Abstract: Monitoring of trace elements in soil provides efficient way to assess the qualitative and quantitative differences in element concentrations at different sites within a region. The aim of the study was to assess levels of trace elements regarding accumulation of the metals, as well as investigate whether of the soil factors (chemical and physical) which influence trace element concentrations in soil. The physico-chemical parameters (viz. pH, EC, MC, OC, and textural class) and trace elements concentrations i.e Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in the soils from caly loam region in west AL-Fashir city, Western Sudan. The top soil of this region is predominantly loamy sand. The soil pH varies within the acidic or slightly neutral and range between 6.62 – 7.72. The EC values were found to vary between 0.155-0.360. OC is very low (mean 0.081±0.007). MC range between 0.230 – 0.430%. Average trace element concentrations decreased according to: Fe- Co-Ni-Cr-Zn. The sub-soil of this region is predominantly loamy sand. The soil pH varies within the range 6.02-7.10. The EC values were found between 0.162-0.275. OC is very low (mean 0.093+0.020). MC range between 0.230-0.430%. Average trace element concentrations decreased according to: Fe -Mn-Cr-Zn. The t-test showed that, elemental pairs: Ni-Cd, Cd-Cr, Mn-Cr, Pb-Cd, Cu-Cr, Cu-Cd, Cu-Mn, Zn-Cd, Fe-Mn, Fe-Pb, Fe-Cr, and Fe-Mo were showed significant differences in their concentrations in the study region, top-soil. In the top-soil, pH was high positively correlated with silt (r=0.760), whereas in the sub-soil, pH was highly positive correlated with EC (r= 0.755). The extraction of trace elements from soils of North Darfur for industrial use (especially, Fe, Cr and Cu) should be investigated.
The dry areas of Kordufan in Western Sudan fall in arid and semiarid areas and contain local livestock species cows, sheep goats and camels. Animal graze in open pasture and depend on grass during rainy season, and browse trees and shrubs during dry season. Feeds for small ruminants become progressively poorer in quality and quantity with the progress of the dry season. Browse trees and shrubs can provide supplemental nutrition for small ruminants and other livestock in arid areas. However, data on the nutritive value of their leaves has not been sufficient. The aim of this study is to determine the proximate analysis, including protein content, using AOAC procedures, and the minerals profile of leaves of Guiera senegalensis (Gs), which is used as medicinal plant and fodder for livestock in Western Kordufan, Sudan. Gs leaves were collected from bushes in Western Kordufan where Gs grows in abundance and survives the low rainfall. Leaves were dried in the shade and ground before analysis. The mineral profile analysis was conducted by using Inductively Coupled Plasma/ Optical Emission Spectrometry to determine the following minerals in Gs leaves: Calcium, Potassium, Sodium, Iron, Magnesium, boron, Zinc, Co, Zr, Sn, Sb, Barium, Lead, As, Cadmium, Aluminum, Copper, Mercury, Chromium, and Lithium. Most of the elements detected were found to be within the permissible limits set by FAO/WHO, and can provide important minerals for growth and production of small ruminants in areas where mineral nutrition did not receive the attention it deserves. In addition, the study showed that this plant is rich in proteins (13.93%), ash (2.15%), crude fiber (60.50 %), fats (2.80%) and DMD (95.90%). As far as we know, no comparable data is available for proteins, crude fiber and fat content of Gs leaves obtained from shrubs grown in sandy soil of the dry lands of Western Sudan. It is clear from our observations that the leaves of Gs can provide important nutrients, especially proteins and minerals, for small ruminants in Western Sudan. Further studies are needed to determine the digestibility of the leaves and its use as a supplement for crop residues fed to small ruminants during the dry season.
Many authors conceptualized the link between proximate causes of deforestation; social underlying driving forces, land use and land cover change (Meyer and Turner 1992, Turner et al 1993, Ojima et al 1994, and Lambin et al 1999). The approximate causes are human activities ( Land uses) that directly affect the environment and this contribute proximate source of change (Helmut, 2001). So, the direct causes of urban forests change in western Sudan are population growth in towns and industrial area development. On the other hand, inspection of the remote satellite based dataset indicates that significant increase in deforested areas in the west Sudan began in 1980s. From all findings which have been calculated and observed, it can be clearly seen that a drastic decrease in forest cover as a result of urban expansion was occurred.
The western Sudan is well-known for its higher potential of natural resources. Yet, this area has experienced a higher deterioration in its natural resources due to drought that affecting the farming and pastoral system . Besides decreasing the productivity of food crops, it emerges that the cereal foods of millet and sorghum cha- racterized by higher prices in the local markets. The erratic rainfall and its greater variation in its distribution as well as poor storage capacity are also influenced the food security. The destruction of the environment and the spread of pests and diseases particularly during the storage process are distressing the crop output. The western Sudan is also suffered from low soil fertility, especially in sandy soil. This type of soil has a higher requirement for water, mainly in the production of millet crops. Meanwhile, negative impacts and the adjustment of liberali- zation policies that hit the rural areas hard also influenced access to food for the majority of the population. The marketing policy constitutes a concern for the farmers; therefore, a lack of clear marketing price policies for agriculture and animal production are also affected food security. This resulted in higher costs of production, which directly led to diminishing the net returns from different farming activities . Moreover, the inequality and lack of income has a greater impact on the purchasing power of the people.
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Although western Sudan has been endemic for cuta- neous leishmaniasis for a long time, no records are available on the epidemiology of the disease or its trans- mission cycle in the region. It is noteworthy that P. papatasi, the main vector of L. major in Sudan and North Africa, and P. duboscqi the main vector in West Africa, were collected in this study. The study area is rich with burrows of rodents and other small mammals that may be suitable reservoir hosts of Leishmania parasites. Therefore, detailed studies on the role of these vectors in the transmission and maintenance of CL in Darfur are recommended.
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In this communication, we investigated the first outbreak of dengue fever in the Darfur area and we confirmed the presence of DENV in all states of Darfur, except East Darfur. We believe the prevalence of dengue fever cases might be higher than reported here because of the passive nature of our survey and reliance on patients’ presentation at the health facilities, imbalance in the blood sample donation between areas, and the refusal rate for blood donation. The DENV might be present in East Darfur, but we failed to detect it because most DENV infections are mild or asymptomatic . The majority (75%) of the detected DENV infections presented with bleeding, suggesting the involvement of dengue hemorrhagic fever, one of the severe forms of the disease according to the guidelines of the World Health Organization . Dengue fever in Sudan has been localized to eastern Sudan [20,21,24], with frequent epidemics in the area since the early 1900s [19,23,27]. Darfur has a recent history of yellow fever epidemics [25,29], but DENV has only been detected in a few cases in AlFashir, the capital city of North Darfur, for the first time in 2014.
El-Ga’ab area is a depression situated on the western bank of the Nile River, south of the Third Cataract in northern Sudan. It is considered to be an old basin flooded by the Nile during Early and Mid-Holocene, which is now completely dry. The surrounding vegetation is classified as being located within the desert zone of northern Sudan (Harrison and Jackson 1958), the eastern part of the North African Sahara zone (i.e. Egypt and Northern Sudan west of the Nile) being considered to be one of the most arid areas of the world (Wickens 1982). The larger part of the area is an absolute desert with almost no vegetation, the average annual precipitation being less than 0.1 mm. El-Ga’ab depression owes its importance to the fact that it is the only remote area in the Sudan Nubian desert situated away from the Nile that supports life.
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Millions of people in Africa depend on traditional medicinal plants for treatment of many diseases. Guiera senegalensis (Gs), which grows in abundance in semi-desert area of Western Sudan, has been used for treating specific diseases and wounds. This study presents the results on traditional uses of Gs as a medicinal plant in Ghubaysh village that is inhabited by nearly eighty thousands people. A survey was conducted on a randomly selected group (n=126), 66 were male (52.83%) and 60 females (47.61%). The participants’ age ranged between 20-50 years. Gs extract, prepared by boiling the leaves or soaking them in water, is used for treating many diseases. On the other hand, the roots are dried, crushed into a powder that is used for treating wounds. The results showed that73% out of the 126 participants used Gs as medicinal plant. 27% of participants who did not use Gs had experience preparing the plant extract or powder for treatment of diseases and wounds of household members. The common ailment treated by the leaves’ extract is jaundice which represents more than 51.5% of conditions treated; and the 48.5% of the other diseases treated includes diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cough, arthritis, enteritis, diarrhea and malaria. Most people surveyed have used roots’ powder of Gs for treatment of wounds, including diabetics wound, inflammation of skin, and injuries. Gs has also been used in cosmetics, and as animal feed and fuel. The success in treating diseases and wounds suggests presence of important beneficial medicinal components in Gs. In recently published work, we have reported the results of phytochemical screening of Gs leaves extract (alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannin, carbohydrates, proteins, steroids, and saponins), and evaluated its toxicity using brine shrimp, and its antifungal activity. The medicinal extract of Gs leaves may be safe to use as a drink for treatment of various diseases as has been practiced for years in the villages of Western Sudan. It would be interesting to find out the ingredients in the root powder that promotes wound healing. In future studies, we would like to investigate what in the leave extract causes diuresis, and how it does that in the kidney nephron.
According to the residence, most of cases of NPC in the present study were from Western Sudan, although Khartoum hosts the bulk of population with wide spectrum of ethnic diversity. An earlier study has re- ported high frequencies of NPC from Western Sudan, particularly, areas surrounding Nuba Mountains in Kordofan State . However, they attributed that to the high background radiation due to naturally pro- duced radioactive uranium rather than EBV infection. Geological studies revealed that radiation exposure rates around the Nuba Mountains are among the
Environmental degradation and changes are wide spread and progressively expanding phenomena in Ghubaysh area. The changes in vegetation cover are prominent features of environmental degradation. The change in vegetation has been associated with enormous depletion of wildlife and biodiversity. Nearly all wild animals and mammals have disappeared from the area and replaced by wide presence of desert rats indicating prevalence of desert environment in the Ghubaysh area. The repeated droughts and global climate change, expansion of traditional agriculture , dramatic increase in human and animal populations under conditions of poverty and traditional house building technology based on biomass materials are the main causes of environmental degradation. The high density of livestock population (74 head per km 2 ) (Livestock Resources Unit, Ghubaysh Locality 2012) and the accelerated tendency of capital investment in livestock resources at the level of both the household and the private sector reflect a bleak environmental trajectory in Ghubaysh area of Western Sudan.
Abstract: This article investigates and analyzes land use/land cover change in Ghubaysh area-Western Sudan during the period 1973-2010. The main objective of the article is to detect and identify land cover changes that have occurred during the last four decades. Multi-temporal satellites images (MSS, TM and ETM+) of 1973, 1987 and 2006 were used for data collection. The EARDAS Imagine classifier tool 9.2 and ArcGIS 10.2 have been used in the data analysis. Cultivated area, Wadis, shrubs, grass and forest were the most dynamic parameters used in land cover classification. Results showed high level of accuracy (98.2%, 96.3 and 89.6%) for the selected images for the years 1973, 1987 and 2006, respectively. The results also showed that the study area was once very rich in vegetation cover consisted of grass shrubs and forest which covered 86.7% of the study area. A prolonged and unsystematic change in land cover was reported. The agricultural area increased by a rate of +1.8% and shrubs increased by a rate of +0.67 per year during the last four decades. A decrease in land cover by a rate of -1.4, -0.37 and -0.08 was accounted for grass area, forest and Wadies, respectively. A remarkable change has taken place in agricultural area from 9.8% in the year 1973 to 41.4% in the year 2010. This expansion is at the expense of the area covered by grass, forest and Wadis.
This is a retrospective cross sectional study conducted in Western Sudan mainly in Western part of the state of Western Kurdufan. The study included 31 infected working donkeys, they selected after examining 200 animals. A fecal sample was collected from each animal and immediately investigated by microscope for the presence of parasites. A purposeful questionnaire was used to obtain animal related demographical data from each animal’s owner. Data obtained included: locality, animal age, animal sex, donkey type, body condition, Fecal consistency, Feeding type, Feeding method, Feeding habits & water, Housing, Bedding, Disposal of manure, Presence of helminth, Use of anti-helminthic, Response, Source of anti-helminthic, Presence of other infections, vegetation in wet season, Work intensity, Type of work, Donkeys users and the place where it used.
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From four different locations in Sudan namely, Aboharaz (Central Sudan), Port–Sudan (Eastern Sudan), Algaab ( Western Sudan) and Ombal (Southern Sudan) three quartz rocks samples from each location were collected; All samples were analyzed to determine the concentration of Gold (Au(III)), Iron (Fe (III) and Sulphate(SO 4 -2 ). Atomic absorption spectrometry technique was used to
The undulated surface of the study area, sloping northwards in accordance to the general slope of the continent, where the study area (Detang) village appeared in the cross - section as a concave slope. This would cause an increase in the slope length that increases the surface area for water collection. On the other land, the western bank of the White Nile at Detang village appeared in the cross-section as a convex slope, which showed the increase in the degree of steepness, coupled with the existence of sandy loam soil in the area, this strengthens the surface run-off, loss of soil materials and nutrients, organic matter, calcium and seeds, moving them into the White Nile stream.
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The results of our small survey lead us to support both Brown’s (2011) and Masungu’s (2012) observations that the current educational system in South Sudan continues to be in crisis mode, and perhaps even more so now that the country is in a civil war. Irrespective of age and role in education, the participants cited continued political strife, mistrust in the government and a chaotic economic system as contributing to the failure of education. Absence of a reliable transportation system also directly impacts the educational system in South Sudan; youth are dependent on transportation to get to school. Other problems voiced by the participants include the absence of school buildings, the lack of basic resources such as books, teaching supplies, and computers. Overall, the needs are considerable for this new nation and are the result of a lack of economic resources in families; corruption and graft among school employees and administrators; the marginalization of female students and teachers; and a denial of basic human rights including the right to a continuous education.
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This study aims to know on the variance volatility to exchange rate in Sudan at the period (2007 – 2018) and estimate the variance of exchange rate in Sudan also, and how to forecasting by exchange rate in Sudan by using ARCH and GARCH model, and also we found that the model is not suffering from the ARCH effect.The approach using in analysis is ARCH and GARCH models (Volatility models or time-varying dynamic time series).
Data were collected using questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS v.16 with 68 variables and 87 observations, observations are freshmen students who use the online admission to universities for the academic year 2014/2015 in Sudan, it’s worth to mention that the online admission system is used for the first time in Sudan.
While there are many published data on glycemic con- trol and its associated factors in the different African countries [14–20], there are few published data on gly- cemic control in Sudan and non-exist in eastern part of Sudan [21, 22]. Furthermore, recent reports have shown that diabetes and its associated complications are major health problem in Sudan [5, 6]. It is of paramount to investigate the glycemic control in Eastern Sudan so as to generate data that is necessary for both the treating physicians as well as for health care planners. The current study was conducted to assess the prevalence and associ- ated factors for poor glycemic control diabetes in Gada- rif, eastern Sudan.
The 3D structure was successfully fabricated by using LCD projector as source light energy. The photo absorber was effectively used to control Uv penetration for fabrication 3D microstructures in micro Stereolithography. However, different concentrations of the Sudan I and exposure time was shown to be significantly affect for successful fabrication. The 0.002g Sudan I shown the fastest solodification time and the lowest surface roughness value 0.50 µm used 15s interval exposed time. A Different mechanical properties can be achieved by varying the Sudan I composition and exposed time regardless the layer thickness.These results provide a clear basis parameter optimerization for polymerization of these systems by controlling not only the photo absorber but exposed time as well. The results obtained from this experiment is still need to be expanded by some other study to achieve the optimum information with regards to the contribution of Uv light in different methods for fabricating 3d structure with SLA resin, future studies will explore with inkjet printing technology as possibility for fabricating 3d structure.
17. "Catalog of the Seismicity of Sudan fo؛' the Period 1632 - 1994", Published by the Seisniological Research Unit, National Center for Research; Sudan, 1996. 18. Joseph, M. Bracci, Andrei, M. Reinhorn, and John, B. Mander, "Seismic Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Frame Structures Designed for Gravity Loads; Performance of Structural Building", AC1 Structural Journal, Vol. 92, No. 5, Sep. - Oct. 1995, pp. 597 - 609.
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