Fineman (2006) has noted that what counts as ‘positive’ will vary. In other words, what is positive in one situation at work may cause significant problems in another. Fineman also noted the difficulties inherent in trying to separate positive and negative feelings, arguing that they are intimately connected (Fineman, 2006). Indeed, wellbeing itself has also been defined as “more than an avoidance of becoming physically sick. It represents a broader bio- psycho-social construct that includes physical, mental and social health.” (CIPD, 2007d: 4). What is surprising then is the focus on highlighting the responsibility that an individual holds for their own wellbeing, it is emphasised in CIPD documents (CIPD, 2007), in research, and in the policies implemented in organizations (Pomaki et al, 2012), even despite frequent acknowledgements that the social environment is important. The CIPD notes that, ‘Your organisation can create and support an environment where employees can be healthier through providing information and access to schemes to improve well-being. However, well- being is ultimately an individual’s responsibility requiring education and a degree of self- awareness.’ (CIPD, 2007, p.5). As Ehrenreich 2009 suggests ‘the flip side of positivity is thus a harsh insistence on personal responsibility’ (8). In emphasising what the individual
Scholars have perceived wellbeing as the result of a dynamic process of constant interaction between individual factors and environmental, cultural and social factors (Alvesson & Willmott, 2002; Mininni, Manuti, Scardigno, & Rubino, 2010). Taylor (2015) added that flexible wellbeing at work presents a valuable opportunity to benefit societies by helping working individuals to feel happy, competent, and satisfied in their roles. Also, people who achieve the standard of flexible wellbeing at work are likely to be more creative, more loyal, more productive, and deliver better services than individuals with suboptimal standards at work. Therefore, understanding flexible wellbeing as holistic life experience is much broader than physical wellness (Lovell & Beckstrand, 2015). As such, O’Brien and O’Shea (2016) supported previous scholars’ submission that although there are many definitions of wellbeing, any definition of flexible wellbeing should communicate its multi-dimensional nature and draws on the insights of psychology, philosophy, and sociology. Consequently, rather than attempting to formulate a complete definition, establishing clear working outlines for each separate discussion or study is recommended. Thus flexible wellbeing involves both mental, psychological, physical, and financial wholeness (Diener, Lucas, & Oishi, 2018; Jovanović & Joshanloo, 2019; Mercer, 2015; WHO, 2014). Hence flexible wellbeing in this work was measured by workload, mental health, life satisfaction, physical, technological, and psychological work environment.
This review evaluated studies that report on the effectiveness of organisational interventions aimed at improving wellbeing and reducing work-related stress, or both, in school teachers. Wellbeing at work and work-related stress are important policy challenges in current times. Teacher occupational wellbeing is de- fined as a positive emotional state resulting from harmony between the sum of specific environmental factors on the one hand, and per- sonal needs and expectations of teachers on the other (Aelterman 2007). Wellbeing at work is often measured by an individual’s job satisfaction, feelings of self efficacy, work stress or burnout (Bricheno 2009), as well as organisational indicators such as sick- ness absence and staff turnover. Work stress can refer to stressors, as well as the stress response. Stressors are the conditions at work that generate stress, while the stress response refers to how people feel, think and behave in response to the stressors. The Fourth European Working Conditions survey (EuroFound 2007) found that 20% of workers from the EU15 and 30% from the 10 new member states believed that their health was at risk due to work- related stress. Health and Safety Executive statistics show that for 2006/07, stress, depression, or anxiety accounted for 46% of days lost due to work-related illness and constitute the single largest cause of all absences attributable to work-related illness (Cooper 2008). It is estimated that each year one in six workers in England and Wales is affected by anxiety, depression and unmanageable stress (Mind 2011).
David’s narrative within BBC’s Saints and Scroungers contained another example of this integration between work and wellbeing. The program differentiates between the “benefit thieves” and those “who actually deserve help” (‘Saints and Scroungers’, BBC1, February, 2016). Positioned as a ‘Saint’, David’s narrative contains a series of interviews between himself and the narrator where David recounts two periods of depression. The first, he explains, was overcome through discovering an exercise class he first attended and then instructed (presumably self-employed). Upon sustaining an injury, David could no longer teach and entered a second depressive phase. It was hinted that the injury was in part his own fault, as he remembers “who can I blame for it? And the only person was myself. My body was constantly aching with the exercise, so I didn't recognize the signs”, subtly positioning David as responsible for mitigating the consequences of unemployment. He explained how he was “sat at home, feeling sorry for myself”, “didn't know what to do” and was “totally self- centered” until he imagined a new business idea. As the show’s presenter visits David’s new place of work, he remarks, “This is your reality now… this is where we are after those dark days”, encapsulating the discursive positioning of work as having a direct impact on mental health. David’s narrative not only shows how work is positioned as having a positive impact on wellbeing, but before this could actualize, David needed to stop feeling ‘sorry’ for himself. Any space to consider the emotional impact of suddenly being plunged into precariousness through changes of health was paved over, with David seeing himself as being ‘self-centered’ for lamenting his lost career. A quick and visible shift in David’s psychological state was positioned as necessary, suggesting a change in his frame of mind helped him progress in his journey toward the waged work – a light at an end of the tunnel.
The two scales can be used in somewhat different ways. If the aim is capture the broad aspect of cyberbullying behavior then the CBQ scale is recommended. The CBQ scales consist of 20 items that cover a wider range of different types of cyberbullying behaviors. If individual subjects are investigated, these 20 items could be used as a check-list of different kind of cyberbullying behavior. The short version consists of as few as seven items, but likewise, this scale encom- passed most of the variability. The CBQ-S would be most useful when combined with other scales measuring work environment. The CBQ-S with its seven items is more easily implemented with other battery of questionnaires do to its less time consuming nature. It is important to note though that this version does not include all types of cyberbullying behavior, in this respect the CBQ with its 20 items is more comprehensive.
Therefore, the current study will fill up this literature-gap by examining ACT-based after- care. Further, most studies that assessed the effects of psychological treatment of SUD focused on substance use and did not include any measures of wellbeing, even though enhancing wellbeing might be especially important in treating SUD as patients are often in need of improvement of overall functioning. Earlier research has shown that ACT- interventions improve wellbeing in people with depression symptoms (Bohlmeijer et al., 2011; Fledderus et al., 2012; Pots et al., 2015; Lappalainen et al., 2014; Lappalainen, Langrial, Oinas-Kukkonen, Tolvanen, & Lappalainen 2015). Therefore, this study aims to assess the possible impact of ACT-based after-care on the wellbeing of SUD-patients. Additionally, the impact on depression symptoms and relapse into substance use will be assessed. In addition to the literature gaps, another reason to conduct this study is that Tactus, the addiction care institute in the Netherlands where the intervention was carried out, has requested this study because ACT-based after-care fits their work ethic of recovery-focused therapy that increases clients’ individual control over their mental health.
Some participants completed secondary schooling and moved into further study or discontinued their education and focused on work. Workers often initiated discussions about moving out of the program and assisted participants to look for rental properties or apply for a community housing tenancy. For some, this seemed like a natural and comfortable progression. For others, the prospect of finding other accommodation brings unwelcome stress and anxiety: rental properties tend to be prohibitively expensive without a steady and well paid job, public or community housing is usually in an environment of concentrated disadvantage and an unfamiliar area, while opportunities to live with family or friends involve the difficult compromises of sharing a home. Having to move out of Step Ahead before completing education was experienced as disruptive by those in this situation, and they sometimes lacked the means to establish themselves in stable accommodation following exit. With the assistance of workers, most participants found a suitable new home: about one third moved into community housing, one third shared with friends or family and a third went into other accommodation. For clients seeking aftercare, workers kept in contact for anywhere between a few weeks and one year and provided assistance where they could. Over the next two to three years, the young people continued to work and study, moving house every year or so. Private rental and community housing became the dominant accommodation types, accounting for half of the original group, while the others live with family members, in public housing or transitional/supported accommodation.
The combination of an aging population and financial limitations in the medical care sector are placing high demands on the municipal home care services. In associa- tion with this, a trend towards increased psychosocial strain at work can be noted amongst front-line home care staff , with a high frequency of WMSDs and injuries, and a low prevalence of having a sustainable work ability [26-28]. In the medical care sector, a disparity between the working conditions has been noted for different profes- sions in the same medical units [29,30], suggesting that similar profession-related differences might be present among municipal home care front-line workers. Power structures and group compositions according to age, gen- der, ethnicity, class and educational level, determine the distribution of power among work unit members [29,31]. Within medical care, employees with a lower degree of autonomy, self-efficacy and authority to influence the job content had the highest overall physical exposure levels . Health and work ability promoting factors among employees in human relation professions within the public sector in Sweden have recently begun to be studied. Clear work tasks, positive feedback, physically non-strenuous work, self-rated health and leisure time factors were found be important for high work ability [32,33]. Decision lati- tude, opportunities for learning and development and trust were associated with good health . For home care staff, both the level of self-rated medical and ergonomic knowledge and work related exhaustion were associated with work satisfaction . Unfortunately, care aides and assistant nurses are usually considered together, as one group, in the literature. Both groups assist the service reci- pient with the performance of social activities, general care and transfers, general house cleaning, and perform dele- gated medical tasks. However, the groups differ in educa- tional level. Three year of education (in the form of theoretical and practical training in social and medical care) in upper secondary school is required to become an assistant nurse, whereas the training for a care aide is given on the job . Differences in educational level and status may influence how they actively perform their daily work, and also imply differences in working conditions. The aim of this research was to identify factors promoting work ability and self-efficacy in care aides and assistant nurses within home care services in a municipality in northern Sweden.
progressively increased over time (Shanafelt et al., 2015). By focusing almost exclusively on burnout, and to a lesser extent perceived stress, contemporary research provides a skewed perspective of doctors’ wellbeing that neglects doctors’ ability to engage and flourish in their work. Work-related wellbeing is a broad and inclusive construct that exists on a continuum, encompassing a range of negative and positive constructs. This includes burnout and ill- health on one end, and happiness, flourishing and thriving on the other (van Horn, Taris, Schaufeli, & Schreurs, 2004). Therefore, there is a continuing need to better understand and quantify how the social, organizational, physical and psychological aspects of work (broadly defined as psychosocial working conditions) functions as a predictor to different dimensions of doctors’ work-related wellbeing. Most studies to date examine these direct relationships at the individual level, not considering that the complexity of the healthcare system means that work-related wellbeing is not only predicted by organizational level factors, but that these predictors should also interact with each other.
Nevertheless, there is a structural similarity to current discussions on the organization and worth of work: function orientation and meaning creation, the purpose and significance of activities are the poles of the conception and evaluation of work in the Greek classical period as they are today. However, only since work has become a significant component of the Christian moral code and thus a moral self-calling can one identify its contradictory as well as paradoxical elements. Luther, with his invention of the Beruf (occupation), declared work to be valid as a moral duty (Luther, 1996: 23). This way, a turn has been taken in the conception of work: It has transformed into a self-calling, and it will be Max Weber who will bring the Protestant ethic to the definition of its transcendental rationale (Weber, 2004). It is not any longer (only) a simple fulfilment of duties, a means of receiving reward, a chance to step up the social ladder, contractually regulated occupational work or brute force. Work is now also endowed with an intrinsic value, which will not disappear with European secularization and the profanation of life and society. In a nutshell, in modern times the conceptual and social inconsistencies of work are no longer exempted through conceptual and social separation and placed outside of praxeological significance. Hereinafter, its contradictions are immanently internalized and work is therefore given a practical identity formation character: it becomes the socializing and meaning-generating activity.
The present study also identified two secondary research aims. The first of these secondary research aims led to the development of two new measures accessing aspects of the work-related psychological wellbeing of clergy: a four-item measure of psychological distress and a five-item measure of psychosomatic ailments. The data suggest that there may be interest and value in exploring these new measures in further research. The second of these secondary research aims gave attention to information generated by the measures of positive affect and of negative affect proposed by the Francis Burnout Inventory. These data suggest that Anglican clergy may be experiencing unhelpful levels of emotional exhaustion in ministry, alongside quite high levels of satisfaction in ministry.
Seligman advocated his newly developed PERMA model (Seligman, 2012) as a guiding framework, which is based on a dashboard of five domain indicators of wellbeing; Positive emotion (P), Engagement (E), Relationships (R), Meaning (M) and Accomplishment (A). More specifically these components are: Positive emotion, such as gratitude and hope; Engagement in tasks that challenge individual strengths and produce ‘flow’ (Csikszentmihalyi & LeFevre, 1989); positive Relationships, such as those with family, friends and colleagues; Meaning derived from being a part of, and contributing to, something greater than that possible as an individual; and Accomplishment of rewarding tasks (Seligman, 2012). Previous research has indicated that high levels of each of the components of PERMA have been shown to protect against negative emotions (Garland et al., 2010), improve resilience (Tugade & Fredrickson, 2004), reduce depression (Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005), improve life satisfaction (Kashdan, Mishra, Breen, & Froh, 2009), protect against physical illness (Pressman & Cohen, 2005), and lower levels of stress (Cohen & Wills, 1985).
calm in tense situations and if the respondent was depressed. The last variable of interest, attempting to explain the influence or organisational resources, is a Human Resources Index (HRI). HRI included nine questions targeting HR practices and resource allocation for ongoing staff training and development, monetary reward systems, mentoring and guidance for career progression, opportunities and facilities for physical activity and roster breaks, opportunities and facilities for counselling and managing mental fatigue, opportunities and facilities for social wellbeing and spiritual wellbeing of employees which were all measured on an identical five-point scale. The nine questions were developed after consultation with HR professionals and line managers at the public hospital about context specific wellbeing challenges facing the public hospital system and literature on positive psychology and JD-R model. For example, job resources as per JD-R model includes the physical, psychological, social and organisational conditions which help to achieve work goals, reduce the demands of work (which are particularly high in for publicly funded hospitals), and stimulate personal growth and development (Van den Broeck et al., 2016).
predicted strain while job resources predicted work engagement indicates a differential effect between predictors and work-related wellbeing. The target of change should differ depending on the work-related wellbeing measure being. These findings reinforce the argument that interventions should not only attempt to reduce job demands but to strengthen job resources in the workplace (Knight, Patterson, & Dawson, 2017). Interventions also need to move beyond those that target change within the doctor (i.e., individual interventions) and consider instead approaches that target multiple job demands and resources in the work environment (i.e., organizational interventions). Similarly, the findings provide evidence that events at the hospital level, such as the number emergency admissions and bed occupancy rates, are associated with the work-related wellbeing of doctors. This should elucidate to decision makers at the national and organizational level that the demands placed upon hospitals, and the resources they have to deal with it, have a real impact on the wellbeing of hospital staff.
Social workers and Diversional therapists work collaboratively for the common beneficence of individual's well-being, by working with people in their environments to encourage and facilitate motivation for change. Fossey, Harvey, Mokhtari & Meadows (2012 ) explored perceived needs and the barriers to meeting these perceived needs within a mental health context by investigating the links between perceived met needs and improved quality of life for the client. Relationships were discussed regarding medications, treatment or alternative options such as a talk-related therapies, counselling, social interaction or assistance with practical skills for example finances or social housing (Fossey, et.al, 2012). The findings of this qualitative research indicated that the perceived need for social interaction, friendship, companionship, leisure needs, counselling, information and medication were rated much higher than finance, housing, work skills, or domestic skills (Fossey, et.al,2012).
Within SDT the unifying concept of psychological needs provide the “framework for integrating findings” (Deci & Ryan, 2000, p. 263). Specifically, with SDT, a critical issue in the effects of goal pursuit, motivation and goal attainment, concerns the degree to which people are able to satisfy their psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness (Ryan et al., 2008; Sheldon & Niemiec, 2006; Sheldon & Filak, 2008), as these are considered necessary for optimal functioning. The need for autonomy is defined as a desire to act with a sense of freedom, choice and volition, that is, to be the creator of one’s actions and to feel psychologically free from control and others expectations (Deci & Ryan, 2000).The need for competence represents the desire to feel capable, master the environment and to bring about desired outcomes (Deci & Ryan, 2000; White, 1959). It is prominent in the propensity to explore and influence the environment, and to engage in challenging tasks to test and extend one’s skill, that aids a sense of accomplishment. Finally, the need for relatedness is conceptualised as the inherent predisposition to feel connected to others. That is, to be a member of a group, and to have significant emotional ties, beyond mere attachment, to others (Baumeister & Leary, 1995, Deci & Ryan, 2000). Therefore, the need for relatedness is satisfied if people experience a sense of unity and maintain close relationships with others. Satisfaction of all three needs is considered essential to wellbeing (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Various studies have confirmed the positive versus negative consequences of the experience versus frustration of the basic psychological needs (Deci & Ryan, 2000). The satisfaction of the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness has been shown to relate positively to employees’ work related wellbeing in terms of task and job satisfaction, work engagement, learning, affective commitment, job performance, self rated performance, intrinsic motivation, organisational commitment, organisational citizenship behaviours, life satisfaction and general wellbeing (Greguras & Diefendorff, 2009, 2010; Lynch, Plant & Ryan, 2005; Vansteenkiste et al., 2007; Van den Broeck, et al., 2008).
It appeared that participants who used the programs were enthusiastic about it. All participants mentioned the clear structure, lay-out, user-friendly design and low threshold as positive aspects. They also really liked the possibility to choose (e.g. the video therapist, and which themes and assignments they could work on). However, some negative aspects and suggestions for improvement were reported. Some participants mentioned that the programs in general and writing down the assignments were too time-consuming. Also, the uncertainty about participants’ privacy when filling in the assignments was mentioned, and their privacy when they might contact a coach. Primarily there was discussion about how users could have contact with their coach. This finding is in line with the statement of Van Gemert- Pijnen, Peters and Ossebaard (2013). They state that new technologies raise new ethical concerns, such as the need to accommodate for people’s privacy preferences. According to the participants of this study, the coach could be best provided via email, chat, telephone call or video call. All these types of communication bring privacy-issues, especially video calling. Boyle, Neustaedter and Greenberg (2009) see the need for technologies that allow people to smoothly move into properly timed video calls that consider users’ needs for solitude and autonomy at home (e.g. privacy protection strategies like features to obscure the background).
A variety of results were evident on inspection of the studies assessing the iso-strain hypothesis: full support (Niehammer et al., 1998), support among females only (Clays et al., 2007), men only (Paterniti et al., 2002), support for a single measure of a variety of OS variables (Wang, 2005), support for high demands and low social support only (Plaisier et al., 2007), support for high demands and low supervisor support although among women only (Rugulies, Bültmann, Aust & Burr, 2006), significance for low control and poor work relationships in a male only sample (Kawakami et al., 1992) and strain among men and co- worker support among women only (Shields, 2006). It is evident from the description of results that clear support for the iso-strain hypothesis is lacking. Netterstrøm et al (2008) concluded that support seemed apparent for the strain hypothesis and main effect of demand and support, which may suggest that iso-strain would also be supported. Bonde (2008) more explicitly impressed from the data that in a strict sense the DC/S model was not supported. It was elaborated that while evidence suggested little reason to doubt the influence of the occupational environment on mental ill-health in a general sense, it could not be considered with confidence that the associations were accounted for by the causal mechanisms proposed by the DC/S model.
recommendations focused on commissioning for preventative and quality care, research and innovation for change as well as leadership ‘within the NHS, government and wider society’. In the same year, NHS England published its response, Implementing the Five Year Forward View for mental health (NHS, 2016a), confirming that it accepted the recommendations and outlining its implementation plan. Three out of six key principles of the plan are directly relevant to this study: ‘co-production with people with lived experience of services, their families and carers’; ‘working in partnership with local public, private and voluntary sector organisations, recognising the contributions of each to improving mental health and wellbeing’; and ‘identifying needs and intervening at the earliest appropriate opportunity to reduce the likelihood of escalation and distress and support recovery’ (2016a, p. 5). The NHS Shared Planning Guidance (2015) promoted the development of joint proposals for implementing the Forward View through local collaborations. As a result, on a practical level, NHS and local councils are developing shared proposals about how to improve health and care in local areas (sustainability and transformation partnerships). These are based on the principles of collaborative work among local leaders, development of a shared vision, involvement of the local community, and learning and adapting. Yet, there is no specific mention of the potential for collaboration with adult community learning. With regards to a mental health policy related to education, the Department of Health and the Department for Education published a joint Green Paper Transforming children and young people’s mental health provision in 2017. This Green Paper prioritises early intervention and prevention linked to schools, general FE colleges and universities up to age 25. For young people in education aged 16–25, it describes a new national strategic partnership focused on improving the mental health of this group of students.
Abstract: Recent studies indicate that the prevalence of early onset dementia (EOD) is more common than it was once presumed. As such, and considering the substantial challenges EOD presents to the patient, caregivers, and health care providers, this study sought to investigate the mechanism of care delivered to these patients. A medical record chart review was conducted for 85 patients attending a memory disorder unit who initially presented to rule out EOD as a working diagnosis. The results suggest that while the majority of these patients received an extensive work-up and were heavily medicated, they remained at home, where they lacked adequate age-related services and could not be placed, despite the crippling caregiver burden. This manuscript is a platform to discuss our current system limitations in the care of these patients with an eye on new opportunities for this challenging group.