Abstract— The aim of this study is to determine the appropriate method of synthetic unit hydrograph for various ungauge watershed characteristics, where each method specified in range of validity based on characteristics parameter and will be presented in the form of synthetic unit hydrograph methods clusterization. Characteristics of the watershed that is used as a parameter are watershed area, the length of the main river and the slope. Watershed as the study site is 32 watersheds located in Java Island, Indonesia. Based on rainfall and river water level data, the observation unit hydrograph is determined for each watershed using the convolution method. Synthetic method validation is done by calculating the comparison parameters between observation and synthetic unit hydrograph with the specified tolerance value. Comparison parameter measure the similarity of the unit hydrograph’s shape and the unit hydrograph parameters of the peak discharge, peak time and time base. The analyzed synthetic method is Snyder, SCS, Nakayasu and Gama-1. The results showed each synthetic method has a validity range of the watershed area, the length of the main river and the slope.
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The land use pattern of a sub watershed is an outcome of both natural and socio-economic factors and their utilization by population in time and space. Land is becoming a scarce commodity due to immense agricultural and demographic pressure. Change in land use is a dynamic process taking place on the surface and it becomes most important factor for managing natural resources. In the current study Remote Sensing technique is used to analyses the Watershed characteristics analysis of Nangavalli and Toppai Odai, Mettur Taluk, Salem district.
The study area is analysed for the quantitative morphological analysis of the watershed by using Survey of India Topographical map no. 46 E/11 on the scale 1: 50,000 surveyed during 1962 which is used as a reference, in addition with geocoded FCC of Landsat ETM satellite imagery acquired during 2011. The Topographical map and digital satellite imagery were geometrically rectified and georeferenced using digital image processing software ERDAS IMAGINE 9.3. To extract the drainage layer from the satellite imagery, edge detection and linear enhancement filters were used for enhancing visual interpretation ability of the stream order on satellite image. The ArcGIS 9.3 software is used to delineate the watershed with the digitization of morphometric features and measurement of parameters. Strahler‟s method was used for determination of the hierarchical position of a stream within a drainage basin. Digital database is created for drainage layer of river basin by assigning the attributes. Morphometric analysis is implemented to interpret the watershed characteristics such as linear aspects of the drainage network: stream order, bifurcation ratio, stream length and areal aspects of the drainage basin consists form factor ratio, circularity index, elongation ratio, stream frequency, drainage density and texture ratio of the basin were calculated.
regulatory considerations and geographic or physical conditions of the watershed. Regulatory considerations included current NC DWR use assessment status (i.e., supporting or impaired as per the latest 303(d)/305(b) assessment (NC DENR Division of Water Quality 2012b)), NC DWR stream classification (e.g., C, Water Supply) and supplemental classifications (e.g., Trout), and presence of threatened/endangered aquatic species. Stream use support status and stream classifications were determined by snapping the shapefile of field sampling points to the closest stream feature in the shapefile representing the latest available NC DWR water quality assessments (NC DENR Division of Water Quality 2012a). The stream name from the project site list and the results of the intersection were compared to ensure that the point was snapped to the correct waterbody, and corrected if necessary. The use assessment protocol assigned a category to each stream reach ranging from 1-5. If a stream reach was assigned Category 4 or 5, it was considered impaired. Both of these categories represent waterbodies that are considered impaired based on existing monitoring data; the difference is whether or not a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) is required or not (NC DENR
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A watershed is a land area that is an integral part of a river and its tributary, which functions to accommodate, store, and flow water that comes from rainfall to lakes or to the sea naturally, of which the boundary on land is a topographic separator and the boundary at sea is up to waters that are still affected by land activities . The watershed is generally limited by ridges or mountains and ends at a point or an outlet. The watershed illustrates the extent of an area in capturing rainwater, so that the broader the watershed, the greater the potential of water owned. The watershed can be revealed by processing contour maps or DEM (Data Elevation Model)  that are processed with geographic information systems. The watershed area can be classified as follows.
The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of the physical principles governing robust regionalization among watersheds. Firstly, consistent with previous studies, we found that the climate variables are on average the most important controlling factors of hydrologic similarity at re- gional and annual scales, which means a climate-based re- gionalization technique is on average more likely to result in better estimates. However, with our hierarchical similarity hypothesis we revealed certain conditions under which non- climate variables become more dominant than climate vari- ables. In particular, we demonstrated how soil available wa- ter content stood out to be the pivotal indicator of the variable importance of aridity in hydrologic similarity. Moreover, we showed that with hierarchical similarity one could identify shifts in dominant physical processes that are reflecting shifts in the controlling factors of hydrologic similarity under dif- ferent conditions, such as water-limited evapotranspiration versus energy-limited evapotranspiration, or homogeneous and foliated bedrock versus heterogeneous bedrock. As the controlling factors change from one condition to another, the suitable regionalization technique also changes. We demon- strated how the hierarchical similarity hypothesis could indi- cate mechanisms by which available water content, aridity, and other watershed characteristics dynamically affect hy- drologic similarity. The nested tree-based modeling approach can be applied to identify plausible sets of watershed charac- teristics to be considered in the regionalization process.
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population growth in this watershed, that this watershed has reached nitrogen saturation or that the current time period of data collection is not reflective of long-term trends. Changes in Lamprey River nitrogen, especially nitrate, can have significant impacts for the downstream receiving water body, the Great Bay estuarine system which is impaired by elevated nitrogen and is currently in violation of the Federal Clean Water Act. Tidal tributaries to the bay are experiencing dangerously low dissolved oxygen levels and the bay is experiencing a significant loss of eelgrass which provides important habitat for aquatic life. The Lamprey River is the largest tributary to Great Bay, and thus the long- term data provided by the NH WRRC from the LRHO are of considerable interest for watershed management.
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The Oyster River watershed (80 km 2 ) is a small watershed in southeast NH where land use ranges from rural to urban. Two urban sub-basins, College Brook (CB) and Pettee Brook (PB), were selected for long-term sampling in January 2004. Both sub- basins are dominated by the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and receive a variety of non-point pollution from several different land uses. Three sites (CB00.5, CB01.5 and CB03.0) are sampled along College brook which drains the center of campus and one site (PB02.0) is located on Pettee Brook which drains the northern section of campus. Both sub-basins drain areas with high amounts of impervious surface and College Brook also drains the UNH dairy farm and athletic fields. Historic water quality data for these two sites are available from 1991. UNH staff and/or students currently sample these sites on a monthly basis.
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trends. Changes in Lamprey River nitrogen, especially nitrate, can have significant impacts for the downstream receiving water body, the Great Bay estuarine system which is impaired by elevated nitrogen and is currently in violation of the Federal Clean Water Act. Tidal tributaries to the bay are experiencing dangerously low dissolved oxygen levels and the bay is experiencing a significant loss of eelgrass which provides important habitat for aquatic life. The Lamprey River is the largest tributary to Great Bay, and thus the long-term data provided by the NH WRRC from the LRHO are of considerable interest for watershed management.
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Hampshire’s largest estuary, the Great Bay estuary, and the impairment to aquatic life it has caused. In August 2009, Great Bay, Little Bay and the tidal rivers were added to the New Hampshire 2008 303d list of impaired waters rendering them in violation of the federal Clean Water Act. Based on the most recent “State of Our Estuaries Report” prepared by the Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership (PREP 2013), 32% of the nitrogen entering Great Bay and Little Bay is from point sources; the majority (68%) enters via non-point sources of pollution. The Lamprey River is the largest tributary to Great Bay, and thus the long-term data provided by the NH WRRC from the LRHO are of considerable value for watershed management. The NH WRRC provides the best dataset in NH for assessing the spatial and temporal variability in N concentrations and export in response to suburbanization and changes in land use. These 14+ years of data will be instrumental in assessing the success of current and future efforts to reduce non-point sources of nitrogen pollution reaching Great Bay. There is much interest in LRHO datasets from NH Department of Environmental Services (DES), PREP, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other municipal, regional, state and federal agents. Many of the presentations and meetings listed below focused on transferring information on nitrogen cycling to stakeholders throughout NH’s coastal watershed and beyond. The NH WRRC has received several phone calls and meeting requests to discuss the Great Bay nitrogen issue. The NH WRRC has been specifically asked to present coastal NH nitrogen data to the following groups: the NH Shoreland Advisory Committee, the Water Integration for Squamscott-Exeter (WISE) and Green Infrastructure (GI) NERRS Science Collaborative projects and the Southeast Watershed Alliance.
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This project allows for the continued collection of long-term water quality data in New Hampshire. It will use University of New Hampshire (UNH) staff, students and volunteers from local communities to collect samples from the Lamprey and Oyster River watersheds located in southeast NH and the Ossipee River watershed in central NH. All three watersheds are located in counties experiencing high population growth rates (Figure 1). Both the Lamprey and Ossipee watersheds are predicted to more than double in population from 1998 to 2020 (Sundquist and Stevens 1999). Surface water sites within each of the 3 watersheds and details on long-term datasets collected are described below. Together these 3 watersheds capture a broad range of urban, rural and agricultural land uses as well as a range of forests and wetland cover types.
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As part of the 2003NH21B "Water Quality and the Landscape: Long-term monitoring of rapidly developing suburban watersheds” project, the NH WRRC has collected long-term water quality data on a rapidly developing suburban watershed in southeastern NH, the Lamprey River watershed. Several towns in the watershed are investigating new water supplies to support the increased demand for water with the growing human population and monitoring data from this project have been useful in the water supply decision making process. For example, Newmarket, NH’s surface water treatment plant was shut down in recent years because the quality of the treated water did not meet federal standards for public water supplies. Known carcinogens (trihalomethanes) were produced during the disinfection process because of the high amounts of wetland derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the river that the water supply relied on (a tributary to the Lamprey River). Newmarket contracted with Emery & Garrett Groundwater, Inc (EGGI) to increase their town water supply and EGGI suggested that the town withdraw water from the Lamprey River in Lee NH during high flow periods and artificially “recharge” their town wells to generate an underground storage supply that would meet the town water needs even during dry summer conditions. The NH WRRC provided EGGI with long-term lamprey River data to assess whether seasonality and year to year variability in water quality (particularly DOC) made it appropriate for artificial recharge for public water supply. The town of Newmarket is still working towards approval for this project, but the long-term dataset provided by the NH WRRC has been instrumental in this water supply process.
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Abstract: Characterizing the biophysical features at a watershed level is a significant input for analyzing natural resources, for solving potential water resource management problems, for integrated water utilization assessment, for water allocation policy and management. The objective of this study was to assess the biophysical characteristics of Weyb watershed, which is recognized as a potential agricultural zone in southeastern part of Ethiopia, was considered as a case study. Relevant data were used and; ArcGIS, Microsoft Excel sheet and fundamental formulae were applied for the analysis. Accordingly, six current biophysical characteristics of Weyb watershed i.e., watershed area, land use land cover and soils, geomorphology, climate, agricultural practice and population have been analyzed and discussed briefly. The mean annual precipitation, actual evapotranspiration and mean temperature of the watershed are 1015 mm, 970.1 mm and 14 0 C respectively. The study results show that the watershed is highly suitable for widespread agricultural production.
scientists to discuss WRRC findings that relate to population growth and land use change. The NH WRRC websit resources, and is updated and maintained by salary provided by this project. The time of the Director and Associate Director is increasingly spent discussing current and future research in the Lamprey River Hydrologic Observatory, which is partially funded by the longstanding 104B project “Water Quality and the Landscape: Long-term monitoring of a rapidly developing suburban watershed.” On January 7, 2011 the NH WRRC totally funded and organized the Fourth Annual Lamprey River Symposium (see also below). Presentations focused on water quality, hydrology, stormwater, thermal pollution, nitrogen cycling in coastal New Hampshire and remapping of the Lamprey River 100 year floodplain. The symposium attracted over 90 attendees, including scientists (37 from UNH and 1 from elsewhere), regional leaders (27), town officials (11), members of state agencies (8), and federal agencies (6). The agenda and
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ment of subsurface flow increasing the time for denitrifica- tion to take place. Moreover, waterlogged conditions pro- mote the denitrification process. The difference in partial R 2 is most distinct in spring (data not shown), simultaneously with the lowest observed nitrate concentrations (Fig. 2). A plausible explanation is that the sum of denitrification and N uptake are highest in spring, whereas in winter N uptake ceases close to zero and denitrification reaches its maximum value, and in summer N uptake is maximal while denitrifi- cation hardly occurs. Although the proportion of agricul- tural land increases simultaneously with an increase in fine textured soils (loamy sands) within the riparian zones, land use within the riparian zone is not a better predictor of ni- trate concentrations than land use in the whole watershed. In the Upper-Scheldt catchment, no significant difference in explanative value of soil properties is observed between the buffers and the whole catchment when nitrate concentrations are considered. Phosphate concentrations, though, are bet- ter predicted by soil drainage characteristics in the riparian zone. Soil drainage characteristics in the riparian zone in- fluence erosion through soil infiltration capacity (Norton and Fisher, 2000).
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without proper monitoring and treatment. Groundwater may also become contaminated by the agrochemical pro- ducts used for irrigation. The groundwater quality in southern part of the country namely Chennai, Kanche- epuram and Chengalpet, has been studied earlier [18-23]. However, no such studies have been carried out in the Dwarakeswar watershed region of West Bengal, pertain- ing to groundwater quality. The suitability of groundwa- ter for domestic and irrigation purposes thus had to be determined based on the presence of major ions in the groundwater of this region. The present study, which was carried out in 2009, will serve as baseline data for com- paring future groundwater quality.
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Phosphate sorption relating to soil properties in soils of Kohora watershed of Assam, India was studied. The soils were acidic in reaction with varying texture. Clay and CEC increased concomitantly fractions contributing 29.9%. Phosphate adsorption data fitted better to Freundlich equation. Medium land soils had greatest affinity for P 1) and Freundlich K. Langmuir ‘b’ was and total-P while negatively with pH, OC and available P fractions. Bonding energy was greatly affected by Fed (r = 0.683*) only while maximum phosphate buffering capacity (MPBC) was typically affected by Al and Fe oxides. the soils increased unevenly with equilibrium P concentration. Negative ΔG values indicated spontaneous adsorption processes. Results suggest that these soils require higher external P for maintaining optimal solution concentration.
provides important habitat for aquatic life. The Lamprey River is the largest tributary to Great Bay, and thus the long-term data provided by the NH WRRC from the LRHO are of considerable interest for watershed management. In fact, the NH WRRC recently provided the Town of Newmarket, NH and Underwood Engineers, Inc. with monthly average nitrogen concentrations in the Lamprey River to inform the town’s comments to EPA on the draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for Newmarket’s wastewater treatment facility that would limit nitrogen in the effluent to 3 mg/L.
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This project provided salary for the Center’s Director and Associate Director to meet with state representatives, local town officials, watershed groups, school groups, the general public and scientists to discuss WRRC findings that relate to population growth, land use change and climate variability. Over the past year, the NH WRRC meet with the following groups to discuss water resource issues: NH Fish and Game, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Trout Unlimited (TU), Southeast Watershed Alliance, The Nature Conservancy, Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership (PREP), NH Department of Environmental Services (DES), the US Geological Survey and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The NH WRRC website (http://www.wrrc.unh.edu/) is also used to disseminate information on water resources, and is updated and maintained by salary provided by this project. The Director and Associate Director dedicate time discussing current and future research in the Lamprey River Hydrologic Observatory, which is partially funded by the longstanding 104B project “Water Quality and the Landscape: Long-term monitoring of a rapidly developing suburban watershed”. On January 9, 2017 the NH WRRC funded and organized the Tenth Annual Lamprey River Symposium (see also below). Presentations focused on nutrients and other solutes, bacteria, sediment, hydrology, groundwater, climate and land use change, water quality indicators and monitoring programs in coastal New Hampshire. The symposium attracted approximately 90 attendees, including scientists, regional leaders, town officials, members of state agencies, and federal agencies. The agenda can be found on the NH WRRC Lamprey River Hydrologic Observatory Symposium website. This annual symposium and other discussions in which the Center’s Director and Associate Director participate further the research and information transfer goals of the NH WRRC.
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------------------------------------------------------------------------***------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ABSTRACT:- Morphometric analysis of the Watershed is considered to be the most satisfactory method because it enables in understanding of the relationship of various aspects within a drainage basin. In the present study two mini watersheds in Raichur city have been considered Mini-watershed 1 with an area of 519.32 km 2 with highest order stream of 6 it flows through north of city and it