of tasks leads to two positive aspects:
In most cities around the world, water services systems are mainly centralized. This is partly due to historical reasons, and in part due to the maturity of the technology and the opportunities for economics of scale. However, the lifespan and the planning horizon of central water infrastructures can be up to 100 years making the prediction of climate change, water availability, population growth as well as shrinkage and land use changes uncertain . For instance, in some cities there are concerns about over-reliance on centralized systems in terms of their future sustainability for meeting a range of social, economic and environmental goals as well as for meeting the water demand because of the increasing growth and concentration of population in urban centers [2–4]. In some cities with shrinking populations as in Eastern Germany [5,6] and Japan  there are concerns about low flows in sewer pipe causing reduced critical traction forces causing sewer blockages  and ageing of watersupply systems . Centralized systems can also be vulnerable to occurrences of periodic droughts and the projected impacts of climate change . Therefore, the case has been frequently made to augment the existing supply systems by integration of traditional and non-traditional supply sources . This type of integration helps both in cases of increasing and decreasing population by making centralized organized water infrastructure more flexible and adaptable . In the last 20 years, many alternative (non-traditional) watersupply options like rainwater, stormwater and recycled water have emerged. The combination of such decentralized watersupply options with centralized system which is defined as hybrid watersupply systems by Sapkota, et al. , have displayed potential to meet the increasing water demand [11,12]. It is argued that this type of hybrid approach can thus offer flexible solutions, wherever certain thresholds of population density are exceeded [13,14
ASHRAE issued Guideline No. 14 for assessing the en- ergy efficiency of on-site chiller units in 2002. The return temperature of cooling water, the outlet temperature of chilled water and refrigeration tons of load were con- tinuously measured and generated the water-side para- meter. The data was further generalized to produce the performance formula of the tested chiller as the basis for assessing energy consumption. ASHRAE Guideline No. 14 refers to two performance simulation models of the chiller. One is the simple model. Another is the tempera- ture-related model. The simple model was used when the return temperature of cooling water and the supply tem- perature of chilled water remained the same. Since the on-site return and supply temperature of cooling water was influenced by the exterior wet-bulb temperature, the temperature-related mode was adopted in the study (i.e. ASHRAE model). The detailed description is as below:
Table 1 shows the number of records from each health authority and the number of exclusions, including rea- sons for exclusion. Figures 1 and 2 show the geographical distribution of individual cases by indicating a dot on the map of the watersupply zones (water quality area for Wales). Figure 3 indicates the attack rates for each zone in the North West where the shading indicates a range of attack rates. Care should be taken in interpreting the zone rates as the populations covered by each zone/area varied substantially. In some zones high attack rates were seen despite only a single case being identified because of a low denominator population. The area specific attack rates are not shown for Wales as numbers of cases was smaller.
This work presents problems related to the water consumption in the city of Olecko situated in the north-east part of Poland in the Warmińsko-Mazurskie Province of the country, at the eastern border of the Mazurian Lake District along the trail connecting the land of the Large Mazurian Lakes with the Suwalsko-Augustowskie Lake District. Over 2011–2012 water extraction to the municipal watersupply network was studied. The volume of water extracted every day was analyzed and the gathered volumes were analyzed statistically. The varying water extraction was also studied. The ob- tained results were presented in a graphic form. Basing on the descriptive stats and prepared diagrams certain general conclusions were drawn and the collected study figures and facts were summed up. This allowed to determine days of the highest and lowest water consumption. Also months of extreme water extraction and consumption were determined. The water extraction ranged from 1641 m 3 /24h to 2607 m 3 /24h, at
solutions. It promotes the sharing of successful performance strategies and the benefits derived using these strategies. Aiming at winning the award or being high productive agency would enable the different individuals and departments to be better recognized and rewarded too (Bowyer 1991). The use of award criteria would therefore, evolve strategies that would monitor measure and evaluate the performance of the supply agencies for continuous improvement. 65% of hospitals are likely to use the Bald ridge criteria for performance excellence as an internal tool by 2018 (Hertz 2010). The present study presents a performance measurement framework that would enable watersupply agencies build a cognitive thinking capacity and create new knowledge to facilitate the successful use of the framework to become an excellent productive agency worthy of earning a national award of honor. Median growth in revenue for two-time Bald ridge award winners is 92% according to Bald ridge program impact report 2015. The model
social services provision within their area of responsibility...The key area of overlap between health and social services is in the provision of care for the elderly. There is a national plan for the elderly aimed to improving older people’s standard of living. This plan includes a component on health care which focuses on health promotion, the prevention of illness and accidents, and healthy lifestyle. Social services are responsible for elderly residential care.” The total number of places amounted to 188,913 in 3,689 elderly homes in 1998. Additionally, more places are purchased through contracts with private institutions. For every 1000 people over 65 there were 2.8 places in 1998. The issue of the elderly requiring continuing medical care has not been resolved satisfactorily and there is no uniform, national/cross-sectional approach. Home care is being expanded and within most municipalities an infrastructure exists to deliver basic support to those being cared for or caring for others at home. Yet, accessibility to these services is severely restricted and coordination with medical care is still lacking in many aspects (EOHCS, 2000b, p. 85). The report can be summarised as follows: long-term care for the elderly and handicapped is still considerably underdeveloped and managed by different organisational structures. In addition, long-term care places for palliative care of the chronically and terminally ill only absorb a marginal share of the total (p. 127). In view of the different organisational structures there is no global national database for long-term care services and no analyses can be carried out in this case. But it can be observed that the supply of long-term care services in nursing homes or by home care are far away from meeting the need of long-term care in Spain.
The need for validation arises from the acceptance and implementation of the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling (AGWR) and the need to protect public health. Based on the principle of preventive risk management, the AGWR requires treatment processes to be validated prior to the operation of the water recycling scheme. This approach shifts the focus from end point monitoring to process barriers and the operational monitoring of those barriers. In the case of pathogens, end point monitoring is expensive and does not identify water quality issues until potentially well after the public have been exposed. This CBA evaluates the proposed NatVal framework for validating individual treatment process barriers and preventative measures used in the production of recycled water. Validation occurs through the substantiation by scientific evidence (investigative or experimental studies) of existing or new treatment technologies and the operational criteria to ensure capability to effectively control hazards, prior to installation in a water recycling scheme.
In developing and transitional economies, supply-side policies have dominated urban water policy because of efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and, perhaps, because increasing supply is conceptually simpler than other strategies. In Mongolia, however, current sources of supply are severely constrained. The availability of fresh water in 2000 – as measured by Falkenmarken’s indicator – was in the range of 1,000–1,700m3 per capita per year, a level that denotes a water stressed country (Smakhtin et al., 2000). The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) observed that Mongolia had ‘moderate to high water stress’, where stress is defined as the consumption of more than 10% of renewable freshwater resources (UNEP, 2002). WASH (2010) mapped countries according to the water stress index and identified Mongolia, and particularly Ulaanbaatar, as being in the extreme to high risk range. According to forecasts reported in documents such as the Urban Development Master Plan of Ulaanbaatar (UDMP) to 2025, the Ulaanbaatar Water and Sewerage Master Plan (UBWSMP) to 2020, and the study by Nemer et al. (2008), Ulaanbaatar will face significant water scarcity by 2015 if the population and water usage continue to grow at the levels observed in 2005. Others have observed that Ulaanbaatar’s seasonal water shortages are growing ever more common and that, in the next 10 years, the city will face a critical shortfall in water availability (Emerton et al., 2009). Clearly, Mongolia cannot continue to pursue only supply-side policies.
ten equal groups and from each group, a total of three households were randomly picked to give a sample size of thirty households from each village. In each household, the household head was the targeted respondent, but in instances where the household heads were not immediately available, other adult members of the household were used as proxies and interviewed. In situations where any household member volunteered information during the survey, such information was promptly recorded. The survey sought to establish, among other things, the water uses in the community and their respective water quantities. This was done to estimate the current community water demand which was then compared against the demand the watersupply systems were originally designed for. If the quantity of water from the SAS was adequate to entirely meet the community’s daily water requirements, then this contributed to the evaluation of the SAS as a sufficient rural watersupply option. Another objective of the survey was to establish the most preferred water source by the communities among the watersupply sources in the study area. In this regard, the villagers were asked their perceptions of the SAS in comparison with other common water sources within the study area. The villagers were also asked about the constraints associated with the SASs.
may also include tariff reform and drought management (Baumann et al., 1997). Water agencies in the arid Southwest and in Southern California were among the first to attack these problems in a systematic way, and are now among the most proficient in the simultaneous management of supply and demand. The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, for example, employs advanced water use forecasting models together with an Integrated Resource Planning Model of its supply options. Yet even the most detailed and sophisticated planning methods now in use within the urban water sector treat weather as an uncertain-but-stationary process. Climate, in other words, is assumed to be fixed. But climate does change. It has always changed and it always will. Most now accept that climate has recently been influenced by human activities such that warming will occur in the future at a rate that is unusually rapid, at least by comparison to recent human experience. This understanding does not include agreement as to exact rates of change, and available model results do not interpolate well to specific locations. In most places, average temperatures are expected to rise. Precipitation may increase or decrease, or simply become more variable. Winters may warm more than summers, or vice versa. Whatever the outcome at a specific location, the characteristics of water resources are likely to change. In considering this prospect from the perspective of urban watersupply, two questions may be asked:
By comparison, the margins for water used by industrial and mining businesses are significantly higher. As an example, mining businesses in Kalgoorlie pay over $5 per kilolitre to use potable water when no other source is available. The key determinant of willingness to pay for these customers is whether there are alternative water sources available at a lower cost, such as groundwater or surface water supplies, which can often be as low as $0.20 per kilolitre for readily accessible groundwater, but may be considerably higher if the water is sourced from a potable water scheme, is difficult to extract or treat, or is transported over long distances. For residential, commercial and many industrial customers, the default water source is typically potable water. As noted above, the value of water within this framework is the value of water net of the value of potable water. Therefore, there will only be a value if recycled water is valued more highly than potable water. As demonstrated by the hedonic pricing study
The engineering management of coagulation by the use of synthetic and natural polyelectrolyte is the most important development in the clarification of drinking waters. However, the usage of natural polyelectrolyte was known to ancient Indians as far back as 4000 years. In Sanskrit literature (about 2000 B.C.), use of many plant substances, notably Nirmali seed (Strychonos potatorum), is mentioned as a means of clarifying water. In a similar manner Moringa oleifera seed is a native tree of the sub-Himalayan parts of Northwest India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Moringa oleifera is a perfect example of a so called “Multipurpose tree”. Earlier studies have found Moringa to be non-toxic and recommended it for use as a coagulant in developing countries. The use of Moringa has an added advantage over the chemical treatment of water because it is biological and has been reported as edible.
higher energy consumption was a trade-off for reduced health and demand risks In several cases, including Darling Quarter and Rosehill, more energy intensive treatment processes such as reverse osmosis (RO) were added to the treatment trains in order to significantly minimise treatment quality risk (see the cross-cutting theme on ‘Matching Treatment to Risk’ for more on this issue of risk perception). In the case of Darling Quarter, the required treatment standards could be achieved without RO, however it was decided to add an RO unit to enable several extra ‘log removals’ and significantly reduce any treatment quality risks. A disadvantage of this approach is that RO-quality water is devoid of salts and as a consequence can corrode valves and tapware. To mitigate this problem, a calcite bed was added after the RO unit to reintroduce salts to the water.