giantpandas currently inhabit six small mountain ranges of China i.e. Qinling, Minshan, Qionglai, Daxiangling, Xiaoxiangling and Liangshan (Fig. 1), with an estimated population size of ~1,864 [27–30]. Since the 1950s, nu- merous natural reserves, conservation centers, research bases and zoological gardens were specifically estab- lished by the Chinese government to protect this threat- ened species . Some of these wildgiantpandas have become closely associated with humans as they are housed for artificial breeding and conservation and bio- logical investigations. Also, some pandas have been dis- played publically as the ‘messenger of peace and friendship’ around the world . Although ecological, genetic and etiological studies have shown that the panda faces the threat of extinction due to habitat loss, poor reproduction and low resistance to infectious dis- eases [33, 34], recent surveys strongly indicate that para- sitic infections represent the leading health threat to giantpandas of China [35–40].
Methods: In this study, 48 B. schroederi were collected from 28 wildgiantpandas inhabiting the Qinling, Minshan and Qionglai mountain ranges in China. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (mtCytb) gene was amplified by PCR, and the corresponding population genetic diversity of the three mountain populations was determined. In addition, we discussed the evolutionary relationship between B. schroederi and its host giant panda. Results: For the DNA dataset, insignificant Fst values and a significant, high level of gene flow were detected among the three mountain populations of B. schroederi, and high genetic variation within populations and a low genetic distance were observed. Both phylogenetic analyses and network mapping of the 16 haplotypes revealed a dispersed pattern and an absence of branches strictly corresponding to the three mountain range sampling sites. Neutrality tests and mismatch analysis indicated that B. schroederi experienced a population expansion in the past. Conclusions: Taken together, the dispersed haplotype map, extremely high gene flow among the three
Infection with the parasitic nematode Baylisascaris schroederi (Ascaridida: Nematoda) is the most important cause of death in wildgiantpandas and thus it poses a significant threat to these populations [21,22]. Adult stages of this parasite usually inhabit the intestines of the giant panda, while migrating larval stages can disseminate into various body tissues. Damage to bodily tissues can include extensive inflammation and scarring of the intes- tinal wall and parenchyma of the liver and lungs (caused by larvae), as well as intestinal obstruction, inflammation and even death (mainly caused by adults) [23-25]. As with other ascaridoids, B. schroederi infection follows ingestion and the life cycle is complete without the need for an intermediate host. Infective second-stage (L2) larvae hatch in the small intestine, migrate into the liver and the lung, and finally arrive at the small intestine where they mature, mate and produce eggs . These eggs are highly resist- ant to decontamination and environmental degradation and can remain viable in moist soil for years, thus acting as a substantial reservoir for new infections. In nature, B. schroederi infection rate among wildpandas is often over 50% and can even be 100%, thus making it a leading cause of death in wild populations [21,22]. Despite its detrimental health impact on wildpandas, this parasite was first described only in 1939 as Ascaris schroederi , before being renamed as B. schroederi in 1968 . Subse- quent studies regarding B. schroederi focused mainly on morphological characteristics, fundamental biology, life cycle, pathogenicity, vaccine development and prevalence [22,23,28]. Recent advancements in PCR and sequencing technologies have led to the publication of several gene fragment sequences from B. schroederi (e.g., ITS-1, ITS-2 and 5.8S), as well as complete mtDNA and microRNA [21,25,29,30]. These data have contributed to an improved understanding for the molecular biology and genetics of this parasite. However, studies to date that are involved to the genetic diversity of B. schroederi remain scarce, with only one report publically available in which a single mt cytb was utilized for this purpose .
) by this signiﬁcantly lower host rhodanese expression and activity compared with those in the herbivorous rabbit. Host diet and phylogeny both inﬂuence gut microbiome communities (13, 14). Some differences in diet were found between the giant panda and red panda. For example, the giant panda consumes both the leaf and stem of bamboo and bamboo shoots (5), whereas the red panda does not eat the stem portion but has a much more variable diet (preferring leaves and shoots) (4, 15, 16). Some differences in gut microbial communities were observed between giant and red pandas (most of them from captive individuals) by using 16S rRNA sequences (17). However, considering their similar diets of bamboo species and bamboo parts (leaves and shoots) in the sympatric wild habitat and their close phylogenetic relatedness, we hypothesized that the sympatric bamboo- eating pandas’ gut microbiomes would commonly be enriched in genes coding for some putative enzymes involved in cyanide detoxiﬁcation. We tested this hypothesis using gut microbiome metagenomes (functional level) from wildgiantpandas, wild red pandas, wild Père David’s deer (Elaphurus davidianus) (as a typical herbivorous mammal used for comparison), and other mammals (published data).
proposed new species within existing genera (www.picor- naviridae.com). Here, we characterized a novel picorna- virus in fecal samples, which was provisionally named Aimelvirus (Ailuropoda melanoleuca virus). All libraries of fecal samples were positive for Aimelvirus. Six different complete genomes of Aimelvirus could be generated from six different fecal libraries, including two strains (Aimel- virus 1 and 6) from wildgiantpandas and four strains (Aimelvirus 2–5) from captive animals, with genome size of 8003–8100 bp. The six Aimelviruses shared 83–99.5% sequence similarity (Fig. 4a) but showed no significant similarity with any viruses in GenBank over the full ge- nomes based on BLASTn search. To investigate the rela- tionship of the six Aimelviruses, a phylogenetic tree was established over the full-genome sequences (Fig. 4b), which showed that the six Aimelviruses were grouped into two separate clusters, one including three strains from captive giantpandas and the other one including one strain from captive giantpandas and two from the two wildgiantpandas. In the lower cluster, although the two strains from the wild animals shared 99.5% nucleotide sequence similarity, they only showed 91.4 and 90.2% similarities to the strain from the captive animals.
The PANDAs PDA clearly improves the understanding and organization of information during the consultation by allowing the patient and clinician to consider and summar- ise a range of objective and subjective information. The elements for them to consider within the decision were, therefore, easier to remember and focus on in the consult- ation. However, information about the numerical risks and benefits was not apparently integrated into the decision- making. Rather, more descriptive information of the pos- sible links between current symptoms and glucose control was more influential. In this respect the PDA may improve but not substantially alter the broad heuristic thinking that typically underpins decision making by patients .
ABSTRACT: In this paper I demonstrate what actually python is along with its characteristics and the advantages of using python programming. I will also demonstrate how it can be used throughout the Data Science. Python’s ease of use, open source license and access to vast array of libraries make it particularly suited for programmers and students. In particular, I will discuss how the packages NumPy, SciPy and Pandas are used in several phases of data science, along with SQLite3 and PyTable packages.
Such measurements, usually made with brems Strahlung X-rays, have been beset by difficulties in absolute normalization and by lack of resolution, but have shown a steady improvement. The recent development of monochromatic Y-ray sources from the annihilation in flight of energetic positrons (Se 60), promises more accurate experiments in the future. In the meantime it has been possible, in careful experiments with bremsStrahlung, to detect fine structure in the giant resonances of light nuclei (Ki 59» Mu 59» Th 6l) and demonstrate the splitting into two broad peaks in those of distorted nuclei (Pu 58» Th 60).
Personality is already a consideration in the rearing of captive red pandas, particularly in breeding and maternal care, but personality in these cases is based on keeper observations and impressions rather than empirical evaluation of individual personality. The AZA Red Panda Care Manual (2012) denotes two methods of management keepers may use for mothers and new cubs, and the manual states that the “personality of the dam will determine which management style or combination works best (AZA Small Carnivore TAG 2012)”. The mother and cub may either access the exhibit before, during and after parturition, or be kept in the nest area until the cub is 2–3 months old (AZA Small Carnivore TAG 2012). The personality recommendation comes from the knowledge that red panda mothers may become intolerant of public disturbance when they have young cubs, and despite being used in red panda captive management, no work has been done to categorise personality in this species. A more detailed understanding of specific personality dimensions in this species and the effect they have on aspects of captive welfare may help improve their quality of life in captivity. Identifying behaviours that serve as major indicators of personality dimensions will aid in the analysis of individual personality, regardless of familiarity with the subject.
ABSTRACT. Objective. Reports have suggested that streptococcal infection may be etiologically related to pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders (PANDAS), but there are few good epidemiologic studies to support this theory. Using population-based data from a large West-Coast health maintenance organization, we assessed whether streptococcal infection was associated with increased risk for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Tourette’s syndrome (TS), or tic disorder.
A new method of obtaining low-resolution contemporaneous optical data from acquisition images taken during STIS observations was presented. This method allows coverage of the optical part of the spectrum while simultaneously observing in the ultraviolet. This is particularly useful in the case of EG And, as the effects of the dwarf (dominant in the UV) on the red giant (dominant in the optical) can be disentangled by having contemporaneous coverage in both spectral regions. Several separate approaches to determine the best extraction calibration values converged on a multiplicative correction factor of 1.35 to bring the pipeline produced spectrum to the absolute scale. This method has implications for all future small aperture observations with STIS, as a proven technique for obtaining useful contemporaneous optical data will benefit the study of symbiotic systems. The presence of the white dwarf affects the photometry of the system, espe- cially in the U band. The variability can be accounted for using the period of orbit and a model of ellipsoidal distortion. When this has been accounted for, the remaining variability is on the scale of that expected for a red giant and so provides a good platform for extending this study to more isolated giants.
Histologically, the tumor was relatively well defined. The tumor was predominantly com- posed of abundant plump spindle cells. The cells were diffusely arranged into solid sheets or whirling patterns with little stroma. The cells had moderate to marked cellular atypia, with pale chromatin and conspicuous nucleoli. There was approximately 2 mitosis/10 high power in spindle cells. In addition, numerous multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells con- taining large pleomorphic nuclei with irregular nuclear membrane and few showing prominent nucleoli were present within the background of the diffuse spindle cells (Figure 2). In focal area of the tumor, the classic histologic structure, the scanty osteoid formation could be seen. Immunohistochemistry
An interesting case of an 8-year-old boy with PANDAS who developed OCD and an eating disorder was recently described. When asked about his ritualistic behavior, the child replied, “it helps me to relax. It distracts me from the images in my head.” Statements of his internal running monologues were “you must do the hand thing before you eat or the food will poison you,” and “your mommy is a criminal and con- taminating your favorite things.” The child only walked on his father’s right-hand side so as “not to give off fat cells to people walking by.” He later developed ritualistic behaviors such as finger snapping to “undo contamination.” The boy also developed signs of paranoia, believing hospital staff were “evil” and trying to poison him. He recognized these fears were not real but coming from his imagination. 98 Another
The proposed work is implemented in Python 3.6.4 with libraries scikit-learn, pandas, matplotlib Tensorflow, Keras and other mandatory libraries. The training dataset of Parkinson disease patients contains 195 samples. Deep learning algorithm is applied such as artificial neural networks and deep neural networks. We used these learning algorithm for Parkinson disease prediction. The result shows that Parkinson detection is efficient using artificial neural networks algorithm. Artificial Neural network achieves 93.2% accuracy while Deep neural network achieves around 73.84% accuracy. The following table shows the accuracy arrived in our experimental study.
Patients should be monitored and evaluated every trimester or more frequently for those with larger tumors, for changes in symptoms such as headaches and visual field defects (14). Here, we describe the case of an invasive, giant prolactinoma, which was misdiagnosed due to a falsely low PRL concentration. In the case described here, the patient became pregnant and was successfully treated with CAB throughout her pregnancy.