White Paper on European governance

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European Governance - A White Paper. COM (2001) 428 final, 25 July 2001

European Governance - A White Paper. COM (2001) 428 final, 25 July 2001

The Commission alone cannot improve European governance, nor can this Paper provide a magic cure for everything. Change requires concerted action by all the European Institutions, present and future Member States, regional and local authorities, and civil society. This paper is primarily addressed to them. Their commitment to reforming European governance will be essential in order to regain confidence before the next round of institutional reform. Elected officeholders at various levels, in particular at national level, have a crucial role in this context. The Union’s credibility will eventually be judged by its ability to add value to national policies and address people’s concerns more effectively at European and global level. The White Paper identifies the tools that are needed to establish more coherence in the Union’s policies and help the work of the various Institutions. It emphasises the need for EU action to be balanced and in proportion to the policy objectives pursued. This will be even more crucial in an enlarged Union. Finally, reform of European governance will improve the EU’s ability to influence global developments.

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"Is the European Union still sui generis? Signals from the White Paper on European Governance"

"Is the European Union still sui generis? Signals from the White Paper on European Governance"

Therefore, rather than assessing whether the White Paper proposes that the EU become a state- like object or not, we prefer to take its title seriously, and explore the possibility that by proposing new forms and practices of governance, the White Paper actually is positioning the EU quite close to national states, because they themselves are becoming more like the European Union. This is because, among other things, they are the chief participants in making happen the evolution in citizenship practices to which Paul Magnette refers in the above quote. In other words, we now move to the second claim of this paper, which is that the governance model proposed by the White Paper positions the European Union closer to the current situation of Member States, as well as other national states, because they themselves are changing. Thus, the Paper on European Governance sketches a future for the Union that would significantly change its status from one of sui generis to one quite similar to national governments, but for quite different reasons than are often mentioned.

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Better lawmaking 2003. 11th Report from the Commission. COM (2003) 770 final, 12 December 2003

Better lawmaking 2003. 11th Report from the Commission. COM (2003) 770 final, 12 December 2003

Proper collection and use of expertise are both crucial and delicate. Clearly, it is crucial that policy choices are based and updated on the best available knowledge. But on occasions, the questions to be addressed, the evidence considered and the interpretations may be highly controversial. In order to ensure credibility, it is then particularly important, on one hand, to demonstrate that the expertise collected is of appropriate quality and, on the other hand, to be transparent on how experts are identified and chosen, as well as how results are used. The collection and use of expertise must not only be credible, it must above all be effective. Given that resources are limited, arrangements have to be in proportion to the task in hand. Following the commitment made in the White Paper on European Governance and the Commission’s Science and Society Action Plan, the Commission adopted in December 2002 a Communication defining principles and guidelines that encapsulate good practices regarding expertise 104 . Promoting quality, openness and effectiveness, these practices apply whenever Commission departments collect and use advice from external experts.

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The European Commission’s White Paper Governance: A ‘Tool-Kit’ for closing the legitimacy gap of EU policymaking? ZEI Discussion Papers: 2001, C 94

The European Commission’s White Paper Governance: A ‘Tool-Kit’ for closing the legitimacy gap of EU policymaking? ZEI Discussion Papers: 2001, C 94

bear the costs of implementation, may that be private actors in the case of co-regulation or Member States in the case of the open method; because in the context of these new tools, “actors most concerned” have a say in shap- ing the policy goals and the instruments to be used. To be sure, these new policy tools may also have their disadvantages as these instruments offer less legal certainty. 42 But no argument can explain why the relatively flexi- ble mechanism of open coordination should be limited to policy areas in which legislative action under the Community method is not possible, as the White Paper demands (p. 22). To quote Fritz Scharpf again: “(...) Member States would not need to march in step to the bark of the Commis- sion’s drill sergeant to demonstrate that they are good Europeans. Instead, they could respond to the specific problems they are facing with solutions that are compatible within their existing institutional framework. At the same time, however, national policy choices would be disciplined by the challenge to achieve jointly defined targets and by the institutionalised need to consider their impact on other Member States. In short, in develo p- ing the open method of coordination, the Union may have discovered a constructive approach to dealing with the growing pressure for European solutions under conditions of politically salient diversity.” 43 To be sure, it is difficult to realise these proposals in practice – but it is of course better to concentrate on such problems and their solutions than to hold either ‘Brus- sels’ or the ‘Member States’ to be exclusively responsible for the veritable legitimacy crisis of European governance. Obviously we need both strong European and national institutions to solve the problem of how Europe should be governed in the future.

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Multilevel Governance (MLG) and Subsidiary Principle in White Paper of MLG of the Committee of the Regions (COR)

Multilevel Governance (MLG) and Subsidiary Principle in White Paper of MLG of the Committee of the Regions (COR)

The new provisions of the Lisbon Treaty will strengthen the democratic accountability of the EU and its institutions by creating new tools of communication and political dialogue. A main contribution is the opportunity to bring the European themes and policies within more dynamic framework of internal debates. This will add legitimacy to interests and preferences of each state from a perspective closer to the citizens. The overall impact will definitely improve the decision-making processes and will ensure a greater transparency and openness of EU activities. Specific consultation procedures can allow the civil society, the local and regional authorities (Mesclier F., 2007: 72) and other interested parties to get involved and express their positions and expectations by using the relationships with the members of the national parliaments. As representative, any member of the parliament can gather those opinions and associate them in relation with the Commission proposals.

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EMRC White Paper

EMRC White Paper

We propose to use “best practice” for medical research in Europe, as described in the tool box below. Collaboration is the key-word, with a focus on strong basic research, strong clinical research, and strong translational research, bringing basic knowledge into clinical practice and vice versa. All three elements need to be facilitated by interdisciplinary approaches and through public- private partnerships. Career track schemes that provide attractive opportunities for researchers are essential. Research must be conducted according to the highest ethical standards, and appropriate tools of governance must be in place to prevent scientific misconduct. Europe should invest in national and European research infrastructure, as indicated in the ESFRI Roadmap. We propose that EC and national regulations that impact on biomedical research should be made as simple as possible, so that research is facilitated and not impeded. Partnership is needed in the EU among institutions. Along with improvement for the original EU members, investment should be made in technology, infrastructure and employees in the new EU member states in order to eliminate the differences between the original and new countries and to enable new member states to achieve their enormous intellectual potential. This will create an optimal environment for medical research across the whole Europe.

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Mapping the Operations and Supply Chain Management field: a journal governance perspective

Mapping the Operations and Supply Chain Management field: a journal governance perspective

Unless indicated otherwise, fulltext items are protected by copyright with all rights reserved. The copyright exception in section 29 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 allows the making of a single copy solely for the purpose of non-commercial research or private study within the limits of fair dealing. The publisher or other rights-holder may allow further reproduction and re-use of this version - refer to the White Rose Research Online record for this item. Where records identify the publisher as the copyright holder, users can verify any specific terms of use on the publisher’s website.

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The internet and public–private governance in the European Union

The internet and public–private governance in the European Union

self-regulation is thus, in theory, the most liberally ordered commercial construct in the capitalist system. However, in practice, as Price and Verhulst (  :  ) point out, self-regulation ‘ is almost a misnomer . . . [which] . . . rarely exists without some relationship between industry and the state’. Given the history and complexity of state-industry relations, it follows that self-regulation is by no means practised uniformly across sectors and states. The essential element in the variety of self-regulatory forms is the extent to which the state is detached from or involved in the regulatory process. This has generally been described as ‘ regulated self-regulation’ in the academic literature (see Price and Verhulst  ) or in public policymaking circles as ‘ co-regulation’ (European Commission  a). However, the exact nature of self-regulation is an empirical question in the first instance and leaves scope for a series of possibilities. Price and Verhulst (  ) have defined four possible types of self- regulation. The mandated variety occurs where the state sets out in detail a regulatory framework and industry players are required to define and agree to patterns of behaviour underpinned by norms in line with this framework. Less hands on is a second situation of coerced self-regulation, where the state makes clear its intention to intervene unless industry devises and enforces collectively a self-regulatory system satisfactory to government. By contrast self-regulation can thirdly occur where industry players take the initiative in formulating a self-regulatory package which is then subjected to state scrutiny. Finally, and rarely observed, self- regulation can occur in a purely voluntary way with no direct state stimulus or intervention.

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WP1096

WP1096

governance system described above. The governing body needs the skills and structure such as properly resourced ‘board sub-committees’ to be able to receive, and understand the significance of, the various management and audit reports and to validate the effectiveness of its management, and its auditors and the audit processes.

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European Society for Swallowing Disorders: European Union Geriatric Medicine Society white paper: oropharyngeal dysphagia as a geriatric syndrome

European Society for Swallowing Disorders: European Union Geriatric Medicine Society white paper: oropharyngeal dysphagia as a geriatric syndrome

Abstract: This position document has been developed by the Dysphagia Working Group, a committee of members from the European Society for Swallowing Disorders and the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, and invited experts. It consists of 12 sections that cover all aspects of clinical management of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) related to geriatric medicine and discusses prevalence, quality of life, and legal and ethical issues, as well as health economics and social burden. OD constitutes impaired or uncomfortable transit of food or liquids from the oral cavity to the esophagus, and it is included in the World Health Organization’s classification of diseases. It can cause severe complications such as malnutrition, dehydration, respiratory infections, aspiration pneumonia, and increased readmissions, institutionalization, and mor- bimortality. OD is a prevalent and serious problem among all phenotypes of older patients as oropharyngeal swallow response is impaired in older people and can cause aspiration. Despite its prevalence and severity, OD is still underdiagnosed and untreated in many medical centers. There are several validated clinical and instrumental methods (videofluoroscopy and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing) to diagnose OD, and treatment is mainly based on com- pensatory measures, although new treatments to stimulate the oropharyngeal swallow response are under research. OD matches the definition of a geriatric syndrome as it is highly prevalent among older people, is caused by multiple factors, is associated with several comorbidities and poor prognosis, and needs a multidimensional approach to be treated. OD should be given more importance and attention and thus be included in all standard screening protocols, treated, and regularly monitored to prevent its main complications. More research is needed to develop and standardize new treatments and management protocols for older patients with OD, which is a challenging mission for our societies.

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European Society for Swallowing Disorders  European Union Geriatric Medicine Society White Paper: Oropharyngeal Dysphagia as a Geriatric Syndrome

European Society for Swallowing Disorders European Union Geriatric Medicine Society White Paper: Oropharyngeal Dysphagia as a Geriatric Syndrome

Abstract: This position document has been developed by the Dysphagia Working Group, a committee of members from the European Society for Swallowing Disorders and the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, and invited experts. It consists of 12 sections that cover all aspects of clinical management of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) related to geriatric medicine and discusses prevalence, quality of life, and legal and ethical issues, as well as health economics and social burden. OD constitutes impaired or uncomfortable transit of food or liquids from the oral cavity to the esophagus, and it is included in the World Health Organization’s classification of diseases. It can cause severe complications such as malnutrition, dehydration, respiratory infections, aspiration pneumonia, and increased readmissions, institutionalization, and mor- bimortality. OD is a prevalent and serious problem among all phenotypes of older patients as oropharyngeal swallow response is impaired in older people and can cause aspiration. Despite its prevalence and severity, OD is still underdiagnosed and untreated in many medical centers. There are several validated clinical and instrumental methods (videofluoroscopy and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing) to diagnose OD, and treatment is mainly based on com- pensatory measures, although new treatments to stimulate the oropharyngeal swallow response are under research. OD matches the definition of a geriatric syndrome as it is highly prevalent among older people, is caused by multiple factors, is associated with several comorbidities and poor prognosis, and needs a multidimensional approach to be treated. OD should be given more importance and attention and thus be included in all standard screening protocols, treated, and regularly monitored to prevent its main complications. More research is needed to develop and standardize new treatments and management protocols for older patients with OD, which is a challenging mission for our societies.

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The governance of European security

The governance of European security

The foregoing demonstrates that security governance does have an inclusive basis in Europe even if this is not entirely comprehensive or equal. Inclusion has occurred not through the elaboration of institutions and norms that reflect some new expanded sense of European community created ab initio after the Cold War. Rather, it has been premised on previously excluded states joining (or, in some cases, finding accommodation with) a pre-existing community still anchored in western Europe and north America, the institutions and norms of which have underpinned a system of security governance with claims to pan-European relevance. Insofar as this is a system with purpose, it is a purpose that has been defined by its western origins, the manner in which the system’s two institutional offspring (NATO and the EU) have interacted and, within this context, how the Western powers have aggreg- ated their preferences. The security orientations of NATO and the EU covered in the previous sections have dominated discourse and practice in Europe. In some instances, these have not been discordant with those outside these organisations. The effort at promoting stability in the Balkans, albeit ineffective for long periods and problematic in all manner of respects, cannot be entirely separated from the concerns of established governments in Bosnia, Macedonia or Albania. In other cases, however, this discourse and the actions it gives rise to are in contradiction with the preferences of non-members and this is a tension that has some very practical repercussions. First, in terms of how governance structures manage relations with the ‘excluded’. This has been sometimes through a policing function (as in the case of deviant states such as, formerly, the FRY) and at other times attempted accommodation on terms acceptable to the ‘included’ (as in the case of potential system destabilisers such as Russia or, in the particular case of ESDP, special provisions geared towards Turkey).

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Brexit: Terra Nova to explore together  EPC Discussion Paper, 7 November 2017

Brexit: Terra Nova to explore together EPC Discussion Paper, 7 November 2017

Canada, as we know, has just struck a minimalistic trade deal with the EU, but this would be very inadequate from a British point of view. The UK seeks much higher access to the internal market than Canada. A simple non-tariff EU trade deal on goods with the UK would limit commerce, disrupt industrial supply chains and impair mobility. And a trade agreement with the UK whose terms were very much more favourable than those granted to Canada or Japan or any other third country with which the EU has a free trade agreement would trigger most favoured nation clauses under WTO rules. So something more comprehensive and close, involving substantially all trade, is needed for the UK, Brexit notwithstanding. The UK has ruled out membership of EFTA and the EEA on the grounds that it would involve the free movement of people, would require conformity with the EU's trade policies and would be seen at home as an abject failure to 'take back control' from Brussels. Norway and Iceland could also be expected to object to the British muscling in on a carefully calibrated agreement which works just well for them. And the European Union agrees that, given the circumstances, the UK cannot join the EEA. The EU also refuses to contemplate for Britain the kind of messy and unstable deal that it now has to tolerate with Switzerland. Nonetheless, any association agreement Britain strikes with the EU will contain several elements drawn from the Swiss and Norwegian experiences.

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Tobacco 21 White Paper

Tobacco 21 White Paper

Our own research indicates that views about the enforcement of PUP laws among tobacco control advocates and public health officials may have shifted in recent years. In Section 4 of this white paper, we note that many of the people we interviewed expressed concerns that PUP laws are likely to be enforced with bias, forming part of a larger pattern of unequal treatment or injustice. Their concern is that if youth tobacco access laws are being enforced unequally across the population, they likely contribute to health and economic disparities and could undermine trust between communities and government agencies. The heart of this discussion was not the question of whether or not there should be a consequence for individuals breaking the law. All of our interviewees were in agreement that for T21 to be successful, public health officials must send a clear message to young people that using tobacco products is undesirable. Rather, interviewees emphasized their support for civil consequences over criminal penalties, in particular to avoid interactions between law enforcement, the criminal justice system and low income individuals and people of color.

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Educational Excellence Everywhere white paper

Educational Excellence Everywhere white paper

18. NCTL has conducted some roundtable discussions with university and school ITT providers and has suggested that designations of centres of excellence may be ‘data-driven’ for 2017-18 but that this may change in future years. However, the data currently available will not have been collected for this purpose and NCTL is unable to advise how long designations will be for and whether, for example, there will be any rights of appeal including in respect of the interpretation of any data or criteria used. 19. The White Paper was published in March 2016 but the DfE has not yet published a formal consultation

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Linking Cohesion Policy to European Economic Governance: an Idea Up for Improvement  European Policy Brief No  3, September 2011

Linking Cohesion Policy to European Economic Governance: an Idea Up for Improvement. European Policy Brief No. 3, September 2011

its merits (see §1), it is also subject to several drawbacks. Four problems are worth noting. As a first problem, limiting cohesion policy funding can be seen as an improperly targeted sanction. Structural Funds are allocated on a regional basis, while central governments carry most of the responsibili- ties for respecting economic governance rules. Expanding economic governance conditionality to the Structural Funds could therefore sanction the regions for matters that are outside of their scope of compe- tence 17 . Furthermore, cohesion policy funds

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Science and technology white paper

Science and technology white paper

Taking all of the foregoing into account, this White Paper is something of a hybrid. It is a White Paper with, at times, a tint of green to it. It engages in and sets out a discussion agenda, as well as a definite programme of actions by the Government, following on from the TIERNEY Report and the work of the Task Force established last year to advise the Government on the prioritisation of STIAC recommendations. In Part One of the White Paper the reader will have found a broad philosophical discussion of the rationale for what we are doing. One critical feature of what we are doing is strongly and overtly linking S&T to innovation and also placing it in the context of national development. S&T will be evaluated by its ability to contribute to wider national goals, as a means to achieving them rather than as an end in itself. In Part Two, the reader will have found some discourse and agendae for the future on particular topics such as the role of education, awareness of S&T and national S&T strategy and structures.

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Governance in South American Integration: Insights and Encouragement from the European Union. Jean Monnet/Robert Schuman Paper Series Vol. 7 No. 5 April 2007

Governance in South American Integration: Insights and Encouragement from the European Union. Jean Monnet/Robert Schuman Paper Series Vol. 7 No. 5 April 2007

Economic crises and political instability have afflicted the Latin American countries for centuries. There is no doubt that at the domestic level all of these countries are in need of governance reforms. With these overriding and persistent problems why and how can the process of regional integration be important and, even necessary, for developing sustainable solutions in CAN and MERCOSUR? First, while governance may be failing on the national level, it may be stronger at other levels, including the regional and the local. “The weakening of the state does not necessarily imply an equivalent weakening of governance, which may be stronger at other levels than the national, involve new actors, and be both informal and private” (Söderbaum, 2004: 422). Second, the current economic crises and political instability are not contained within national borders and therefore, require a regional approach to their alleviation. Finally, just as in Europe, regional integration is not considered an end in and of itself but rather a means to resolving deeper and longer lasting problems such as was the case of the European Coal and Steel Community, which made war in Europe not only unthinkable but materially impossible. EU leaders argue that the same can hold true for South American integration, and are funding projects they believe will strengthen the CAN and MERCOSUR. These two sub-regional integration projects have welcomed this cooperative encouragement from the EU and, both with and without the EU’s financial assistance, have made small strides towards increasing participation in regional policy and decision-making processes.

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Could European Governance Ideas Improve Federal-provincial Relations in Canada? EDAP 6/2013

Could European Governance Ideas Improve Federal-provincial Relations in Canada? EDAP 6/2013

Over the past seventeen years Canada has decentralized many social programmes, moving responsibility from the federal government to 13 provinces and territories through bilateral federal-provincial agreements. In contrast, the European Union (EU) has moved in the opposite direction, building pan-European approaches and establishing new processes to facilitate multilateral collaboration among the 28 EU member states. This has been done through a new governance approach called the Open Method of Coordination (OMC). Using a detailed case study − employment policy − this paper explores whether Canada could learn from OMC governance ideas to re-build a pan-Canadian dimension to employment policy and improve the performance of its intergovernmental relations system. Concrete lessons for Canada to improve decentralized governance are suggested: consolidating the different bilateral agreements; using benchmarking instead of controls in fiscal transfers; undertaking research, analysis, and comparisons in order to facilitate mutual learning; revitalizing intergovernmental structures in light of devolution; and engaging social partners, civil society and other stakeholders. Post-devolution Canada is not doing badly in managing employment policy, but could do better. Looking to the EU for ideas on new ways to collaborate provides a chance for setting a forward looking agenda that could ultimately result not only in better labour market outcomes, but also improvements to one small part of Canada’s often fractious federation.

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White paper on tourism and water

White paper on tourism and water

To establish and analyse benchmarks for water consumption it is important to distinguish between different types of accommodation types. The dominant types of businesses in the Earthcheck database fall into two categories; business hotels and vacation hotels. Other studies use different categories such as luxury, fully-serviced hotels, mid-range hotels and budget hotels. There is clearly a need to agree on the best accommodation category and definition and the methods used to measure water use. For this review water data for EarthCheck hotel types have been grouped to provide a relative indicator of water use per geographic sector and country. A separate report will be prepared to examine the different water use experienced for a wider range of accommodation types. The validity of mean usage differs for the different regions and accommodation types due to variations in sample sizes. More detail on regional sample sizes by accommodation type is provided in the Appendix. The relatively low consumption levels in the Pacific are likely to be influenced by the water efficiencies which have been achieved in Australia and New Zealand over the past five years (and the large number of properties in the database, relative to other nations). Both countries have benefited in recent years from dedicated marketing campaigns to influence consumer behaviour and hotel managers in relation to the need to conserve water (Figures 8 and 9). Overall, European hotels are on average more water efficient than those in some parts of the Caribbean, the Middle East and South and East Asia.

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