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Validation of Satellite Rainfall Products for Western Uganda.

Validation of Satellite Rainfall Products for Western Uganda.

Central equatorial Africa is deficient in long-term, ground-based measurements of rainfall; therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of three high-resolution, satellite-based rainfall products in western Uganda for the 2001–10 period. The three products are African Rainfall Climatology, version 2 (ARC2); African Rainfall Estimation Algorithm, version 2 (RFE2); and 3B42 from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, version 7 (i.e., 3B42v7). Daily rainfall totals from six gauges were used to assess the accuracy of satellite-based rainfall estimates of rainfall days, daily rainfall totals, 10-day rainfall totals, monthly rainfall totals, and seasonal rainfall totals. The northern stations had a mean annual rainfall total of 1390 mm, while the southern stations had a mean annual rainfall total of 900 mm. 3B42v7 was the only product that did not underestimate boreal-summer rainfall at the northern stations, which had ; 3 times as much rainfall during boreal summer than did the southern stations. The three products tended to overestimate rainfall days at all stations and were borderline satisfactory at identifying rainfall days at the northern stations; the products did not perform satisfactorily at the southern stations. At the northern stations, 3B42v7 performed satisfactorily at estimating monthly and seasonal rainfall totals, ARC2 was only satisfactory at estimating seasonal rainfall totals, and RFE2 did not perform satisfactorily at any time step. The satellite products performed worst at the two stations located in rain shadows, and 3B42v7 had sub- stantial overestimates at those stations.

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Private sector drug shops frequently dispense parenteral anti malarials in a rural region of Western Uganda

Private sector drug shops frequently dispense parenteral anti malarials in a rural region of Western Uganda

This study demonstrates that private sector drug shops are not only significant distributors of anti-malarials in a rural area of western Uganda, but also a major source of parenteral anti-malarials. Although Uganda’s National Drug Authority does not authorize drug shops to dis- pense parenteral medications, a 2015 national survey found that 20.0% of drug shops sold parenteral quinine and 10.9% sold parenteral artemether. Ultimately, 8.7% of patients received non-artemisinin therapies (i.e., par- enteral/tablet/syrup quinine, SP tablets, or chloroquine tablets) and 3.9% of patients received an artemisinin monotherapy (i.e., parenteral artemether) during the national survey’s data collection period [14]. The pre- sent study found that both the percentage of drug shops selling parenteral anti-malarials and the percentage of patients receiving parenteral anti-malarials were greater than previously reported. Even shops located near Level III facilities had high rates of parenteral anti-malarial sales, indicating a strong preference for seeking care in the private sector.

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Schistosomiasis transmission at high altitude crater lakes in Western Uganda

Schistosomiasis transmission at high altitude crater lakes in Western Uganda

Conclusion and recommendations: The altitudinal threshold for S. mansoni transmission in Uganda has changed and use of crater water at an altitude higher than 1,400 m above sea level poses a risk of acquiring S. mansoni infection in western Uganda. However, further research is required to establish whether the observed altitudinal threshold change is as a result of climate change or other factors. It is also necessary to establish the impact this could have on the epidemiology of schistosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases in Uganda. In addition, sensitisation and mass treatment of the affected community is urgently required.

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Malaria is an uncommon cause of adult sepsis in south western Uganda

Malaria is an uncommon cause of adult sepsis in south western Uganda

Despite these limitations, data from this study lend strong support to the notion that malaria is an uncom- mon cause of sepsis in adult inpatients in south-western Uganda. Based on the findings of this study, the follow- ing recommendations are made to practitioners provid- ing care to patients with sepsis in similar settings. First, thorough diagnostic evaluations should be pursued where possible to evaluate for non-malarial causes of sepsis. Sec- ond, as recommended by the World Health Organization, anti-malarial therapy should be reserved for patients with a positive RDT or blood slide result to minimize over-prescribing and development of resistance. A bac- terial cause of sepsis was identified in ~20% of these patients and it is suggested that empirical treatment of sepsis in this region should include coverage of staphylo- cocci, streptococci, and Salmonella species. Unfortunately,

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Building democracy from below : lessons from Western Uganda

Building democracy from below : lessons from Western Uganda

The analysis presented here revisits the results of 12 months of field research into the politics of civil society efforts to promote democracy and development in the Rwenzori sub-region of Western Uganda, conducted by the first author between 2009 and 2011, and is further informed by interviews conducted by the second author in June and September 2014 in Kampala; as well as informal conversations between the first author and key informants in Uganda in 2016. This research found that two particular CSOs in the region had achieved a degree of success in cultivating supportive conditions for democratisation in the region, including (see also Törnquist, Webster, & Stokke, 2009) through supporting the realisation of citizenship rights, building political capabilities amongst disadvantaged groups, and encouraging elites to be more open to popular involvement in decision-making processes (King, 2015). As such, these two case study organisations, each of which sought to advance the political, social and economic inclusion of smallholder farmers within development processes, offer ‘theoretical exemplars’ (Yin, 2003) that can be used to test and refine Tilly’s (2007) propositions regarding the causal mechanisms through which democratisation from below may emerge. That each organisation represents different associational forms, the first being a professionalised research and development NGO (RD) staffed by educated elites and the other a community-led farmer cooperative, rules out the possibility of undertaking a structured comparison between cases; rather, we focus on what George and Bennett (2005, p. 108) identify as a major contribution of case-study research to theory development, namely the use of within-case methods such as process tracing, in this instance to use both cases to examine whether the causal mechanisms that Tilly posits as important are evident here.

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Population structure of the Cycad along River Mpanga, Western Uganda

Population structure of the Cycad along River Mpanga, Western Uganda

Cycads are listed in the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red list of threatened plants. Cycad species Encephalartos whitelockii (P.J.H. Hurter) exist in a forest gorge along River Mpanga in western Uganda where human population is rapidly rising and land use practices are dynamically changing. This study examined the population structure of E.whitelockii specifically focusing on assessing the population structure and regeneration capacity of E.whitelockii and the relative abundance and diversity of indigenous tree species associated with E.whitelockii. Stratified random sampling was used to collect ecological data in 33 transects and 165 sample plots covering a total area of 16.5 ha. The results show that the population of E.whitlockii consisted of more juveniles than adults. The E.whitelockii was most abundant on the lower hill slopes and grew closely to Combrettum molle and Acacia hockii. In order to conserve the species it is recommended that the entire habitat of E.whitelockii should be gazetted into a protected area and on-farm conservation, propagation and ecotourism should be encouraged among the frontline communities. Further research should be conducted on the phenology and reproductive biology of E.whitelockii. The local communities should develop bye laws on land use practices aimed at protecting Cycads from seed poachers.

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Molecular identification of Bulinus spp  intermediate host snails of Schistosoma spp  in crater lakes of western Uganda with implications for the transmission of the Schistosoma haematobium group parasites

Molecular identification of Bulinus spp intermediate host snails of Schistosoma spp in crater lakes of western Uganda with implications for the transmission of the Schistosoma haematobium group parasites

A largely neglected aspect here relates to schistoso- miasis as a disease in livestock. Bulinus tropicus and B. forskalii found in the crater lakes are well-known interme- diate hosts for bovine schistosome species such as S. bovis [63–67]. This parasite is responsible for a large proportion of livestock trematode infections [68], and the parasite’s distribution overlaps largely with S. haematobium. More- over, these two Schistosoma species have been shown to hybridize repeatedly, which triggered considerable parasi- tological and public health concern [69, 70]. Thus, future surveys are suggested to include molecular screening of schistosome infections [71]. Schistosoma bovis infec- tions of cattle have been confirmed from western Uganda [31]. Bulinus tropicus and B. forskalii are also intermedi- ate hosts for Schistosoma margrebowiei and Calicophoron microbothrium [72, 73], with B. forskalii transmitting a wide range of parasites in Ethiopia [74]. Several trematode infections have been reported in B. forskalii [75]. Loker et al. [76] detected cercariae of seven species from natu- rally infected snails in north-west Tanzania. Our study thus points to a significant concern since livelihoods of people in the crater lake region of western Uganda pre- dominantly depend on cows, sheep and goats, which are all susceptible to schistosomiasis and other trematodiases hosted by B. tropicus and B. forskalii [77]. The crater lakes are in close proximity to nature reserves and national parks that are home to one of the most diverse primate populations in Africa. It is thus noteworthy that zoonotic schistosomiasis is a significant concern at the human- wildlife interface that is currently largely underestimated [78], which makes the crater lake region further interest- ing for parasitological studies in addition to the relevance for increased intestinal schistosomiasis [79].

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Institutional Determinants to Climate Variability Adaptation by Smallholder Irish Potato Farmers in Rubanda District, South Western Uganda

Institutional Determinants to Climate Variability Adaptation by Smallholder Irish Potato Farmers in Rubanda District, South Western Uganda

Climate variability and change pose greater challenge not only to human life but to the environment at large. This study sought to evaluate the significance of institutional factors in climate variability adaptation of smallholder Irish potato farmers in Rubanda District, South Western Uganda with the objective of assessing the adaptation measures adopted by smallholder Irish potato farmers, determining the institutional factors that influence adoption of cli- mate variability adaptation measures; and evaluating the institutional chal- lenges that affect the adapting Irish potato farmers. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to collect data from 197 systematically sampled smallholder farmers from two purposively selected sub counties (Muko and Bubaare) in Rubanda District, using structured questionnaires; whilst key informant in- terviews were used to elicit data from purposively selected personnel from the local government as well as private and civil society organizations. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the relative influence of selected va- riables on adaptation measures against climate variability. Results indicate that smallholder Irish potato farmers are adapting to climate variability through agronomic measures such as terracing, mulching, contour plough- ing, changing planting dates, early planting, crop-rotation, and technology related measures such as rain water harvesting technologies, adaptive varie- ties and fertilizers among others. Results from multiple linear regression analysis show that several institutional factors are influencing adoption of climate variability adaptive measures with the most significant ones being access to agricultural extension services, cultivated area and size of land owned. Despite the interventions undertaken, adaptation to climate variabili- ty is constrained by the limited access to financial/credit resources and in- How to cite this paper: Mugagga, F., Ele-

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Prevalence and clinical outcomes of Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal parasitic infections among children in Kiryandongo refugee camp, mid Western Uganda: a cross sectional study

Prevalence and clinical outcomes of Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal parasitic infections among children in Kiryandongo refugee camp, mid Western Uganda: a cross sectional study

More than half of the study population tested positive for one parasite (63.03%). The results of this study are similar to the previous report in Tach Gayint, Ethiopia [10] and in the different settlements of Gabon, Central Africa [11]. Similar studies conducted in Cameroon re- ported higher prevalence of malaria but lower preva- lence of anaemia; 64 and 31% respectively [12]. However, in their report the prevalence of anaemia was attributed to malaria [12]. Higher prevalence of anaemia (56.1%) was observed in this study among children in- fected with Plasmodium falciparum followed by Taenia spp. at 2.94%. However, studies conducted in North Western Uganda reported a lower prevalence of anaemia (34.4%) of children aged 1-14 years [13]. This was attrib- uted to study setting and intervention strategies by Table 3 Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal parasitic infection, stratified by age and sex

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Analysis for Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Honey from Kabale District, South Western Uganda

Analysis for Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Honey from Kabale District, South Western Uganda

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) cha- racterized by high toxicity, persistence, high chemical stability, poor water solu- bility, low vapour pressures [1] accumulation [2]. OCPs were used from 1940s in large quantities in agriculture and pest control, but were banned in many coun- tries in 1970s because of their persistence in the environment [3]. Despite re- strictions and bans on their use in 1970s, some of these chemicals are still being used in Uganda for crop production and vector control [4] because their resi- dues have been found in various environmental matrices within the country. For instance, OCPs were detected in fish and water samples from Lake Victoria, Uganda [5]. DDT and its metabolites were detected in fish from Lake Edward, Uganda [5], OCPs in soils from south-western Uganda [6], OCPs in fresh and pasteurized cow’s milk from Kampala markets [7], OCPs in sediments from the Uganda side of Lake Victoria [8], OCPs in skin, flesh and whole carrots ( Daucus carota ) from markets around Lake Victoria basin, Uganda [4]. Representatives of these pollutants are: DDT and its major metabolites (Figure 1), isomers of DDT, DDD and DDE (Figure 2) etc.

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Cholera outbreak caused by drinking lake water contaminated with human faeces in Kaiso Village, Hoima District, Western Uganda, October 2015

Cholera outbreak caused by drinking lake water contaminated with human faeces in Kaiso Village, Hoima District, Western Uganda, October 2015

On 12 October 2015, the Health Officer of Hoima District, Western Uganda reported an outbreak of cholera in Kaiso Village on the shoreline of Lake Albert, following isolation of V. cholerae from stool samples of three suspected cases by the Central Pub- lic Health Laboratory (CPHL). Two people died and many others were ill with similar symptoms. The dis- trict and the Ministry of Health responded by setting up a cholera treatment centre (CTC) in the village and conducting health education in the community. However, the response did not stop the outbreak, and there was a need for a detailed epidemiological inves- tigation to recommend specific interventions. The Ministry of Health requested the fellows of the Uganda Public Health Fellowship Program – Field Epidemiology Track to conduct an epidemiological in- vestigation. The purpose of the investigation was to identify the source and mode of transmission of the cholera outbreak, and recommend evidence-based in- terventions to stop the outbreak and prevent future outbreaks. This paper describes this investigation.

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Socio Demographic and Maternal Determinants of Birth Preparedness among Pregnant Women Seeking Skilled Birth Services at a Rural General Hospital, Mid Western Uganda

Socio Demographic and Maternal Determinants of Birth Preparedness among Pregnant Women Seeking Skilled Birth Services at a Rural General Hospital, Mid Western Uganda

DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2019.91007 75 Open Journal of Nursing spouses earned the same amount of money or more were also about 2.4 times more likely to prepare for child birth than pregnant women whose spouses earned less. Further analyzes indicated that the level of BP increased with the in- crease in financial income of pregnant women and their spouses. This was pos- sibly because most of the elements of BP we considered, required one to have some money to meet their demand and most likely those who had some money were able to do so. Findings from our study concurred with the findings from the study in south western Uganda where husbands who had reasonably good and regular income were more likely to support their spouses to have the items required for childbirth [13]. The level of education of the spouse also influenced child birth preparedness. A pregnant woman whose spouse had completed sec- ondary level of education or beyond was 1.8 times more likely to prepare for child birth than one whose spouse had not. This finding was not surprising. In one of the research studies, it was found that educated spouses are more likely to understand the importance of preparing for child birth than those who are not educated [14]. Drawing and regularly discussing birth plan as a couple was another significant socio-demographic determinant of birth preparedness. Our study found that a pregnant woman who drew and regularly discussed birth plan with her spouse was about 2.0 times more likely to prepare for child birth than the other who did not involve her spouse in child birth planning. This is proba- bly because the practice brings the male partner on board and encourages him to support his partner. In addition, since it is a cultural practice in most of the communities in Africa that a man is a chief executive of the family and for that matter, he controls family income and expenditure, involving him in child birth planning brings on board the money which is much needed to procure all ele- ments of BP.

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An up-date on the prevalence of sickle cell trait in Eastern and Western Uganda

An up-date on the prevalence of sickle cell trait in Eastern and Western Uganda

Contrary to earlier report by Lehmann and Rapper [7], our results show that, the prevalence of the AS carrier state was highest in Eastern Uganda, followed by Bundibugyo (see Figure 1-map of Uganda, and Figure 2 for distribution of results). The fact that the first survey on sickle cell disease (SCD) in Uganda was done over 60 years ago, and no similar surveys have been conducted since then; it is not surprising that SCD has changed its dynamics. This is because the inherited nature of the SCD trait predicts likely changes in the prevalence and distribution of the same depending on the prevailing bio- logical (malaria interventions) and social factors (mar- riage patterns). Indeed, contrary to an earlier report of 45% prevalence of the AS trait in Bundibugyo, we found the current AS prevalence to be 13.4%; changes that we have appropriated to the possible earlier adoption of intermarriage-avoidance in Bundibugyo resulting from a similarly earlier knowledge of AS prevalence [7]. Specifi- cally, although the difference in the prevalence of AS between Eastern Uganda and Bundibugyo in the west was statistically insignificant, the prevalence of AS in Bundibygyo (13.4%) was found to be much lower than estimated by Lehmann and Raper (45%), see Tables 1 &2 for details. Several hypotheses may be used to explain this finding. The same should, however, be cautiously employed here since huge heterogeneity within the spa- tial distribution of genetic factors have been found in many studies (even over relatively very small areas) and the small number of subjects sampled in our study makes Table 1: Summary of the observed prevalence of AS and SS and expected prevalence of SS in eastern and western Uganda, 2007.

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Longitudinal evaluation of aflatoxin exposure in two cohorts in south-western Uganda

Longitudinal evaluation of aflatoxin exposure in two cohorts in south-western Uganda

The Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS), initiated in 1987 in Rakai District, south-western Uganda, is a collaborative study conducted by the Ministry of Health through the UVRI, Makerere University and Johns Hopkins University. The current cohort, which consists of some of the adult residents in 50 villages, was estab- lished in 1994–95 (Wawer et al. 1991; Sewankambo et al. 1994; Gray et al. 1998). All participants are followed annually in their homes, at which time they provide per- sonal information (demographics, education, current and past sexual behaviours, and sexually transmitted infection history) through surveys, and blood samples were col- lected for detection of HIV, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and other infections. This is an open cohort of adults aged 15–49 years, which enrols new immigrants and age-eligible residents at each survey visit annually. The numbers of participants under surveillance are main- tained between the ranges of 12 000 – 16 000 annually. The main objectives of these two cohort studies are similar: to study the dynamics of HIV infection; to identify major risk factors; and to measure the impacts of HIV infection on mortality and fertility. However, there are two important differences between the GPC and the RCCS. Firstly, the GPC is concentrated in one sub-county of Masaka District, working in contiguous villages, while the RCCS study communities were selected to represent different parts of the district, so are scattered across the area. Secondly, the GPC includes all age groups, from infants to the very old, and the RCCS focuses on collecting data in age groups between 15 and 49 years.

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Diagnosis and treatment of malaria in peripheral health facilities in Uganda: findings from an area of low transmission in south western Uganda

Diagnosis and treatment of malaria in peripheral health facilities in Uganda: findings from an area of low transmission in south western Uganda

Reliance on presumptive clinical diagnosis, in the absence of laboratory diagnosis, results in diagnostic inaccuracy, and over-diagnosis of malaria is common [2,7]. Higher rates of over-diagnosis are seen in areas of lower malaria transmission [7,8]. Uganda has uniform treatment guide- lines which stipulate that any patient with fever without evidence of other diseases should treated for malaria even with a negative blood smear for malaria parasites and do not distinguish between the diagnosis of malaria in adults and children or in areas of low or high transmission. Improved diagnostic accuracy is essential to avoid wastage of drugs, and becomes of increasing importance with the higher drug costs associated with the introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACTs) [9]. Rapid malaria diagnostic tests offer a solution in situations where microscopy is limited and are increasingly being used in many malaria endemic areas [10-12] although there are wide variability in sensitivity both within and between products. The predictive value of diagnostic tests depends on the prevalence of infection, and the utility of rapid tests in diagnosing malaria will differ according to endemicity. A study was conducted to assess the diagnos- tic performance of signs and symptoms used by health workers to diagnose malaria and the performance of a rapid diagnostic test in comparison with microscopy in an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda. Materials and methods

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Interest And Achievements In
Natural Science
Subjects Students In Secondary School In Western Uganda

Interest And Achievements In Natural Science Subjects Students In Secondary School In Western Uganda

The second objective of the study sought to examine the influence of gender on interest in natural science subjects and achievement among secondary school students in western Uganda. Results revealed that there is no statistically significant relationship between male and female in interest in natural science subjects and achievement. The gender-related phenomenon in sciences and the under-representation of females has been widely discussed in the literature (Adamuti-Trache, 2008; Brotman, 2008). However, a review of this literature reveals that there are conflicting findings of gender differences in students' interest in science subjects. These results are favourably consistent with those obtained in other studies (Karaarslan & Sungur, 2011; Mustafa, 2012). These studies show that no gender differences in students’ interest in science learning. Also in line with current results, Brickhouse et al. (2000) found that girls‟ attraction to sciences at age fourteen was related to their confidence in their ability to perform in science.

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Exploring the psychosocial barriers to children’s HIV services in western Uganda: a case study of social representations

Exploring the psychosocial barriers to children’s HIV services in western Uganda: a case study of social representations

For me, as a white, female, foreign research student with a background in clinical health services, I found myself having to negotiate multiple worlds and positions throughout the research study, depending on the social context and people involved. Although at times I was an "outsider," as I could not speak the local language and was not from Uganda, I also found myself to be more of an "insider" for many aspects of the research (Merriam, et al., 2001; Srivastava, 2006). Being a health care provider gave me insight into the world of the health clinic, and the challenges faced by the staff members there in terms of bureaucracy and clients. Having had numerous family members ill with chronic diseases over the years connected me with the challenges faced by families in trying to access health care, including the frustrations experienced when a system doesn't meet your needs. Having worked as a research assistant gave me pause to reflect on how things were going for my research assistants, and I tried to balance out my role as their employer with my role of a student who also has a supervisor and funders, to whom I report and to which I am responsible for the work done. And being a student helped me to try to see the world through the eyes of the children participating, as many of them were facing uncertainties related to future study, work, and income, to which I could also relate and appreciate. And despite all of these “insider” moments, I acknowledge it was possible that I may have misinterpreted some of the data and research experiences I had in the community. At times my positionality had positive impacts on the research, in terms of connecting with people and having background knowledge on the subject matter, and at other times the impact was more negative, in that I had to consciously work to limit my own biases, and to try to ensure the voices of the participants were captured and presented as accurately as possible.

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Prevalence, intensity and factors associated with soil transmitted helminths infections among preschool age children in Hoima district, rural western Uganda

Prevalence, intensity and factors associated with soil transmitted helminths infections among preschool age children in Hoima district, rural western Uganda

Studies conducted in Lake Victoria Region of Uganda and Western Côte d ’ Ivoire revealed that lack of funding for logistics and community mobilization in hard to reach areas hampers efforts to increase uptake of deworming treatment [7, 48, 56]. The results from our study showed that PSAC living in lowland residential areas were associated with higher likelihood of being infected with STH than those in upland areas. This sug- gests that apart from unhygienic conditions they face, many children in lowland and hard to reach areas may increasingly be exposed to infections mainly because some of them miss out deworming treatment scheduled for April and October of every year. In the rural context, caretakers may be busy preparing their gardens for culti- vation as well as harvesting crops during the months of April and October respectively. This may contribute to forgetting deworming program schedule unless they are regularly reminded using Information, Education and Communication (IEC) materials. Another reason for missing out deworming treatment could be attributed to health workers ’ failure to reach children with the deworming services because of logistical challenges.

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Prospects of Cage Fish Farming in South Western Uganda

Prospects of Cage Fish Farming in South Western Uganda

Abstract: The study was conducted to identify the constraints and potential opportunities of cage fish farming in South Western Highland Agro-Ecological Zone (SWHAEZ). 82 questionnaires were administered to six respondent groups (current cage fish farmers, potential adopters of cage aquaculture, farmers who have abandoned cage aquaculture, regional and district fisheries officers, and financial institutions) to obtain insight into the challenges in cage fish farming as well as opportunities that can be exploited to promote cage fish farming. People in relevant government institutions were also interviewed. Primary results show that lack of funds and lack of government extension services are key challenges in cage fish farming. Lack of funds incapacitates farmers’ failure to get aquaculture inputs like feed. It also accounted for the inability of potential adopters and farmers who have abandoned cage aquaculture to start or continue cage aquaculture respectively. Major opportunities identified include; availability of the market for the fish, willingness of the financial institutions to offer loans at a cheaper interest rate, availability of the extension services at the sub-county level. Our preliminary recommendations is that the government can also provide subsidies to most expensive inputs like feeds, seine-net, water testing kits and construction costs for aquaculture. There is need to empower and build capacity for the extension workers through improved good management practices like feed and feeding and record keeping.

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Financial literacy and development experimental insights from rural micro  and small entrepreneurs (mses) in Western Uganda

Financial literacy and development experimental insights from rural micro and small entrepreneurs (mses) in Western Uganda

has grown from 5 to 15. The leading financial institution using agents is Equity Bank with 12.500 licensed agents in 2014. 85% of its customers never visit the bank branches but transact only through agents. In Kenya, agency banking and mobile money accounts for almost half of financial inclusion; together with Uganda, this is the largest contribution of this segment across 12 African countries surveyed between 2009 and 2013 (EPRC 2013). Pandey (2015) reviews status and scope of female entrepreneurs across sectors and government schemes in India. She observes that the role of female owned enterprises was culturally ' traced out as an extension of their kitchen activities mainly to 3Ps, viz., Pickles, Powder and Pappad [...] With growing awareness about business and spread of education among women over the period, women have started shifting from 3Ps to engross to 3 modern Es, viz., Engineering, Electronics and Energy' (Pandey 2015:4276). For example, women entrepreneurs are manufacturing solar cookers in Gujarat and small foundries in Maharashtra. Pandey finds that female entrepreneurs in India are constrained mainly by lack of investment credit, but also by lack of business planning and accounting knowledge. The two factors re- enforce each other in a virtuous cycle because lack of business records gives financial institutions a reason (or pretext) to refuse credit. Pandey (2015) recommends among others that business trainings for women be subsidized substantially. Bulte et al (2014) and Berge et al (2011) study impact of training interventions with customers of microfinance institutions. Bulte et al (2014) draw their sample from groups that are members of cooperatives in Rwanda.

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