Secondly, dynamic observation techniques such as controlled experiments, think- aloud studies and ethnographic studies observe and record the user’s actions while they occur. In understanding webuse, controlled experiments have been used to investigate ‘micro’ issues, such as the investigation into user models of the ‘Back’ button by Cockburn & Jones (1996). Think-aloud studies, in contrast, are generally used to gain insights into ‘macro’ web usability issues such as users’ high-level tasks and goals: for example, Byrne, John, Wehrle & Crow (1999). Ethnographic studies broaden the scope of investigation further, placing a heavy emphasis on the context of the users’ actions within, and around, the web. Clearly this is a long-term and time- consuming experimental technique. Bellotti & Rogers’s (1997) six-month study of the publication industry provides the best approximation of web-based ethnographic methods that we are aware of. However, Bellotti & Rogers do not use the term ‘ethnography’ to describe their method, which relied heavily on interviews rather than ‘immersion’ in the environment under study.
The World Wide Web has become one of our primary means of information and communication, a space for expressing both private and professional interests, and at the same time a huge marketplace and economic factor. Today, it is a key platform for news and entertainment, e-commerce, research, communication and collaboration (USC 2007). The importance of the usability of the related user interfaces can hardly be overestimated. And yet, an important factor is omitted when content, structure and experience are designed and evaluated on the Web: we know surprisingly little about the way people interact with their browsers during their daily use of the Web, or about ways in which they revisit pages after a longer period. While user navigation on single Web sites is com- monly logged and used for subsequent analysis of user behavior, the exact na- ture of the users’ interaction with the browser and cross-site browsing patterns remain inaccessible, as they can only be observed on client side. Studies ana- lyzing personal use of the Web over a long term are surprisingly scarce: newer studies focus on specific tasks, were performed under laboratory conditions, or dealt with search rather than Web navigation in general—and consequently can only give a limited insight into everyday Webuse (see Section 2).
To start with, the intensity of Webuse differed strongly between our participants (see Table III): the mean number of pages visited per active day 19 ranged from 25 to 284 – a span of more than one magnitude. Furthermore, they used the Web for different purposes, worked on various tasks, and consequently visited many different sites. This already be- came apparent in the variation of Google search use: although Google was one of four most frequently visited sites for each user, the share of visits to Google search pages var- ied between 4% and 39% (Table III). Similarly, some users had a couple of sites that they visited extremely often – visits to the top four sites covered up to 79% of all page re- quests for some users – whereas others did not have any site that accounted for more than 10% of her visits. Various individual motives for extensive use of certain sites could be identified: we observed regular work-related tasks (project sites, B2B systems), personal interests (news, bulletin boards, auctions), and also some temporal objectives (travel planning, Christmas shopping).
Fire safe Mobile Canopies have been specifically designed for use within marquees, football stadia, conference venues and exhibition halls, allowing complete peace of mind. Catering equipment stands on a robust platform providing a flat and hygienic base for your production operation. The 2.25 or 2.9 metre canopies come with an automatic fire suppression system and a full length extraction canopy to eliminate fire risks, carbon monoxide poisoning and the release of cooking fumes and odours.
To examine how much preferences differ across the three purposes, we integrated the results and compared positions and means of all the features (Table 10). The ranking orders of both IA purposes are very similar in the first half of the list. Users value the quality of content, easy accessibility and clear navigation. In the second half, users with personal interests IA purpose emphasised enjoyability and visual attractiveness more whereas users with work-related IA purpose were more concerned about security and privacy. Means and standard deviations are considerably lower for work-related IA purpose than for personal interests IA purpose, which suggests that users with work-related IA purpose are more in agreement with each other. Users with personal interests IA purpose have a broader range of expectations – some users want information acquisition to be very enjoyable, while some do not see a difference in using the Web either for personal or work-related information search. The means of the features for personal interests IA purpose are thus almost always between the means for the other two purposes. In general, personal interests IA purpose rankings are closer to work-related IA purpose rankings than those of entertainment purpose.
Keywords: Web site evaluation; Web site design; Web site strategy; e-Tourism; ICTs in Tour-
ism; Hotel web sites
Since 1963 when American Airlines introduced the first online computer reservation system (CRS) with its Semi-Automated Business Reservation Environment (SABRE), and the watershed of 1976 when the first travel agencies connected to Apollo (the CRS of United Airlines) (Maurer, 2003) the tourism industry has evolved into a complex web of partnerships and alliances, collabo- rating at many levels, strategically supported by ICTs at nearly every aspect of the value chain. This network of alliances supported by an advanced ICT infrastructure is instrumental to the cur- rent-web-based reservation systems that enable customers or their intermediaries to book travel, make hotel reservations and even hire a car. Few other industries rely on so many collaborators to deliver their products (Buhalis, 1998). Not surprisingly, the travel sector is rated among the top three product or service categories purchased via the Internet (Heichler, 1997; Heung, 2003; Tweeney, 1997; Yoffie, 1997).
The Health Forum for Glasgow (South East) is a pressure group of concerned consumers of NHS-provided healthcare based predominantly in the South East of the city. It has approximately 400 members, and about 60 members have e-mail addresses, and the Forum makes use of its own web site. This provides a range of information including: Constitution; the year’s Minutes; News ; Links (to organisations and items of information of interest to members ). Members are predominantly aged over 60, and thus tend to be consumers of NHS services. The HealthForum’s web site was set up some 5 years ago. Since the website was first set up, a core of members with IT skills has developed. These include the Chairman, Secretary, the Membership Secretary, as well as those people concerned to keep the IT aspects of the Health Forum working smoothly - i.e. e-mail, web site, and database.
The server-side web browser with the use of a videophone described in this document performed well. Since the input with voice is always possible on the videophone, a new operating method by voice recognition of keywords, which does not require any keystrokes, is under investigation. The implementation of another new function with image recognition is also in progress. This function displays a web page corresponding to the image taken by the camera on the videophone. It makes possible to display the related web page by simply taking a picture of a logo or landmark (Fig.13). Furthermore, a future enhancement of the browsing method on a videophone is being considered not only by converting HTML and PDF, but also by converting various types of document, sound, and video data. Our focus now is to enhance the server function to improve the usability.
Today, HTM L ( Hyper Text Markup Language) and CSS( Cascad ing Sty le Sheets) web techno logy codes form the b asic o f Internet websites. The development o f web pages through these web technologies is beco ming mo re complex. Therefore, web develop ers are using n ew techno log ies to create web pages.
It should also be noted that the authors of this work are unaware of any other tool of- fering NLP pipeline for Russian going from plain text to syntactic annotation working out of the box and at the same time being free to use. The only one that might be comparable is the pipeline put together by Sharoff himself in 2011, but it works out of the box only for Linux-based systems, and we could find no reported results regarding its overall accuracy.
In this paper we first show how the behaviour of a Web service can be suitably described by means of a Petri net. Petri nets  are one of the best known and most widely adopted formalisms to express the concurrent behaviour of (software) systems. Besides providing a clear and precise semantics, Petri nets feature an intuitive graphical notation, and a number of techniques and tools for their analysis, simulation and execution are available. Petri nets have also been already employed to model Web services (e.g., see [17, 25, 3]). We introduce a simple variant of standard condition/event Petri nets (viz., CPR nets for Consume-Produce-Read nets) to naturally model the behaviour of Web services, and in particular the persistence of data. We then show how OWL-S process models can be directly mapped into CPR nets, borrowing from the translation from OWL-S to place/transition nets (P/T for short) described in .
The final objective of this study was to assess the validity of this methodology and discuss whether it might be used in some format by other clinical education institutions. The cultural web appears to have enabled the identification of previously recog- nised elements of the hidden curriculum, plus several additional areas. For example, policy development, evaluation and assessment, resource allocation and the use of institutional slang are described by Haff- erty 8 and all emerged in the current study. The cultural web would therefore appear to have func- tioned well as a framework, helping to map both data collection and analysis.
Web conferencing is one of those areas (like PC’s) that appear on surface deceptively easy to use – thus many users dive into it in the same way they dive into a new car or PC or cell phone: start driving or using, read the manual later. Many organizations provide real-time training and help desks, or online tutorials for self-paced learning. But as we found in the course of researching this paper, training alone (which can be costly) is not the only answer, and product complexity and design may impact the effectiveness of that training.
Without jumping too deeply and too far ahead into our topic, we can state that in the last few years we have witnessed a rather quick expansion of Web 2.0 applications. These techniques and tools mean far more than a mere technological improvement of previous, so called “Web 1.0” techniques and tools. They require companies to adapt to a new business logic and put a never before seen emphasis on customers and relationship with customers. Although it is yet to be determined by academicians and business practitioners whether this means a whole new business paradigm - a lot of changes is taking place with new opportunities rising and old ways of doing business in extinction.
Bittorrent websites are traditional websites which provide so called .torrent files. A torrent file contains meta data about a set of files, like the filename, size, hash value and most importantly the url to a tracker. A tracker is the location where seeders (uploaders) and leechers (downloaders) register to share a file. Torrents are downloaded in chunks, so leechers are quickly also seeders for parts of the torrent they already downloaded. Peers who upload are also more likely to achieve higher download speeds. There are basically two different types of torrent sites, namely public and private sites. The first are accessible two everyone and offer a lot of files, but often of a lower quality and download speed. A few public torrent sites are specialized and only offer a few big files to download. Basically they use the Bittorrent protocol to lighten the load on the server that big files cause. A good example of such a case would be a public tracker that offers ISO-images of a specific Linux distribution like Ubuntu or Fedora. The second kind of torrent sites, private torrent- sites, are often specialized in like for example music, movies, television series or e-books. Users need to register and often new members are welcome by invitation only. They offer higher download speeds and more high-quality files, but you need to maintain at least a 1:1 upload/download ratio or donate money for the upkeep of the servers.
According to the paper “Cloud Computing – Research Issues, Challenges, Architecture, Platforms and Applications: A Survey” by Santosh Kumar and R. H. Goudar, The cloud service models are commonly divided Software as a Service (SaaS) helps the cloud consumers release their applications in a hosting environment, which can be accessed through networks from various clients by application users, Platform as a Service (PaaS) is a development platform supporting the full Software Lifecycle which allows cloud consumers to develop cloud services and applications directly on the PaaS cloud, Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) makes the cloud consumers directly to use IT
Pedagogy. Technology should be implemented in partnership with pedagogy. Using technology for the sake of using technology will not produce results. In fact, technology enhances learning only when pedagogy and instructional strategy is being practiced simultaneously (Hew & Cheung, 2013). For example, 48 ninth-grade Biology students, 12 having IEPs, were provided an interactive, “hands-on” web-based lab activity without being given prior instruction and told to work independently. As students were being evaluated on its effectiveness, the researchers observed that many students were unable to stay focused on the task. Responding to these observations, the researchers decided to strategically pair the web- based technology with direct instruction and scaffolding techniques. The results showed that students’ on-task time increased from 42% when working independently to 88% when instructional strategies were used (Bodzin, Waller, Santoro, & Kale, 2007). Students require “appropriate pedagogical design in terms of scaffolding techniques and learning activities to learn how to use the provided choices to achieve, keep, and practice control over their learning” (Rahimi, Berg, & Veen, 2015, p.785). Without pedagogical design, students tend to use the web- based learning tools more superficially. Furthermore, studies have shown that students succeed when teachers provide clear instructions, purpose, effective design, and overarching big ideas and understandings while implementing technology (Kay, 2014).
Static components of Web sites can be automatically tested by existing spider-like programs (e.g., [22, 11]), which follow recursively all possible static links from a Web page in search of errors such as broken links, misspellings, and HTML-conformance violations. For automatically testing dynamic compo- nents, which include execution of client-side scripts and form interactions, the only class of tools currently available are “capture-replay” tools that record specific user-defined testing scenarios, and then generate scripts (sequences of browsers actions) that can be run on browsers (e.g., [13, 7, 14]) in order to automat- ically replay the recorded scenarios for regression testing. Because Web sites are increasingly complex, manually recording a sample set of testing scenarios with a capture-replay tool can be very time-consuming. Due to the impossibility of recording more than a few possible paths, site coverage using capture-replay tools ends up being typically limited to a small portion of the Web-site functionality. Moreover, although state-of- the-art capture-replay tools do provide some level of abstraction when recording user actions and increased portability of test scenarios (for instance, by recording general browser actions instead of mouse actions on specific screen coordinates), changes in the structure of a Web site may prevent previously recorded test sce- narios from being replayed, and hence may require re-generating and re-recording a new set of test scenarios from scratch.
= ARTICLE_DETAILS.addChildElement("DESCRIPTION_SHORT"); DESCRIPTION_SHORT.addTextNode(products[i].getDescription);
It becomes clear that this approach is quite cumbersome. For this reason, it is better to use the BMEcat interface of the catalog software instead of the existing Java imple- mentation. This means that the search function of searchByDescription() must be re-implemented with XPath  expressions. The advantage derived is an end-to-end XML solution, which requires no mapping between different data repre- sentations (e.g., Java to XML and vice versa). The result of such a query is already in BMEcat format and can be directly inserted into the SOAP body. Unfortunately, the SOAP API of JAXM does not use a DOM-based object model. For that reason, in- serting DOM nodes into the SOAP body is quite difficult. To use existing XML for SOAP messages, JAXM requires the whole message (including the header) as a DOM document. However, a complete manual generation of SOAP messages via DOM means time consuming low-level programming.
Enterprises today face the daunting challenge of simultaneously maximizing cus- tomer satisfaction and minimizing costs. The Web-based support/self-service model revolves around providing fast, accurate answers to end-users’ questions. The result is reduced support costs for the organization. A study by Forrester re- veals that the average cost per transaction using the traditional phone channel or call center is as much as $33 compared to $1.17 for the Web self-service site. Based on this data, enterprises can achieve tremendous cost savings by deﬂ ect- ing phone trafﬁ c to the self-service channel. In this case, the optimization of the self-service Web site should revolve around serving the appropriate content to help deﬂ ect support calls. A number of KPIs can be used to help managers better understand the effectiveness of their support/self-service site. These include the satisfaction index, repeat visitor percentage and content depth.