asperity areas that are more stretched along the strike dir- ection (which can be observed in the estimated values of the correlation lengths shown in Table 2). A detailed in- spection of Figure 12 suggests that slip models 2, 6, and 11 with large deformation near the upper edge of the fault plane generate distinct spikes in the tsunami profiles at the Miyagi Central and Miyagi North buoys, which are dif- ferent from the observations at those sites. Note that the differences can be attributed to several reasons including instantaneous versus kinematic rupture cases and the use of hydrostatic versus hydrodynamic tsunami calculations when constructing the slip distribution from tsunami ob- servations. The former is applicable to model 5 (as dem- onstrated in Figure 6), while the latter is applicable to model 6 whereby the consideration of hydrodynamic re- sponses of the ocean filters out short-wavelength compo- nents (Løvholt et al. 2012). The slip models 3 to 5, which have relatively large slip over large areas, over-predict the observed tsunami waveprofiles at the Miyagi buoys, whereas the slip models 1 and 7 to 10, which have moder- ate amounts of slip, produce tsunami waveprofiles at the Miyagi buoys that are broadly similar to the observations. At the Iwate buoys, good agreement between the simu- lated and observed tsunami waves was achieved for models 1, 2, and 6 (including phase-arrival times) and for models 3 to 5 and 10 to 11 (mainly peak amplitudes). The predictions at the Iwate buoys based on models 7 to 9 lack local peaks because of the absence of large slip patches in the northern part of the fault plane, while the general long-wavelength fluctuations are captured well. The re- semblance of the simulated tsunami waveprofiles with re- spect to the observations can be understood from the slip distributions (Figure 1). It is interesting to note that as an ensemble, the average predictions of the 11 slip models match well with the observations both in terms of ampli- tudes and timing (data not shown for brevity). Nevertheless, the variability of the predicted tsunami waveprofiles can be as large as a factor of 3 (when the peak values are attained). Such results are useful for benchmarking epistemic (model) uncertainty associated with tsunami predictions.
In general, macroscopic approaches rely on a hydrodynamic description of the process in terms of a conservation law. For asymmetric models this is a hyperbolic equation with weak solutions that can develop shock discontinuities, and for which additional selection cri- teria are needed to identify a unique (entropic) solution, such as a fixed positive sign for the entropy production (see e.g. ). Provided the ‘ correct ’ thermodynamic entropy functional is used, the negative part of the entropy production provides the large deviation rate function for observing a non-entropic weak solution in the scaling limit . This general idea has been proved rigorously only for the ASEP so far [18, 19]. In , this has been applied heuristi- cally to obtain the rate function for lower current deviations for the ASEP, which are realized by phase separated (travelling wave) profiles where two regions of different densities are separated by two shock discontinuities, in agreement with exact microscopic results. In recent work  this approach has been shown to apply also for totally asymmetric ZRPs with con- cave current-density relation, where the validity can be limited by a crossover to condensed profiles in certain models constituting a dynamic phase transition. Similar results on dynamic phase transitions can be found in [22, 23] for the periodic total ASEP (TASEP), [24 – 26] for the periodic weakly asymmetric simple exclusion process (WASEP), [27, 28] for the open WASEP and  for open and periodic non-integrable ASEPs.
This work considers the problems of numerical simulation of non-linear surface gravity waves transformation under shallow bay conditions. The discrete model is built from non-linear shallow-water equations. Are resulted boundary and initial conditions. The method of splitting into physical processes receives system from three equations. Then we define the approximation order and investigate stability conditions of the discrete model. The sweep method was used to cal- culate the system of equations. This work presents surface gravity waveprofiles for different propagation phases. Keywords: Equations of Shallow-Water; Numerical Modelling; Nonlinear Surface Gravity Waves; Transformation of
In  it was found that these critical thicknesses were all in good agreement with one another for a representative tube radius a = 0 . 5 cm; in addition, the critical thicknesses as determined by the physical experiments and transient solutions to (1) were in good agreement for a variety of tube radii. In this work, we explore the branching of traveling waveprofiles and existence of critical turnaround points as the mean thickness varies by observing the traveling waves arise out of a natural Hopf bifurcation for the flat solution that can be computed analytically. As a result of this Hopf bifurcation, families of traveling waves can be easily computed for any tube radius and the critical mean thickness beyond which the branches cease to exist numerically approximated via continuation methods. Once again, remarkably these turnaround points are in very good agreement with the plug formation observed experimentally in . This agreement is remarkable for several reasons. For one, several approximations were made in deriving the model equation, yet the level of quantitative agreement with the physical experiments was quite good. In particular, it is somewhat surprising that an asymptotic model which depends on a small aspect ratio of length scales would be able to accurately predict plug formation. For another, periodic boundary conditions were used to solve the model while the boundary conditions of the experiment were certainly not periodic. What is more, the traveling wave solutions used to estimate the critical values of the parameters distinguishing one regime from another were of a fixed period (and a different period than that observed in the experiments) despite the search for solutions over a wide range of parameter values.
This section demonstrates a linear 2D wave with a moving pressure distribution to give an idea of some of the linear waveprofiles. It is possible to obtain waveprofiles for steady linear waves by the use of a moving pressure distribution, P (x, y) on the surface of the plasma. In order to do this move to a frame where the plasma is moving uniformly with a velocity u = U e x . The scaling for the linear theory is just the same as in Section
The PDV data for the three 316L SS materials spallation experiments conducted at a peak impact velocity of 257 m/s is presented in Fig. 4. The waveprofiles for the three materials are seen to display: 1) nominally similar elastic-plastic transitions, or Hugoniot Elastic Limits (HEL’s), as seen in the loading portion of the profile, 2) non-constant responses upon the peak stress on the Hugoniot suggestive of non-uniform plastic deformation with the samples, most evident in the AM-as-built material, 3) slightly different magnitudes(depth) of “pull-back” signals suggesting different damage nucleation and growth responses with the wrought and AM-as-built displaying bi-linear pull-back slopes perhaps indicative of differing energy partitioning during nucleation and growth of damage as compared to the AM+Rx displaying a linear “pull-back” signal, and 4) the AM-as-built displaying a shifted time interval of the “pull-back” signal reload peak consistent with the evolved damage in the sample not located solely near the center line of the sample, thereby altering the “ringing” interval in the pull-back signal, in contrast to the wrought and AM+Rx samples where the incipient damage is centered near the mid-plane of the sample thickness. The difference in the magnitude of the “pull-back” signals for the three materials and the calculated spall strengths is presented for the three 316L SS samples in Table 2.
of a specified crest (or wave) height, which height may be ar- bitrarily large; see for instance recent proceeding reports and references therein for contributions in both areas Olagnon and Prevosto (2004); Rogue Waves (2005). In the follow- ing we will first consider a simple linear problem which re- sults when the constraint integrals are quadratic; this can be seen as approximating the Hamiltonian by a quadratic ex- pression as is custom for small amplitude waves described by linear dispersive wave equations. Then we will inves- tigate waves described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation. In each case we find a special curve in the parameter space (m, h) of values of the constraints M, H. For points on this curve, for which h = H (m), the (only possible) profiles of maximal crest height are smooth, and given by harmonic and by KdV cnoidal waveprofiles respectively. This curve is the boundary of the feasible region; for points above this curve, (m, h) with h>H (m), the periodic profiles of extremal crest height are non-smooth: they are cornered profiles which con- sist of parts of harmonic or catenray profiles and of cnoidal profiles, respectively, that meet at an angle at the point of highest crest.
Abstract: Experimental studies are carried out in a two-dimensional wave flume (21.3 m long, 0.76 m wide and 0.74 m deep) to investigate the performance of rectangular type submerged breakwater. A set of experiments are carried out at 50 cm still water depth with fixed submerged breakwaters of three different heights (30 cm, 35 cm and 40 cm) for five different wave periods (1.5 sec, 1.6 sec, 1.7 sec, 1.8 sec and 2.0 sec) in the same wave flume. For fifteen run conditions, water surface elevations are collected at six different locations both in front of and behind the breakwater. Also the type of wave breaking and position of wave breaking are simultaneously recorded with a digital video camera. Effects of breakwater height and length along the wave direction on wave height reduction are analyzed. It is found that both the relative structure height (h s /h)
Having established a system that can create arbitrary concentration waveforms, it is important to conclude by discussing its utility in biology. Biological processes are inherently a product of sophisticated negative and posi- tive feedback loops with different time scales (e.g., phos- phorylation versus synthesis of proteins). Per system identification theory , in order to deconvolve these mechanisms with different time scales, it is necessary to develop tools that can characterize the biological sys- tem’s response to soluble factors with different magni- tudes and temporal profiles. An emerging area of relevance is the cross-talk between inflammation and metabolism, where cytokines influence metabolic pro- cesses (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-alpha and PPAR inter- action ), which may lead to paradoxical effects like hypermetabolism in cancer and obesity, both of which has an inflammatory component. It is well-documented that cytokines and their temporal response play a signifi- cant role in physiological time course following injury
These flows can not be ascribed to the induction EHD pump realized by Fuhr et al in microsystems  because our voltages are too low to generate gradients of conductivity through Joule heating . In the induction EHD pumping of dielectric liquids, forward and reverse flows have been predicted theoretically  for liquid/vapor medium. In spite of being very different, we can make an analogy taking into account the sign of the charges induced in the ac electroosmotic model. In this case, the mechanism could be analogous to the induction EHD pumping of dielectric liquids in the attraction mode . For this mode, the theory predicts that the fluid moves in the direction of the traveling wave and no change in flow direction occurs. An instability in the flow speed is predicted for increasing frequency. However, the velocity should then be of the order of the wave phase velocity, which in our case is of the order of 160 mm/s. This phase velocity is much greater
As indicated above, the literature reveals that rogue waves need to be modelled in a large temporal and spatial scale with full consideration of nonlinearity. In addition, a large number of parameter studies are required to quantify the behaviors of rogue waves as shown Xiao et al.  and in engineering design. This inheritably demands the modelling methods to be efficient. Although versatile versions of NLSE have been suggested and are computationally efficient, they are only accurate when waves are moderate. Henderson et al.  simulated traveling waves based on the CNLSE and fully nonlinear Higher-Order BEM, and concluded that there was good agreement between the results of these two models only for waves with small steepness ( ). Clamond et al.  investigated the evolution of the envelope soliton with an initial steepness of using the ENLSE-4 and their fully nonlinear approach separately. Through comparing the free surface profiles, they concluded that the former was only valid for a limited period at the beginning of the simulation before rogue waves are formed, and indicated that the ENLSE-4 became inaccurate when wave steepness evolved to be . Slunyaev et al.  have compared the analytical solution of the CNLSE with the numerical results of the Dysthe equation and the fully nonlinear Euler equations for simulating rogue waves. They concluded that the CNLSE was not accurate for waves with initial steepness .
Finally, there is another goal behind this study. Ultimately, we would like to generalize moving grid methods to some dispersive wave equations , which are going to be addressed with the operator splitting approach. In this way, the hyperbolic part would be addressed with methods outlined above. The particularity of dispersive wave equations is that they possess localised solitary wave solutions. In other words, all the dynamics is concentrated in small portions of space, which move perpetually. Consequently, the grid redistribution techniques seem to be the natural choice to simulate complex solitonic gas dynamics .
characterize the most important components. We investigate the gross characteristics of oscillations for each IMF using LSP analysis to the IMF time series. All IMFs exhibit slow- varying amplitudes and frequencies. The amplitude spectral plots are shown in the right panels of Fig. 4. The 95 % confi- dence level is shown by a horizontal dashed line. For this fig- ure, the selected altitude is 90 km from the KOT hourly zonal wind dataset. The figure shows that the dominant peaks near semi-diurnal (12 h) and diurnal (24 h) are present in IMF2 and IMF4. IMF7 shows a clear PW period of about 3.5 days, while IMF8 shows a broader range of oscillations with pe- riods ranging from 5 to 8 days and the maximum amplitude occurring at about 6.5 days. The Lomb–Scargle amplitude spectra are shown on the right side of Fig. 4, which reveals components centered at ∼ 3.6 and 6.5 days. The 3.6-day peak is somewhat broad, extending over roughly 3–5 days. Similarly, the 6.5-day wave also shows a broad peak ( ∼ 5– 8.0 days). The EMD technique reveals that some waves with periods that are close to those of diurnal tide are generated due to the interactions of the diurnal tide and PWs, which in- dicate extensive coupling between the diurnal tide and PWs (Takahashi et al., 2006). In both methods, the PWs in meso- spheric altitudes over equatorial radars are clearly seen. The PW periods are observed throughout mesospheric altitudes at all stations, although their amplitudes vary with altitude and from station to station. Similar results are also found at the other radars, indicating that these IMFs are statistically different from noise.
in the solution space by incorporated independent depth constraints. When trialed for synthetic Vs data representing a small glacier underlain by sediment, inclusion of such con- straints results in an order-of-magnitude improvement in the depth-averaged uncertainty in the output model, reducing it for our thickest-ice case from ∼ 1050 m s −1 to ∼ 100 m s −1 . While an uncertainty of ∼1000 m s −1 may not impede the value of conventional inversions for distinguishing sediment and bedrock substrates, the reduced range would be critical if observations of Vs were to be used to quantify detailed var- iations in sediment properties. As such, MuLTI is an import- ant advance in the application of Rayleigh wave inversions. We apply MuLTI to a Rayleigh wave dataset acquired around the terminus of Midtdalsbreen, complementing it with depth-constraints derived from co-located GPR surveys. Although widely underlain by bedrock (Vs ∼2500 ± 280 m s −1 ), our data reveal that a patchy distribution of sediment is present directly beneath the glacier. These sedi- ments are only partly frozen (Vs ∼500 m s −1 ± 280 m s −1 ), and exist in pockets that may be up to 4 m thick; the sediment under-burden extends to ∼150 m up-glacier from the ter- minus. Our interpretation is consistent with recent studies of Midtdalsbreen, which highlight the supply of sediment to the glacier foreland and identify regions of basal sediment around the glacier front.
Multichannel Analysis Surface Wave (MASW) measurement is one of geophysics exploration techniques to determine the soil profile based on velocity. Meanwhile borehole intrusive technique identifies the changes of soil layer based on SPT N value. Both techniques were applied at the University campus test site and Parit Jelutong as part of soil investigation. A 7 kg of sledge hammer was used as source, 24 units of 4.5 Hz geophones used as detectors (receivers) and Terraloc Mark 8 ABEM was used as a recorder. SeisImager software was used for seismic data processing. The MASW test configuration was 5 m geophones spacing and 5 m source offset distance at Parit Jelutong, and used 1 m geophones spacing and 2 m offset distance at the University campus test site. All the MASW test array was conducted near to the boreholes. The reliable seismic results at Parit Jelutong were from depth 0.5 m to 14 m and 3.7 m to 27 m the University campus test site, respectively. Comparison between MASW and borehole data indicates that a very soft clay shear wave velocity is below than 165 m/s, soft clay at 170 m/s to 195 m/s and firm layer at 194 m/s to 317 m/s. There was not available shear wave velocity result of hard material. In conclusion, the MASW technique is potential to adapt in soil investigation to compliment the intrusive technique, which is non-destructive, non-invasive nature and relative speed of assessment.
Since MIRA 2 always points north, only north-facing KIMRA measurements were used for this comparison. The measurement time and duration were used as follows to de- termine which profiles to compare to each other. For a given KIMRA measurement, it was determined whether there are any MIRA 2 measurements whose midpoint in measurement time lies within the duration of KIMRA’s measurement. If so, it was determined which measurement has a longer duration (say it was MIRA 2). Then it was checked whether there were any more KIMRA measurements that also had a midpoint that lays within the duration of the MIRA 2 measurement. If so, the KIMRA profiles from all of these measurements were averaged to produce a single profile that was considered co- incident with the corresponding MIRA 2 profile. If not, the two single profiles were considered coincident. This method compares profiles from measurements that overlap in time, and avoids using any measurement twice. There were 177 co- incident sets that were identified for the following compari- son. For the majority of the time, differences between coinci- dent measurements are less than 1 h. Measurement durations for each of the instruments range from 15 min to 4 h, with a mean time of approximately 1 h for the coincident measure- ments.
Abstract. A seismic risk assessment is conducted for cul- tural heritage sites in Gyeongju, the capital of Korea’s an- cient Silla Kingdom. Gyeongju, home to UNESCO World Heritage sites, contains remarkable artifacts of Korean Bud- dhist art. An extensive geotechnical survey including a series of in situ tests is presented, providing pertinent soil profiles for site response analyses on thirty cultural heritage sites. After the shear wave velocity profiles and dynamic material properties were obtained, site response analyses were car- ried out at each historical site and the amplification charac- teristics, site period, and response spectrum of the site were determined for the earthquake levels of 2400 yr and 1000 yr return periods based on the Korean seismic hazard map. Re- sponse spectrum and corresponding site coefficients obtained from site response analyses considering geologic conditions differ significantly from the current Korean seismic code. This study confirms the importance of site-specific ground response analyses considering local geological conditions. Results are given in the form of the spatial distribution of bedrock depth, site period, and site amplification coefficients, which are particularly valuable in the context of a seismic vulnerability study. This study presents the potential ampli- fication of hazard maps and provides primary data on the seismic risk assessment of each cultural heritage.
various targets used. In case of ZnO:Mg(20%) target external shock wave stops close to probe position (maximum of Zn I spectral emission distribution stops at ~5.5 mm from the target) and only 2 peaks are observed in ion and electron signals. Comparing the electron temperatures of pure and doped ZnO plumes indicates that doping leads to a higher temperature plume. At this stage it is not clear why doping leads to an increase of the electron temperature. However, it seems possible that doping will lead to a change in the absorption coefficient at the laser wavelength for both the solid target and the vapor evolved during the laser pulse, leading to a change in the energy per particle in the early plume. The dopant concentrations considered in present paper were mainly chosen on the basis of practical application. To properly analyse the influence of different dopants on electron temperature and stopping distance, it will be necessary to investigate an ablation of plumes with equal concentrations of different dopants. The Langmuir probe measurements showed that the electron density was 10 9 -10 10 cm -3 and the electron temperature was several eV for all investigated targets. At these conditions the ionization equilibrium is described by the collisional-radiative model .
Waves obtained from the experimental data are assumed as regular waves, with different periods so that different frequencies and the amount of energy that occurs. Waves will be analyzed by converting the time domain to the frequency domain using Fast Fourier Transform Technik (FFT) theory .In order to facilitate the analysis, the Fast Fourier technique is used, so that A1, A2, B1 and B2 can be calculated for each wave with the help of MatLab and as a result of each wave height. The use of Fourier analysis to estimate the amplitudes of A1, A2, B1 and B2 for the fundamental frequency and also to produce a more uniformly higher wave. The amplitude of the incident wave and the reflection wave are then estimated by equations 9 and 10. This is the process of getting regular waves, actually almost the same for non-regular waves, since waves are considered superpositions with large amplitude and constant frequency. To separate between incident wave (Hi) and reflection wave (Hr) using formula .