Creeks and lagoons are common hydrological features of South-Western Nigeria and form part of the numerous ecological niches associated with the Nigerian coastal environment (Chukwu and Nwankwo, 2004). Creeks in this region are usually connected to lagoons and find their way to the sea via the Lagos habour all year round (Nwankwo and Akinsoji, 1992). Over the years, tidal creek ecosystems, particularly in the industrialized areas of Lagos metropolis, are enduring stress-induced changes as a result of steadily yet increasing human activities and associated effects (Onyema and Nwankwo, 2006). Unregulated and unrestricted deposition of wastes is the key to most of these imposed human related effects.
research were both primary and secondary source. Investigation and appropriate data processing in the study of pottery in South-Western Nigeria could only be made possible through a careful methodological approach. In view of this fact, direct field research method was employed for a careful investigation of technology advancement and implications for the fortune of pottery in South-Western Nigeria. In addition to this, visual aids such as cameral were used to record photographs of potteries for the analyses of their theme, styles, techniques and functions. Related literature materials were also consulted. The information from these literatures was used to facilitate detailed study of the pottery. In- depth oral interviews were conducted in order to elicit necessary information from key interviewees such as local porters, owners of pottery enterprises and students. All oral interviews were also electronically recorded and transcribed.
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She also adds that “the assumption that women the world over are subject to identical forms of masculine exploitation” (Falola and Aderinto, 2010) should not be held as the gold standard. Indeed, she believes that scholars should instead look at the experiences of women from a national or local perspective. In adhering to this apt line of thought this paper aims at providing an historical and yet critical understanding of the role and economic impact of women in South-Western Nigeria and how women had contributed to the economic development of Nigeria, most especially south western part of Nigeria. I hope this paper will change people‟s perception and orientation on the role and contributions of women towards the economic development. Many a time, people attribute women to be home keeper alone, but many of them engaged in other meaningful economic activities some women even take the major role in the economic survival of the family.
20. Adeyakinu FA, Motayo BO, Akinduti PA, Akinbo J, Ogiogwa IJ, Aboderin BW, Agunlejika RA. A multicenter study of beta lactamase resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiela pneumoniae reveals high level chromosome mediated beta-lactase resistance in Ogun State, Nigeria. Inter- disciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases. 2014;819896.
The above hypothesized relationships were tested using data collected through self-administered, structured questionnaires containing essentially close-ended questions. The questionnaires were administered on chief executives and marketing directors, or in some cases other directors within the 92 randomly selected small and medium scale paint manufacturing companies in southwestern Nigeria. In order to appreciate the study setting and test the questionnaire prior to its use, a pilot study involving face-to-face interviews with five small business owner – managers was undertaken. The questionnaire was then refined in the light of experience. This research is concerned only with small and medium paint manufacturing businesses in southwestern Nigeria. There are two reasons for this. First, over the last few years, the performance of the small and medium scale manufacturing sector in Nigeria has been a major pre – occupation of policy – makers and government departments dealing with industry and trade. The sector has been characterized as non – competitive by international standards and it is considered to have failed in performing the traditional and modern social and economic roles of the sector (Oshagbemi, 1998; Ogundele 2007). The second reason is that it is highly probable that cross-industry differences in the nature of business activities could confound findings relating to SME
Population Commission (NPC), 2006). The Southwest zone comprises six States namely: Lagos, Ogun, Osun, Oyo, Ondo, and Ekiti States (Shahib et al., 1997). These states are situated mainly in the tropical rain forest zone with swamp forest in the coastal regions of Lagos, Delta, Ogun and Ondo states. The zone also covers the derived savannah in the extreme north of this region including Oyo, Osun, Edo and Ekiti states. The climate in southwestern Nigeria is predominantly humid with rainfall from 1500mm to 3000mm per annum.The mean monthly temperature ranges from 18 0 C to 24 0 C during the rainy season and 20 0 C to 35 0 C during the dry
Polygyny is not recognised by law in some African countries, eg.Congo, Zaire (Welch,1981:192; Brown,1931:322), but the social push for polygyny is so high that many people still marry polygynously. In the Congo it became illegal to contract polygynous unions since 1951 (Van De Walle, 1968:194). In Nigeria a woman married in a "court" ceremony cannot be a second legal wife but many unofficial "outside" wives are commonly recognized, and since only 7% of marriages are contracted in court its effect on the occurrence of polygyny in the whole society is small (W a r e ,1979:188).
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Abstract: Availability of affordable energy is essential for the improvement of living standard and economic growth in any country. This study examined available energy resources in Western Nigeria and analyzed how they can be harnessed for sustainable energy supply. The study approach used involved literature survey, observation tour of some locations across the region and analysis of the observed scenario. The development of the proposed sustainable solution is based the study of countries in similar situation and how they were able to surmount their energy supply problems as well as personal understanding of the necessary adjustments for differences in locational factors and culture. The framework recommends integration of small number of abundantly available renewable energy sources at a scale manageable by locally available hands and in collaboration with all the stakeholders. It is believed that the proposed sustainable energy technology would ameliorate the persistent energy problems in the region. The proposed energy supply system is also expected to be economically affordable, environmentally friendly and culturally compatible.
This is a population based study which examined 1274 respondents with a female preponderance of 57.4%. Eighty percent of the respondents had a visual acuity of 6/18 and better in at least one of their eyes as also documented by the Nigeria National blindness survey  and Onakpoya et al. , while VA worse than 3/60 was seen in up to 9% of the respondents.
Abstract—One of the largest environmental and public health issues that Nigeria is facing today is inadequate facilities for management of solid wastes. Design of sanitary land fill was done with major emphases on determination of the lifespan/target year and location of a suitable site. In this study a sanitary landfill system of depth 3.6 m, width 30.3m and length 72.8 m was designed and a model of it fabricated. The design of sanitary land fill entails the determination of the lifespan, location of a suitable site and carrying out financial analysis and determining the construction schedule of the landfill. Analysis of results obtained indicated that decomposable wastes (55.516%) are more generated than non- decomposable waste (44.484%) especially in Ado Ekiti. It is therefore recommended that government should take the management of waste serious because it can serve as a source of income.
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Abstract—One of the major challenges faced by engineer and hydrologist is inadequate or non-availability of hydrological and meteorological data to properly design, operate and plan water resources against extreme rainfall event. Such data would be needed for the development of Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves for design of storm drainage in urban systems. This study analysed the daily rainfall data collected from Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NIMET) Oshodi, Lagos for eight major towns in five state in South Western Nigeria over a period of twenty nine (1984-2012) years. The data was processed and analysed using Microsoft Excel spread sheet to generate series of peak annual rainfall. The record of duration of rainfall data was not available and as a result a USDA generalised accumulated rainfall curve for storm type A was adopted for short duration interval. The rainfall intensity values were calculated for duration of (15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 240 minutes) to estimate returns period of (2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 years) using Gumbel Extreme Value Type 1 distribution. The non- parametric Kolmogorv-Smirvov test and the Chi-Square test were used to confirm the appropriateness of the fitted distributions for the locations. The IDF curves were developed for the towns and recommended for the design of storm drainage.
Hockey, 1964). It consists of coarse to fine grained sands, clays and shale with occasional thin sands of phosphate beds being observed at Ifo (in Ogun State). The formation includes both marine and continental sedimentation form South and North and from the lower beds (Oshosun) to the higher ones (Jones and Hockey, 1964). The Ilaro formation is best developed towards the Federal Republic of Benin border with Nigeria where a thickness of about 400 meters has been attained, (Agagu, 1985). Textural analysis of these sands indicates beaches or shore line and near shore environments with sub-rounded to rounded grains and the formation is Eocene in age. Fossils are very rare but benthonic foraminifera are formed.
The UDUTH, Sokoto, is a tertiary health institution located in the North-Western region of the country. The hospital has a residency programme in the sub-specialties like Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Surgery, Internal Medicine, public health, Histopathology, General Medicine. The hospital cases were referred from the health institutions in Sokoto metropolis and also from neighbouring states like Zamfara, Kebbi, and Niger states. It also obtains referrals from Niger republic, a country located in the northern frontiers of Nigeria. The case notes of patients who had cervical cytology during the study period were retrieved from the medical records department. The records were traced to the Histopathology department where the cytology results were extracted and analyzed. Information obtained from the records included the patients’ demographic data such as age, place of residence, occupation parity; indications for cytology, specimen adequacy and cytological diagnosis were recorded in a study proforma.
This study is aimed at analyzing the hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in part of igbo-ora, South Western, Nigeria. A total of 21 representative samples was collected from 20 hand dug wells and 1 borehole. In situ parameters like Ph, Electrical conductivity (Ec) were measured. Major cations and some anions were subsequently determined in the laboratory using AAS for metal analysis, spectrometric determination of chloride, UV- visible screening method for nitrate determination, vanado- molybdo phosphoric acid, colorimetric method of phosphate determination and turbidimetric determination of sulphate. The suitability of these water samples was evaluated by subjecting the results to statistical analysis. Statistical summary of geochemical data shows mean metal contents of chemical parameters determined to be Ec (997.5), Ph (10.605), Cd (0.0179), Pb(0.000991), Fe(0.0409), Zn(0.2149),Cr(0.097), Cu(0.1405), Mn(0.0829), Na(0.1912), Mg(2.0747), K(1.6306), Cl(18.08), Ni(1.7073), P0 43- (1.5438) and So 42- (26.4241). The order of element with lower value are
A pot experiment was conducted at the greenhouse of Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, in the rain forest zone of South western Nigeria during the 2011/2012 growing season to evaluate the effect of Oil Palm Bunch and Cocoa Pod Husk Ash (CPHA and OPA) on the nutrient uptake, growth and dry matter yield of cocoa hybrid (T65/7 X T57/22). The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) in three rep- lications. The treatments consisted of control, CPHA, OPA and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer respectively. The or- ganic fertilizers (CPHA and OPA) were applied at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 tons per hectare while the recommended rate of 10 kg·N per hectare was used for NPK 20:10:10. Two cocoa beans were planted per pot filled with sieved plantation soil and later thinned to one plant per pot. Watering was carried out thrice per week throughout the period of the experiment. The fertilizer materials were applied in a ring form four weeks after seedling emer- gence. Soil samples were collected before and at harvest six months after treatment application for laboratory analysis. Agronomic data such as plant height (cm), stem girth (mm), number of leaf per plant, root length (cm) and leaf area (cm 2 ) were collected and later subjected to statistical analysis.
In Yoruba land of South-western Nigeria, pottery has being one of the major vocations of the ancient that survived till date; recent archaeological finds attest to pottery practices at Iwo-Eleru dating back to as early as 8000B.C (Drewal and Schildkrout, 2010: 79). Traditionally, pottery is mainly practiced by Yoruba women; their men assist in the mining of the mineral also referred to as digging of the clay and gathering of woods for fuel needed during firing (Ibigbami, 1981:12-19). Yoruba pottery practice is traditionally a family or lineage inclination. This is a scenario where all information concerning the nitty-gritty of the vocation is concealed or sacredly kept and passed on only to members of the lineage from generation to generations and not by apprenticeship (i.e. a system of practice that encouraged training an external body, that is non member of the lineage particularly those from different background to learn vocation outside their family lineage and are required to master materials, tools, techniques, decoration and finesse). Apprenticeship however, is a recent development in Yoruba milieu as it is evident in modern pottery centres. Today, many traditional and modern pottery centres are scattered across Yoruba cities, towns and villages. They include Ibadan, Ilorin, Ipetumodu, Ile Ife, Oyo, Ogbomoso, Abeokuta, Igbara Odo, Erusu Akoko, Isua, Egbado, Ijero Ekiti, Okeho, Saki, Iseyin, Awe, Fiditi, Ilora to mention few (Kalilu, Akintonde and Ayodele, 2006; Fajuyigbe and Umoru, 2005).
Apologize The United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution 64/136 on December 21, 2009 declaring year 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. This is to showcase the contribution and impact of cooperative to the socio-economic well-being of the participants among other reasons (Oluyombo, 2012). The financial sector reform that led to the establishment of microfinance banks is expected to have effect on cooperative development in Nigeria. The study attempted to examine the perceptions of Cooperative leaders in the six states of South Western Nigeria in the era of financial sector reforms. The data collected though the questionnaires and interview were sorted edited and coded in a table. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) as well as t-test were used to test the hypothesis on the cross sectional perception of members and leaders of cooperative societies on its impact as a micro credit delivery channel in the six selected states of the south west Nigeria. The result of the Analysis of Variance on the differences in the impact of cooperative societies as a microfinance delivery channel across the six states of Nigeria revealed the F- calculated value of 2.32 whose probability close to zero percent suggest that there is a difference in the impact of cooperative society as a microfinance delivery channel across the state in Nigeria. The multiple comparison of the differences showed that the mean difference is significant at 0.5% between Lagos, Ekiti and Ondo State., also with Ekiti and Lagos and Oyo State. The same thing with Ondo,Lagos and Oyo State. Oyo has significant difference in the impact compared to Ekiti, Ondo and Osun State so also was the impact in Osun State significantly different to that of Oyo State. The mean perception in Ogun State is not significantly different from other selected States see Table 4. From the table of mean of mean perception score of respondents SSEs on the impact of cooperative societies as a microfinance delivery channels across six states in the South Western Nigeria, over 76.5% had mean perception score of 50 or more, indicating the majority of the respondents with high mean perception score in the study area.
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Creeks are common hydrological features in south-western Nigeria and are essentially of two types. The tidal freshwater/brackish creeks surrounded partly by mangrove swamps and partly by freshwater swamps from points beyond the reach of tidal influence and the non- tidal freshwater creeks, surrounded by freshwater swamps and usually infested with aquatic macrophytes all through the year (Nwankwo and Amuda, 1993). Creeks in this region gravitate to coastal lagoons in their immediate area enroute to the sea via the Lagos harbour. The existence of environmental gradients keyed to rainfall distributive pattern and more discernable in the dry season has been reported by researchers for the Lagos lagoon and adjoining creeks extending east and westward from the harbour (Sandison and Hill, 1966; Olaniyan, 1969; Onyema et al., 2003; Nwankwo et al., 2003).
Olukanni (2013) assessed water, sanitation and hygiene program in public secondary schools in South-Western Nigeria and established that many of students in schools visited were not enlightened on the importance of hygiene education and attitudes towards regular practices concerning water, sanitation and personal hygiene. Only three out of 12 schools visited during the investigation had drinking water points. The water from the borehole was pumped and stored in the overhead water tanks which were then connected through pipes to link other points for accessibility. However, this source of water was not treated before use. Similarly, the school teachers were not acquainted with the knowledge of ensuring enabling environment and promoting continual awareness campaigns to the students. This is a big challenge because even when the school have water and sanitary equipment and facilities, if students are not educated on how to use such facilities for their health, little can be accomplished in attempt to ensure good health in schools.
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Water leaf (Talinumtriangulare) is an herbaceous perennial, coalescent and glabrous plant widely grown in tropical regions as a leaf vegetable (Ezekwe et al., 2001). The plant is widely known and used among the people of Southern Nigeria (Abiose, 2003), tropical South America (Anderson, 1999) and in most African countries (Okafor et al., 1997). It has various values ranging from nutritional, medicinal to ornamental. The plant is soft, watery and consumed as a vegetable (either boiled or steamed) and constituent of a sauce in Nigeria. Water leaf (WL) is usually propagated by seed either by broadcasting, direct seeding or sowing in a seed box and then, transplanting. It flowers early year-round and is mainly self-pollinating. It is known to have no serious diseases or pests. Water leaf is fast growing and once