Kulp (1994)], using the basic formula of 300 g wheat flour (wheat-barley premix or premix plus 15 g or 30 g of non-traditional flour), 30 g fine granulated sugar, 10 ml sunflower oil, 4.5 g baking powder (NaHCO 3 of analytical grade), 1.8 g salt (NaCl, analytical grade), 0.15 g ascorbic acid (analytical grade) and distilled water. Dry substances were homogenised together for 10 min in the farinograph kneader, then oil was added and the blend was mixed for 1 min; finally, a water amount necessary to reach the consistency of 600 Brabender units (BU) was titrated from a burette (registered as water absorption of baking test – WAB). Properly developed dough was obtained after 3 min mixing on the target consistency. Dough resting took 30 min in a fermentation chamber (30°C, relative hu- midity 95%). Dough mass was split into halves and a plate 5 mm thick was formed, using a wooden rolling pin and special desk sprinkled by flour to eliminate dough affixing. Cookies were cut out with a metal circle cutter of 55 mm in diameter and placed onto a baking sheet. Besides, two pairs of raw cookies were evaluated in terms of the specific volume of raw cookies (SVR, volume measurement by the rapeseed displacement method). Without pre-steaming, bak- ing 15 min long was performed in a laboratory oven preheated to 180°C. Baked products were transported onto a filter paper sheet to cool for 10 min at ambient temperature; cookie characteristics were examined immediately after it. Specific volume of baked cook- ies (SVB) was determined for a triple of sample pairs. Cookie height and diameter were determined with a slide ruler (calliper) to evaluate the spread ratio (diameter-to-height, SPR). Both diameter and height were measured three times and an average value was calculated. Without any delay, three trained persons quantified the sensory profile of the just prepared product (firstly each alone and then they made a final agreement), distinguishing six attributes as follows: – Colour: pale – standard – dark;
11 Read more
Teff (Eragrostis tef) is classified into the cereal group of Poaceae (Gramineae) family. As was reported in , the main producer of teff is Ethiopia with annual produc- tion of 1 million tons (20% of local cereals yield). Flat bread injera (ingera) dominates the culinary treatments, and is manufactured from thin fermented dough with a portion of wheat flour. Because of its tiny seeds, the wholemeal flour is characterized by high rate of coating layers and sprout, resulting into higher content of insolu- ble polysaccharides. Teff proteins have non-gluten nature and owing to prevailing portion of prolamins belong to easily digestible ones. From a nutritional benefit view- point, high minerals content is cited (mainly iron, cal- cium, phosphorus and copper) and B 1 vitamin .
Wheat flour replacement by teff one also affected bread volumes, but both tested types caused ap- proximately the same diminishing rate. Compared to the control M, the volume of bread containing 30% teff fell up to a half. Correspondingly to that, the bread shape was flatter in dependence on the added amount (Table 6). In the case of hemp fortification, chosen H1 and H3 samples decreased bread volumes comparably to teff flour. According to bakery product sizes, the above-mentioned hemp flour types could not be distinguished; at 20% substitution, specific bread volume decreased about one-tenth compared to the less fortified one. The shape of wheat-hemp bread samples was not influenced either by hemp type or by added level (Table 6). Consumer bread quality improvement was determined for both chia types tested – the bread volume increased approximately about 25%, and baking test results were similar for both fortification rates. The shape of wheat/chia bread was at least comparable to the control one (Table 6).
The main role in speciﬁ c bread volumes decrease could be attributed to barley ﬂ our; Rieder et al. (2012) found a similar trend for composite bread containing 40% of barley ﬂ our with amylose and normal starch. Bread volumes lessening reached 35% in relation to wheat control (350 ml and 351 ml vs. 544 ml, respectively). Using these barley ﬂ ours in a sourdough form, bread volumes were statistically comparable to ones containing non-treated ﬂ our (346 mL and 320 mL, respectively). In contrast to that, Wang et al. (2013) evaluated comparable loaf sizes of wheat composite bread, containing always 15% of three hemp/rice mixtures 0/100, 20/80 and 40/60. Although volumes of these dough during fermentation was veriﬁ ably lower compared to control, weaker diﬀ erences in their extensigraph energy supported development of similar bread volumes during baking. Increasing dosages of hemp seed oil press-cake (vs. diminishing amount of decaﬀ einated green tea leaves) aﬀ ected shape of gluten-free crackers in terms of signiﬁ cant rise in samples weight and height and reversely in their diameter (Radočaj et al., 2014) – a lowering of crackers volume could be presumed.
10 Read more
Composite flour utilization in development of vari- ous food products is an attractive approach to meet the global challenge of protein-calorie malnutrition. To overcome the problem of protein calorie malnu- trition and to increase intake of dietary protein in to the diet, the combination of cereal-based products with legumes is of considerable importance. Pulses or legumes are an important source of dietary veg- etable protein containing twice the protein content compared to cereal grains. Cereals are deficient in lysine but contain sufficient amount of sulphur con- taining amino acids. In contrast, legumes contain suf- ficient lysine but lacking sulphur containing amino acids. Therefore, to overcome the problem of protein Abstract | The present study aimed to develop composite flour by substituting wheat flour with pea flour at different levels and to check its suitability in biscuits through its rheological and qualitative study. Results indicated rheological parameters including water absorption, dough development time, dough stability, glu- ten content and falling no. values differed significantly (p < 0.01) among all the treatments of composite flour. Wet and dry gluten content decreased from 22.16 ± 1.58 % (T 0 ) to 16.43 ± 1.32 % (T 3 ) and 7.46 ± 0.47 % (T 0 ) to 5.03 ± 0.38 % (T 3 ) respectively. With increasing percent of pea flour in biscuits, moisture, carbohydrates and caloric value decreased from (1.84% - 1.33%), (62.87% - 54.57%), (525.64 Kcal /100 g to 502.84 Kcal /100 g) respectively while ash, fat, fiber, protein, iron, zinc, magnesium and manganese contents increased significantly (p < 0.01). There was a non-significant (p > 0.05) effect on the color, flavor, taste and texture of biscuits. So, it is concluded that replacement of wheat flour with pea flour up to a level of 20% improved the nutritional potential of biscuits without affecting the consumer acceptability score.
Considering average sensory score based on noodle texture, Table 5 shows that Sample A (control) was most preferred compared with other noodle samples produced from composite flour. This could be as a result of gluten content of flour. In terms of noodle texture, it was observed that average sensory score reduced with increased proportion of OFSP and AYB in the composite flour except that of Sample E. Despite the effect of low gluten content of composite flour used to prepare Sample E, it is interesting to note that average sensory score for texture of Sample E was higher than that of other noodle samples prepared using composite flour. The texture of food is the prevailing structural characteristics considered shortly before the product is consumed. This property will determine if such food is chewable or easily swallowed [57,58]. In a related study  reported similar results for noodles produced from cassava/wheat flour as well as that of wheat, ‘acha’ and soybean.
15 Read more
Bread is one of the most widely consumed food products in the world. It has relatively low cost and gives some of the nutrients missing in majority of carbohydrate foods (Foster, 2008). Bread is mainly produced from wheat flour since it was introduced as food in the nation. Yeast- raised bread is highly favoured worldwide because of its desirable sensory attributes. Quality attributes such as large loaf volume and fine, even crumb texture require formation of a well developed, elastic dough structure. This is made possible by the quantity and quality of the wheat flour proteins, gliadins and glutenins, collectively known as gluten (Shukla, 2001). The concept of blending
11 Read more
caused by the fact that fine particle size flours retain more water than coarse particle size flours; hence, there is less water available, which would hinder swelling of starch granules. Similar behaviour was reported by Lauková et al. (2017) when studying the effects of cellulose fiber length on the rheological properties of wheat dough, and by Blanco Cana- lis et al. (2019) when analyzing the incorporation of dietary fiber in cookie dough. The swelling of starch is greatly dependent on the water available in the medium, which controls the gelatinization behavior (León et al. 1997). In the system used in this study, a limited amount of water was available for the starch gelatinization, thus different effects were exerted by the particle size. This modification is the one that can occur in the wheat dough during bread making. In contrast to our results, Wang et al. (2017) studied the effects of particle size on the qual- ity attributes of reconstituted whole grain wheat flour, and showed lower C3 values. Liu et al. (2016) studied reconstituted whole grain wheat flour, and reported smaller values of C3 with respect to RF, but without a significant difference in the variation in particle size. The results herein showed that the WG can exhibit adverse behavior related to particle size, reaffirming the hypothesis by Drakos et al. (2017), that stated that the complexity of the flour matrix and the milling parameters, are important for gel formation as they define the interactions between the various constituents and water.
quality,Y3=Foldability, Y4=Overall acceptances. The xi coded independent variables [x1 = avocado fruit pulp (%), x2 = water (%), x3 = wheat flour (%)]; βko it represented value of the fitted response at the center point of design, βki, βkii and βkij were quartic linear and cross-product regression coefficients, separately. The sign and extent of these coefficients related to an autonomous element depicted this course and level of this relationship of different fixings with sensory attributes. The reaction surfaces were created for the connection of any two ward factors while holding the estimation of the third factor as consistent (at the central value). Such three-dimensional surfaces could give precise geometrical portrayal and give valuable data about the conduct of the framework inside the experimental design. The decency of fit was controlled by the absence of
Changes in eating habits of people increased the search for different food formulations to meet the nutritional needs, both for aesthetic reasons or medical restrictions. In this sense, sweet potato provides a valuable product, due to its nutritional and functional properties, being a source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. In this research, we evaluate the potentialities of sweet potato flour (SPF) in the production of biscuits for total and partial substitution of wheat flour (WF) and sugar. We prepared a control treatment (B1) with 100% WF and three other formulations with 100%, 75%, and 50% of WF substituted by SPF. Also, we reduced the percentages of brown sugar by 30%, 22.5%, and 15%, according to a pre-test, aiming to balance the carbohydrate values in all products. The total and partial substitution of WF by SPF was satisfactory, with no changes in lipid and protein contents and the maintenance of total carbohydrates percentages and the energetic value, even with the reduction of sugars. The treatment B2 stands out by the replacement of 100% of usual flour and reduction of 30% of brown sugar. Therefore, the biscuits produced with sweet potato flour proved to be a nutritionally suitable alternative for bakery sector.
this study RSM was applied to investigate it (Figure 5). The springiness values in the vegetable sausage formulations were only significantly influenced (Table 1) by the interaction effect of gluten and wheat flour levels. At 9% gluten: 3% wheat flour, springiness value of 0.94 was recorded. From 9% gluten: 3% wheat flour to 11% gluten: 3% wheat flour, springiness increased from 0.94 to 1.21 respectively. The 1.21 recorded was the maximum springiness obtained. The minimum springiness (0.87) was obtained when gluten and wheat flour levels were increased to 13% gluten: 5% wheat flour. There is a positive correlation between the textural properties of hardness and springiness. Thus as hardness increases, springiness is also expected to increase and the vice versa. Also increasing wheat flour content tends to absorb more water which affects the viscosity and reduces the hardness and subsequent reduction in springiness as observed with increasing gluten and wheat flour content. Sausages can be referred to as food emulsions and therefore exhibit rheological properties such as springiness. Liu et al. (2013) noted that springiness is a function of product elasticity. With this property, sausages can be characterized as ideal elastic solids which are often referred to as Hookean solids. The elastic behaviour of sausages is related to the intermolecular forces which bonded the molecules together (McClements, 1999). When the bonds within the molecules were compressed, they stored energy and when the force was removed, the bonds relinquished this mechanical energy and the sausages returned to their original shape.
Guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is one of the essential cereal vegetation extensively grown in Nigeria, and a totally crucial staple food for the public especially in the northern part of the United States of America(Tashikalma et al., 2010). The Nigerian sorghum manufacturing changed into 11.5 lots in 2010 and forecast was 11.7 tons in 2011 (USDA, 2010). The crop yield has accelerated because of the recognition of farmers who cultivate such crops in abundance. Boiled guinea corn is one of the most effective usedby the people in Ghana and small,corneous grains are typically desired for various forms of food products. The complete grain can be milled into flour or decorticated earlier than grinding to provide both a nice particle product and flour, that is then used in diverse conventional foods (Leder, 2004). It is also a total precious commercial crop for non-alcoholic drink in addition to confectionery industry in Nigeria (Baiyengunhi and Fraser, 2009).
11 Read more
The result of the physical properties of the composite bread is presented in Table 3. The average dough height decreases (3.39 to 1.69 cm) with increase in kidney bean flour addition. This is because of the reduction in the gluten network of wheat flour which in turn impairs the retention of carbon dioxide produced Greene and Bovell-Benjamin . The proofing rates also decrease from 0.02 to 0.01 cm 3 /min while the loaf weight tends to increase with increased kidney bean addition. The loaf weight of the composite bread as compared to the control sample was higher. This could be due to the increased amount of kidney bean flour addition and probably poor leavening ability of the composite flour dough. This could however lead to poor carbon dioxide production and entrapment due to dilution in the gluten content . More so, Eke et al.  reported that bulk bread is desirable to hungry consumers because it is stomach filling and satisfying. The loaf volume of the composite bread samples were observed to increased with increase in kidney bean flour addition. Though, increase in the composite bread samples was less than that of the control sample. This was because more gas was produced in the control sample than the composite bread samples . The result tends to agree with those presented by Makinde and Akinoso . Specific volume, baking loss and oven spring decreased with increased in kidney bean addition which results in reduced gluten content.
10 Read more
The binder and hemp were dry mixed for approximately 10 seconds and the water gradually added in 100ml segments at regular intervals. Each batch was mixed for 10 minutes except for the 90% binder mixes which required a further 5 minutes of mixing to achieve workability. After mixing, the samples were transferred into prismatic moulds filled in three layers and tamped 25 times each. The final layer was levelled off with a steel trowel. They were stored under damp hessian for three days at temperature 20°C±2°C and relative humidity 95%±5% and then demoulded and transferred to a curing room at temperature 20°C±2°C and relative humidity 65%±5%.
their growth (Abdelmouleh, Boufis, Belgacem, & Dufresne, 2007; Tserki, Zafeiropoulos, Simon, & Panayiotou, 2005). These benchmark properties open the wide area for natural fibres to be used in composite sector with consequences for the partial replacement of traditional synthetic fibres. However, these green sources of fibres are not problem free. Their structural compositions (such as cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin and waxy substances) allow moisture absorption from the environment which leads to poor bonding with the matrix materials (Doan, Gao, & Mader, 2006). Certain chemical treatment on natural fibres is needed to enhance the performance as reinforcement in polymer composite materials. The chemical modification directly influences the fibres structures and changes their compositions. As a result, moisture absorption tendency by the fibre is reduced facilitating better bonding with the matrix materials. This provides better mechanical and thermal properties of fibre and composites (Abdelmouleh et al., 2007). For fabrication of composites, different orientation of fibres such as short-randomly oriented, long-unidirectional and woven fabrics were used and their composites mechanical and thermal properties have
370 countries such as Nigeria and most of the sub-Saharan countries, animal products representing high concentration and quality of protein are either too expensive or simply unaffordable. Flour is a fine powder made from cereals, roots and tuber crops and other starch based produce. Composite flour include yam, cassava, cocoyam, sweet potato, instant yam flour (Sanni et al., 2006). Cereals grains are eaten in several ways and in most cases; they are milled into flour and utilized in preparing various items. Maize (Zea mays) is a cereal crop widely cultivated in Nigeria and the tropics
17 Read more
of biscuits is wheat flour which is deficient in several nutrients including vitamins, minerals as well dietary fiber (Ayo and Nkama, 2003). Wheat flour also lacks essential amino acids such as lysine, tryptophan (Awan et al., 1991). Enrichment of biscuits with supplements like protein and vitamins is of current interest because of nutritional awareness of consumers. Hence partial replacements of wheat flour with other ingredients to make functional food are in high demand. Edible mushrooms formerly called the “food of the gods.” Edible mushrooms still treated as a garnish or delicacy can be taken regularly as part of the human diet or as functional food. Mushrooms have been consumed and appreciated for their flavor, economical and ecological values and medical properties for many years (Sanchez, 2010). Although mushroom contains approximately 90% water, but its protein and amino acids content, low fat and 9-group vitamins and a wide spectrum of mineral substances it represents a high-quality source of biological substances for human
Eighty-four samples of baby food were collected from several local sources including retailers, factories and stores in Libya. The ingredients of the samples com- prised of rice flour, wheat flour, mixed grain cereal, wheat, rice, barley, and oat flour, skimmed milk powder or whole milk powder and in various combinations. The samples were examined for mycological profile before storage at 22˚C and 80% relative humidity in humidity chamber (Cryotechnics, 2000 Series, Edinburgh, UK) for 7 days. Standard methods were used for isolation, enu- meration and identification of fungi . Samples were reconstituted in maximum recovery dilutent (MRD, Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) and plated out on malt extract agar (MEA, VWR International, Lutterworth, UK) and potato dextrose agar (PDA, Oxoid CM 139). The plates were then incubated at 25˚C for 5 days.
All the experiments were carried out in triplicate and in two different trials. SPSS software for Windows (SPSS for Windows Release 10.01. SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA) was used to perform statistical analyses. Differences in wheat bran bread, because of addition of Cephalaria syriaca products (WCSF and DCSF), were tested for significance using analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques. Duncan new multiple range test were used when the ANOVA indi- cated significant difference in mean values. A level of signi- ficance of P<0.05 is used throughout the analysis. All data are presented as the mean ± SE.
proportion of barley and chickpea flour along with Dill leaves powder. The calculated value of F is greater than the tabulated value of F at 5% probability level. Therefore, it can be concluded that there was significant difference between treatments regarding the body and texture of herbal bread. Similarly in case of taste and flavour of herbal bread, the average sensory scores of T 2 (7.76) had the highest score followed by T 3 (7.44), T 1 (7.40) and T 0