weather services

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Space Weather Services for Space Mission Operations

Space Weather Services for Space Mission Operations

As a result, SEISOP will be able to deliver a set of space weather services such as monitoring, warning, automatic reporting and forecasting. These services will be available to the users through pure web client applications as well as open web service interfaces. The system will provide the capability to plug-in external models, developed by third parties, to forecast space weather events and data. This functionality will also allow incorporating already existing planetary and interplanetary medium models (e.g. solar pressure, trapped radiation, gravity gradient, atmospheric drag, etc). These models will be able to retrieve data from SEISOP and use it as input, and to inject their outputs back into SEISOP, making them available to the rest of the user community of SEISOP.
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Pilot Perception and Use of ADS-B Traffic and Weather Services (TIS-B & FIS-B)

Pilot Perception and Use of ADS-B Traffic and Weather Services (TIS-B & FIS-B)

Executive Summary Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) is a central component of the NextGen air traffic control modernization program. It is intended to improve traffic surveillance capabilities by sharing accurate aircraft position information between pilots and air traffic controllers. In addition, “ADS-B In” capability provides pilots with traffic information for nearby flights along with relevant weather and airspace information. Pilots can access these products using a variety of installed and portable avionics systems. This study was intended to evaluate potential benefits of ADS-B In traffic and weather services. Goals included identifying the factors that influence the decision whether to equip with ADS-B In as well as evaluating current pilot usage of traffic and flight information uplink services.
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A Pilot's Guide to Aviation Weather Services

A Pilot's Guide to Aviation Weather Services

For more detailed weather information consult AVIATION WEATHER (FAA Advisory circular 00-6A); AVIATION WEATHER SERVICES (FAA Advisory Circular 00-45); and the AIRMAN'S INFORMATION MANUAL, (Chapter 7, Safety of Flight). These publications are available at local government bookstores and from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

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A Pilot's Guide to Aviation Weather Services

A Pilot's Guide to Aviation Weather Services

For more detailed weather information consult AVIATION WEATHER (FAA Advisory circular 00-6A); AVIATION WEATHER SERVICES (FAA Advisory Circular 00-45); and the AIRMAN'S INFORMATION MANUAL, (Chapter 7, Safety of Flight). These publications are available at local government bookstores and from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

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Evaluation of Public Weather Services by Users in the Formal Services Sector in Accra, Ghana

Evaluation of Public Weather Services by Users in the Formal Services Sector in Accra, Ghana

We undertook a study that evaluated the public weather services used by peo- ple working in the formal services sector of the Ghana based in Accra, the capital city of Ghana. The study employed randomly-sampling survey tech- nique to request information from 102 respondents on their use of services and information produced by the Ghana Meteorological Agency (GMet), the country’s official producer and archival of meteorological data, information, products and services. The results of the analysis of survey data indicated that virtually all the respondents used public weather services produced by GMet. The users generally considered the quality of the public weather services to be of moderate quality. Using the contingent valuation method to ascertain the economic value of public weather services, 87.7% of the respondents were prepared to pay for the public weather services rather than be without them. The average WTP per person per month was 16.67 Ghana cedis per month or 200.04 Ghana cedis per year or 51.96 United States dollars per year. The ag- gregate economic value, based on only the users of public weather services in the formal services sector of Accra, who constitute just about 2.1% of the total work force of Ghana, is over four times the value of the annual budget pro- vided by the Government of Ghana to GMet in 2016. Users in the formal ser- vices sector wanted GMet to produce more locality-specific weather forecasts and services with advance warning times. Further the information from the Agency needs to be distributed and publicised by the mass media through ra- dio and television including the emerging and fast growing local language- based mass media on hourly basis rather than the current system where they are supplied to the general public once a day via the evening television news through the English-language radio and TV channels.
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Employees by University Penn State: 24 Larry Heitkemper V. P. Weather Services Christopher Hyde, Director, Weather Marketing

Employees by University Penn State: 24 Larry Heitkemper V. P. Weather Services Christopher Hyde, Director, Weather Marketing

Additional Training: Shift manager for Penn State Campus Weather Service Radio and Video operations; Intern at NBC-10 in Philadelphia; Intern with Weather Communications Group at Penn State; TV meteorologist for local television in Centre County, PA; winner of 2006 ZedEx Weather Information Technology Award Hobbies: Singing, video games, movies, visiting my girlfriend up in State College, and

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Innovations in weather services as a crucial building block for climate change adaptation in road transport

Innovations in weather services as a crucial building block for climate change adaptation in road transport

Advances in electronics have enabled the continuing reduction of unit costs in computing and telecommunications. The physical limits of current transistor technologies are acknowledged, but the exponential development is expected to continue in the following decades (Cavin et al., 2012). Thus, the development of computational performance is likely to support improvements in forecast accuracy also in the future. There are, however, other technical challenges that may affect the course of weather service innovation. Firstly, congestion of mobile networks is worsening as both the amount of mobile devices and the popularity of data-intensive services increases. Technological development alleviates the problem to some extent, but the spectrum itself is limited. For example maintaining a reliable road weather service might require specific policy decisions at some point. The second challenge is the growing energy demand of the mobile devices. More advanced network technologies require more advanced signal processing from the device. This, together with the higher capabilities of the devices regarding their computational power, display quality and other features translates into rising power consumption. Although the issue could be addressed with improvements in battery and charging technologies, a more fundamental problem is caused by the waste heat that needs to be dissipated. This problem is however less relevant for road weather systems if the end-user devices are part of the vehicle. Any advanced road weather system needs to combine and process data of various sensors and sources. Foreseen technological development enables further advancements in such systems, but the aforementioned challenges are likely to guide their design. In light of the challenges, the road weather systems are likely to be centralized (data gathering and processing taking place in a remote service centre) instead of decentralized (data gathering and processing taking place in the vehicle). The configuration of the system will also affect the business models and the diffusion pattern of the services.
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An overview of the use of Twitter in National Weather Services

An overview of the use of Twitter in National Weather Services

In Africa, there are five active accounts. It is worth not- ing South Africa case because of its number of followers, the number of tweets sent and the degree of influence. In Ocea- nia, the most active account is the one of New Zealand. In Asia, there are thirteen active accounts. Indonesia and Philip- pines are remarkable because of its high activity and the number of followers. In the American continent, it is relevant the NOAA’s activity, with 150 active accounts (the main one, the National Weather Service of USA, is the most influen- tial one). On the other hand, the Mexican service has almost 300 000 followers (2.4 per thousand inhabitants), whereas the Venezuelan centre has the largest number of tweets. In Europe, most of relevant centres have accounts on Twitter. MetOffice (UK) stands out for the large number of follow- ers, its great activity and interaction with followers. In Fig. 3, we show the number of tweets sent per day for different me- teorological services. In Fig. 4, we represent the number of followers considering the potential influence (millions of in- habitants for the concerned country).
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2 SPACE WEATHER. 2.1 Space Weather and Human Technologies

2 SPACE WEATHER. 2.1 Space Weather and Human Technologies

Awareness by civilian agencies of space weather (although not called that at the time) grew considerably at the time of, and following, the International Geophysical Year in 1956-1957. Routine civilian Federal space weather services began a decade later in 1965, the same year that several scientific entities within the Department of Commerce—the Weather Bureau, Central Radio Propagation Laboratory (CRPL), and U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey—were brought together as the new Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA), headquartered in Boulder, Colorado. Through several changes in name and organization, a piece of CRPL was transformed into the current Space Environment Center (SEC) within NOAA’s National Weather Service (NOAA/NWS). In 2004, the SEC joined the NWS family of prediction centers, known as the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP).
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2015 Annual Operating Plan Fire Weather Forecasts and Services NWS Chicago/Romeoville

2015 Annual Operating Plan Fire Weather Forecasts and Services NWS Chicago/Romeoville

The fire weather forecast and service program provides forecast, warning, and consultation services to local, state, and federal government agencies for the prevention, suppression, and management of forest and rangeland fires. The National Weather Service (NWS) Chicago/Romeoville will issue routine fire weather forecasts during the fall and spring seasons (see section 1 “Routine Fire Weather Services” for dates of each season) to support fire and land management activities. In addition to routine fire weather forecasts, NWS Chicago/Romeoville will issue spot (site-specific) forecasts using the guidelines in Section 3, under SITE SPECIFIC WILDLAND FIRE FORECASTS.
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Weather Risk and the Viability of Weather Insurance In Western China

Weather Risk and the Viability of Weather Insurance In Western China

This paper presents preliminary results on the possible demand for weather insurance in China. Results from 1,564 farm households from Western and Central China between October 2007 and October 2008 suggest that the greater risk for farmers is drought followed by excessive rain. Heat is less critical as a risk but more significant than cool weather. Results suggest a strong interest in precipitation insurance with 50% and 44% of respondents indicating strong interest in the product. Supplementary results indicate that interest is equal between planting, cultivating, and harvesting. Furthermore results suggest that farmers are willing to adopt new ideas, and where possible already take action to self insure through diversification and other means, The results are encouraging. Examples and discussion of how weather insurance can be implemented is included in the text.
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Weather derivatives

Weather derivatives

Grain production in northeast Germany, Brandenburg in particular, is highly affected by weather risk. During the relevant growth period of April to June, the sum of average rainfall in Brandenburg varied over the last 60 years between 64 and 258 mm. Actually, drought is the major cause for bad grain harvests. The correlation between rainfall and yields results from the sandy soil, possessing little water-storing capacity, as well as the lack of irrigation. Cur- rently there exists no opportunity for insuring against yield losses caused by rainfall or tem- perature. In view of a series of extreme crop failures in the drought years 2000, 2003 and 2006, where only governmental disaster relief prevented farmers from becoming insolvent, there is a pronounced interest in introducing some kind of weather insurance. In the subse- quent application we calculate the willingness to pay for such insurance by means of indiffer- ence pricing. This information is valuable for a potential seller who contemplates entering this market segment. Since designing an insurance contract is costly, only a few different con- tracts will be offered. To keep things as easy as possible we will consider a single weather derivative. The specification of this derivative is chosen in such a way that it addresses the demand of a specific wheat producer in Brandenburg in the best possible manner, i.e., maxi- mizes the hedging effectiveness. The demand for this insurance from other farms and from other regions in Germany (Saxony, Thuringia and Baden-Wuerttemberg) is also assessed, though we expect less willingness to pay for such a contract than compared with a wheat producer in Brandenburg.
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Weather Shocks

Weather Shocks

Concerning the transformation of the series, the point is to map non-stationary data to a stationary model. Observable variables that are known to have a trend (namely here, output, investment and foreign output) are made stationary in three steps. First, they are divided by the working age population. Second, they are taken in logs. And third, they are detrended using a quadratic trend. We thus choose to neglect the low frequency component (i.e., the trend) in all empirical variables for two main reasons: (i) the sample employed here is too short to observe any trend effects on the weather making the use of trend on the weather irrelevant; 22 (ii) dealing with trends in open economy models is challenging when economies are not growing at the same rate, the solution adopted in estimated open economy models is simply to neglect trends as in Justiniano and Preston (2010b). For hours worked, the correction method of Smets and Wouters (2007) is applied: it consists of multiplying the number of paid hours by the employment rate. Finally, turning to the weather index, daily data from weather stations are collected and then spatially and temporally aggregated to compute an index of soil moisture for each local state composing New Zealand. 23 The local values of the index are then aggregated at
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Extreme Weather

Extreme Weather

Completing this project allowed me to delve into a topic I’ve been interested in since I was a kid. Weather is a discipline that is filled with standards. Similar to design, we’re always looking for ways to push the standard to a new level and this project challenged me to do just that with weather standards. Instead of using the traditional graphics and icons, I was faced with the chore of showing and explaining weather phenomena using 3d and animation. This required me to use my Photoshop skills to build illustrations of cloud struc- ture. It allowed me to hone my skills in 3d fluids, a tool that had recently grown on me and left me with the desire to learn more. It also, however, allowed me to use the skills in project management and development I’ve learned in my full time work. These skills helped me enormously to organize my research, point me in the directions needed to develop successful solutions and use my limited time to its maximum.
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Vaisala Weather Transmitter WXT510 The Most Essential of Weather

Vaisala Weather Transmitter WXT510 The Most Essential of Weather

In order to have measurement data constantly available and ensure correct measurement also during snowfall, the WXT510 offers heating for the wind and rain sensors. The heating circuit is separate from the operational power, which makes it possible to use separate supplies. The nominal input level for heating voltage is 12 V or 24 V (with automatic switch-over), either DC, AC or rectified AC. The WXT510 has an automatic control circuit that switches the heating on only at low temperatures. Low power consumption and wide input voltage range The Vaisala Weather Transmitter WXT510 is an excellent choice for applications where power consumption
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SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF INFOCROP TO WEATHER AND NON-WEATHER PARAMETERS

SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF INFOCROP TO WEATHER AND NON-WEATHER PARAMETERS

The basic code is in FST- DOS version. But windows version is also available with Visual basic as front end and MS- Access as back end. The former version has been more useful to the model developers while the latter is useful for the model applications. It is more users friendly with application focused front end. It deals with the interactions among weather, crop/variety, soils and management besides major pests. It has the database in respect of Indian soils. It simulates daily dry matter production as a function of irradiance, maximum and minimum temperatures, water, nitrogen and biotic stresses (pests). The crop growth process that can be simulated are: phenology, photosynthesis, respiration, leaf area growth, assimilate partitioning, source-sink balance, nutrient uptake and partitioning, transpiration. These processes are arranged in sub models.
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WITH WASHINGTON WEATHER

WITH WASHINGTON WEATHER

frequencies of ionization for the layer F e. Solar change on zero day... — Predicted and observed departures from normal temperature at Washington February 1 to March 14, 1943. Predictio[r]

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Weather and Yields

Weather and Yields

CARD analysis based o n technology growth and crop conditions as of October 9 suggested new record yields in lowa of 151 bushels per acre for corn and 48.9.. bushe l s p er acr[r]

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Beazley Weather Guard. Innovative insurance for weather-related risks

Beazley Weather Guard. Innovative insurance for weather-related risks

Christmas cheer A department store runs a promotion in July and August, offering its consumers their money back if they purchase goods in the store during the promotion period and a pre-determined weather event occurs (eg snowfall, rainfall or temperature) on Christmas day. The trigger for the policy to pay out is the pre-determined event occurring at a given location on Christmas Day.

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SEVERE WEATHER ADVICE FOR ROAD USERS Severe weather Advice

SEVERE WEATHER ADVICE FOR ROAD USERS Severe weather Advice

Bad weather such as torrential rain, severe winds, fog, ice and snow can strike suddenly catching road users off guard. In extreme weather conditions it is best to avoid making a journey by road unless absolutely necessary. If driving in such conditions is unavoidable be prepared. The golden rule is drive with care and caution – expect the unexpected.

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