The westerncornrootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is a devastating pest of maize. More pesticides are used to control WCR and other Diabrotica species than in programs aimed at the control of other agriculture pests (EPA, 2005). Larvae are the most damaging life stage because they feed on roots, causing reduced yields and plant lodging (Krysan, 1986). Before widespread adoption of transgenic corn, Diabrotica species were estimated to cost US farmers over $1 billion per year in lost revenue (Marra et al., 2012). Unfortunately, yield loss due to this pest is once again on the rise due to the ability of WCR to rapidly adapt to control methods, including development of resistance to the Cry3Bb1 transgene used in transgenic corn (Gassmann et al., 2011; Narva et al., 2013), to chemical insecticides (Meinke et al., 1998), and to crop rotation (Ball & Weekman, 1963; Gray et al., 2009; Levine & OloumiSadeghi, 1996; Levine et al., 2002; Parimi et al., 2006). Although new control methods are on the horizon (Baum et al., 2007; Bolognesi et al., 2012), resistance to insecticides can evolve quickly (Ball & Weekman, 1963; Parimi et al., 2006), therefore the key to maintaining control against this pernicious pest lies in discovering the mechanisms by which it so readily adapts to control measures.
The westerncornrootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is a pervasive pest of cultivated maize in North America and Europe, which has evolved to survive exposure to multiple insecticidal agents. Members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family play diverse cellular roles in arthropods, including xenobiotic detoxification. In this study, 65 putative D. virgifera virgifera ABC transporters, belonging to subfamilies A to H (DvvABC-A to DvvABC- H), were identified within transcriptome assemblies from the combined sequencing reads from Illumina libraries prepared from four RNA samples (embryos, larvae, adult male, and adult female). Eight D. virgifera virgifera ABC genes, with direct orthology to Tribolium castaneum gene models and known to have obvious knockdown phenotypes, were tested for functional conservation using RNA interference, which resulted in phenotypes similar to those seen in T. castaneum. Interestingly, depletion of DvvABCB_19147 and DvvABCG_3712 transcripts in adult females produced detrimental reproductive and developmental phenotypes (egg-laying and - hatching defects), demonstrating their potential as insect birth control targets. This study provides insights into the developmental and physiological roles of D. virgifera virgifera ABC transporters and suggests candidate target sites for the development of novel insect control tactics.
The WesternCornRootworm (WCR or Dvv., Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte) was first detected in Europe in the early nineties in Serbia. Since then the beetle has spread to more than 15 European countries. Isolated populations have been detected in Belgium, England, France, and The Netherlands (Ciosi et al, 2008). The WCR and the northern cornrootworm (D. barberi Smith and Lawrence) cause extensive economic damage to maize in the United States. Annual yield losses and control costs are estimated to be around $1 billion (Metcalf, 1986).
WesternCornRootworm, Diabrotica virgifera LeConte (WCR) and northern corn root worm, Diabrotica barbari (NCR) are the most costly insect pests of maize in North America. Root worms attack plants both above and below ground, but the most serious losses are due to feeding on roots, which damages root function and causes lodging of plants (Levine et al 1991). These two beetles mostly feed on maize plants. Another species named southern corn root worm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi, is prevalent in the southern states of the USA and attacks maize and sorghum (Weidberg, 1996). Female rootworms lay eggs in the fields of maize; eggs remain dormant in the winter and hatch when temperatures increase during spring. Rootworms hatch and are immediately attracted by the young corn roots which release CO 2 (Reidell et al 1999). Larvae start feeding on roots and mature to
If it achieves a greater than 50 % reduction in life- cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to conventional diesel, corn oil biodiesel may be eligible to receive renewable identification numbers (RIN) under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2). Moreover, with any level of GHG reductions compared to conventional diesel fuel, corn oil biodiesel could be an eligible biofuel under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS), which targets a 10 % reduction in the average life-cycle GHG intensity of the ground transportation fuel pool in California by 2020. Eligible fuels can receive LCFS cred- its in accordance with their carbon intensity (CI) value. Most regulated parties who buy the RIN or LCFS cred- its for corn oil biodiesel do not trace the origin of the corn oil from which the fuel was produced. As a result, double counting could occur if certain co-product meth- ods are employed in calculating GHG emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel or if both the corn etha- nol producer that generated the corn oil and the corn oil biodiesel producer claim the credits from corn oil recov- ery. Under either structure (RFS2 or LCFS) it is impor- tant to have a GHG intensity (RFS2) or CI (LCFS) that is calculated with a life cycle analysis (LCA) technique that avoids double counting.
Whether the over- and underestimation of node injury in 2005, 2007 and 2010 (Fig. 3) derives from pest pressure in those years that deviated from that at Monticello in 2014 cannot be verified, because actual egg densities were not determined during the trials (personal communication, Professor Michael E. Gray, Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois) or at locations nearby. This lack of determination of egg density as a measurement of pest pressure is a common feature of the literature base for research into root damage due to cornrootworm. The influence of egg density on predicted NIS is significant and can make the difference between a useful and a poor pre- diction (Figure OR4). We cannot tell whether variable egg density in the years analysed in Figure OR4 or extreme weather conditions at a crucial time for rootworm and root system development were the sole driver for the mismatch of observed and simulated NIS, nor how much such events have contributed to the discrepancies found. In depth analysis of the simulated temperature and water content data at sowing depth for the years analysed in Figure OR4 suggests that the underestimation of NIS in 2005 and 2007 might have been caused by inaccuracy of the root growth sub-model under drought. Root growth in POPP-Corn is, apart from root emergence, not dependent on water content in the soil. Central Illinois was reported to have been dry over the growing season in both years (Water and Atmo- spheric Resources Monitoring Program, Illinois Climate Network 2015) and the average water content at sowing depth between planting date and first rootworm adult emergence in 2005 and 2007 was found to be 24 and 23 % lower, respectively, compared to 2014 (which was used as input for pest pressure). It is thus possible that an overes- timation of root growth may have contributed to the dis- crepancies found. Water content does not seem to have been the driving factor for the overestimation of NIS in 2010 because there were no large differences between weather data in 2010 and 2014 which would generate such an effect. Neither the average water content nor the average temperature at sowing depth between planning and adult emergence varied significantly between 2010 and 2014. Thus, it is more likely for 2010 that the pest pressure of 137 eggs/7.6L of soil (2014 value) was higher than that present in the field. Reduced egg density could have resulted from a very wet spring and subsequent increased egg mortality. It is known that the natural mortality of eggs is related to
The medium was then recirculated between the fermen- tor and the FBB at a low flow rate for cell immobilization in the fibrous bed. After ~ 2 days when most of the cells had been immobilized, the fermentation broth in the fer- mentor was removed and replaced with fresh medium for fermentation kinetics studies. The fermentation was first studied with glucose, xylose, and the mixture of glucose and xylose (1:1, w/w), respectively, as carbon sources in the fed-batch mode by pulse feeding a concentrated sugar solution when sugars were almost depleted in the fermentation broth. The pulse feeding was repeated until the fermentation stopped producing butyric acid because of product inhibition. Repeated batch fermentations with corn husk hydrolysate were then studied to evaluate the kinetics and possible effects of hydrolysate inhibitors on long-term process performance. Samples were taken every 4 h for analyses of cell density, glucose, xylose, butyric acid, and acetic acid.
Regarding this experimental method Sugiono (2008: 3) argues that "in general the research method is defined as a scientific way to obtain data with specific purposes and uses. And experiments according to Sugiono (2008: 107) is a study that is used to find certain treatments for others in controlled conditions. In addition, according to Arikunto (2010: 16) the research method is a method used by researchers in collecting research data. And experiments according to Arikunto (2010: 3) are a way to find a causal relationship between two factors that are intentionally caused by researchers by reducing or setting aside other factors that interfere. Based on the research method the researcher used an experimental method. So the experimental research method is a series of experimental activities with the aim to investigate something or a problem in order to obtain results. Therefore, in the experimental method there must be a factor that is tested, in this case the factors that are tried circuit training and training intervals to know the effect on that is VO2Max. To determine the effect of circuit training and interval training on VO2max, a research instrument in the form of a Bleep test containing the element of sports branching, especially the basketball branch. 2.1 Growth and Yield Observation Corn
The AID of CP, although not significant, and methionine in corn were improved by extrusion in the present study. This supports previous reports that extrusion may improve protein digestibility in feeds through protein denaturation making the protein molecules more susceptible to proteolytic enzymes (Fadel et al., 1988; Hancock, 1992; Muley et al., 2007). Also, it is known that starch is associ- ated with proteins in cereal grains and therefore, through the gelatinization of starch, through ex- trusion, the proteins may also become more ac- cessible to enzymatic digestion (Knudsen, 2011). In previous reports, the digestibility of AA was shown to be reduced by excess heat processing, especially for lysine (Cho et al., 2001). Liener (1972) and Kim et al. (2009) also reported that overheating made lysine unavailable due to its Table 8. Apparent ileal digestibility of chemical constituents in raw, extruded, and dehulled-extruded corn (Experi- ment 2) 1
CS (Fig. 7). The surface of untreated stem (Fig. 7a) and leaf (Fig. 7b) was smooth. In contrast, the surfaces of EDA- pretreated stem (Fig. 7c) and leaf (Fig. 7d) were rough with convex configuration and corrugated appearance (arrow in Fig. 7c, e). The similar morphology was reported for AFEX pretreatment . It was interesting that volcano-like holes were found at some pieces of pretreated CS (arrow in Fig. 7f), which is different from stoma on the leaf (dotted arrow in Fig. 7b, d). The holes were probably formed by the gasification of EDA in the biomass during drying process. The holes were prone to occur at the thin and ductile cell walls, such as corn husk. The pretreated CS after washing revealed that the rough substance on surface was soluble and removable (Fig. 7g, h). In AFEX-pretreated biomass, this similar soluble substance was confirmed to be rich in lignin and hemicellulose [25, 26]. After washing, the fibrils were clear and slightly separated from each other. Besides the surface changes, no obvious changes of the particle size were observed.
found high-protein or conventional rapeseed meal may fully replace soybean meal as protein supplements in growing-finishing pig diets without impairing pig performance or carcass quality. However, there are limited reports that estimate and compare the NE of EP-RSM and SE-RSM or that have validated the NE value of rapeseed meals using a growth trial. In addition, there is no clear agreement on the proper method of validation of energy values using growth trials. Some researchers have proposed the concept of caloric efficiency [5 – 8] meaning that, if the assigned energy value is correct, regardless of the test ingre- dient inclusion level, a similar caloric efficiency (ie, dietary energy per kg of BW gain) will be calculated among the dietary treatments. However, in these experiments, the NE value of corn and soybean meal, which are the two main
Research work on breadfruit milk (Onweluzo and Nwakalor, 2009) and corn milk (Supavititpana et al., 2010) revealed the high nutritional values of both milks. Reports of legume – cereal milk blends by authors in the preceding paragraph provided positive contribution effects as evident on Abstract: The objective of this study was to develop quality milk analogue from local plant source comparable to soymilk. Plain milk extracts were separately extracted from African breadfruit (Treculia africana var africana) and sweet corn (Golden cob F1). A portion of each extract was blended on breadfruit: corn proportion of 60:40. Plain soymilk was extracted from soybean (TGX 573-IE). The plain milks were similarly formulated except that sucrose was not added to the corn milk due to the natural sweetness of sweet corn. The milk samples were analyzed for proximate composition and physiochemical properties using soymilk as a control. There was significant difference (p< 0.05) in moisture content, protein, fat, ash crude fibre and carbohydrate of the milk samples. The positive contribution effect of the sweet corn and the breadfruit accounted for good proximate values of the breadfruit-corn milk. The breadfruit-corn milk exhibited better physicochemical properties than the soymilk.
level. While the GST activity of Z2H4 increased initially and then decreased rapidly. It was reasonably to conclude that Z2H4 had no sustained resistance to herbicide stress. After 24 h of spraying, the GST1 gene was up-regulated in both inbred lines. This could account for the increase of GST enzyme activity in the two inbred lines in the early stage of spraying. However, GST1 of JP233 was 216.02% higher than that of Z2H4. This might explain why JP233 could resist herbicides compared with Z2H4. At the same time, the continuous increase of stress time might attribute to the decline of GST enzyme activity in Z2H4. Sytykiewicz (2011) used juglone to treat maize seedlings and measured the expression of GST1 gene at 4, 6 and 8 days after treatment. The expression of GST1 gene increased considerably at 4 days after treatment . The expression of GST1 gene decreased significantly in the 6 and 8 days after treatment. It indicated that with the prolongation of the treatment of corn seedlings by juglone, the increasing oxidative stress in the seedlings disturbed the redox balance in the plants, which eventually led to a decrease in the expression of GST1 gene and a significant reduce in GST activity.
Wheat bran over the larval stage period were consumed by 63.6% in 10 days, which turned out lower than the similar value in the case of corn grits, and yielded lesser accumulation of the larvae biomass. However, in combination with corn kernels, the mixture of bran with corn kernels was better balanced in terms of nutritious elements and yielded a larvae biomass 33.7% higher than with the use of corn kernels for the same period of time. It is pertinent to note that bioconversion seems to be an effective and simple method for calculating feeding efficiencies of the larvae for industrial
As expected, there were many studies on corn variety in feeds, but the varieties studied were high-oil [1,2], high- lysine , low-phytate  and so on. There varieties are very special, and the planting area is not large. The var- ieties of corn used in feeds still are conventional varieties. However, there is a lack of congruent information on the variation in nutritive value as affected by conventional var- iety, drying method and drying temperature of corn. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment were to measure the influence of conventional variety on the nutritive value of corn and to compare estimates of the effects of drying method on the nutritive value of corn. An additional objective was to evaluate varying tem- perature during drying on the nutritive value of corn in growing pigs.
Sugarcorn hybrids were grown and harvested in Ridgetown, Ontario at the Centre for Agricultural Renewable Energy and Sustainability from University of Guelph (42°26'N, 81°53'W) in the years 2014 and 2015. The sugarcorn plants were harvested 5 to 10 days after silking, and the stalk of the plant was cut about 12-13 cm above the soil level, the ears were manually removed and the sugarcorn stalks -including leaves- were feed through a three-roller press to extract the sugarcorn juice. Once the juice was collected, it was stored at -20 °C. Dr. Robert Nicol and Dr. Brandon Gilroyed were responsible for the after-mentioned process. Days later was transported to the University of Western Ontario in London (Ontario, Canada). For the characterization and fermentation studies, the sugarcorn juice was thawed at room temperature and filtered through cheesecloth to remove plant residues. Once filtered, the juices were transferred to 1-liter pre-washed plastic containers, sealed, weighed and stored at -20 °C until further use.
Maize (Zea mays L) is the one of the most beneficial crops, adapted to various ecological and climatic states, it grades third after wheat and rice. Based on the research determinations for the last few years under the leadership of All India Coordinated Maize Improvement Project, 16 out of 61 diseases harmfully affecting this crop. One of the major diseases is Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB). The causative agent of the prevalent was recognized as the fungus Helminthosporium maydis. Research was carried out for pathogenicity assay. Pathogenicity assay was conducted with two methods, by collecting spores (2X10 5 /ml), spraying on one month old maize plant. After 24 – 48 hours, it was found that spores collected
no comparator or a placebo [9-11,17]. This study is also the first to compare the long and short term effectiveness of corn plasters for up to a year. Lang et al’s study  was a randomised controlled trial, but participants applied their own corn plasters at daily intervals for up to 10 days and the mean size of corns at baseline was notably larger than in this trial (8.04 mm versus 3.90 mm). They also reported the number of enucleated (removed) corns using corn plasters at 10 days (62%), whereas our trial considered effectiveness to be a reduction in size or the continued resolution of corns at 3 months and up to 12 months. Potter’s study  was also a controlled trial and used a similar method, where podiatrists applied the corn plasters and carried out blunt debridement to remove the macerated lesions. In that study the plasters were reapplied 3 times per week for up to 2 weeks and the main outcome was corn resolution; a reduction in the size of the corn was not included.