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“Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of essential oil, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum micranthum Willd leaves”

“Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of essential oil, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum micranthum Willd leaves”

In the MIC test, five concentrations of the fluid extracts (ethanolic, aqueous and essential oil) of Ocimum micranthum Willd leaves were analyzed. These concen- trations were chosen through the evaluation of the re- sults of osmolality and pH assays that were performed to avoid interferences in the tests with mammalian cells. The dilutions of the extracts were prepared with 5% di- methyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution (D8418-500 mL ® Sigma Aldrich). This concentration of reagent was se- lected based on the results of a preliminary test where different concentrations of DMSO were evaluated to measure its toxicity on the microorganisms utilized in the present study and to eliminate the possibility of interference by the concentration of DMSO. Positive controls such as amikacin (4 mg/L) and nystatin (2 mg/ mL), control of culture medium, color control of each extract concentration and positive control of growth of each microorganism were used. In the test, 100 μL of each microorganism suspension at a concentration of 1.5 × 10 8 CFU/mL (0.5 of the McFarland scale) was inoc- ulated in the 96 well microplates, and then 100 μL of each extract solution were added. The microplates were
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EVALUATION OF WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF ZIZIPHUS XYLOPYRUS (RETZ) WILLD LEAVES EXTRACT IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

EVALUATION OF WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF ZIZIPHUS XYLOPYRUS (RETZ) WILLD LEAVES EXTRACT IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing activity of methanolic extract of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz) Willd leaves (MEZX). Methods: Incision and excision wound models were used to evaluate the wound healing activity of MEZX on Wistar rats. In each model, animals were divided into four groups of 6 animals each. In both model, Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II and III were treated with 5%w/w and 10% w/w MEZX topical ointment respectively. Group IV was treated with standard nitrofurazone ointment (0.2% w/w). The parameters recorded were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialisation period and tensile strength. Results: It was noted that the effect produced by MEZX ointment showed significant (P < 0.001) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialisation period and tensile strength showed significant (P < 0.001) changes when compared with the control. MEZX stimulates wound contraction, decreases epithelialisation period and increases tensile strength. Conclusion: This study suggests that MEZX possesses wound healing activity against Incision and excision wound.
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HPTLC studies and brine shrimp lethality assay of extracts, fractions and identified compounds of nymphaea stellata willd. leaves

HPTLC studies and brine shrimp lethality assay of extracts, fractions and identified compounds of nymphaea stellata willd. leaves

TLC due to its simplicity, accuracy, cost effectiveness and rapidity, is often used as an alternative to other chromatographic techniques for quantifying plant products. Nymphaea stellata Willd. (Ns) of the family Nymphaeceae is an important and well-known medicinal plant in the Ayurvedic and Siddha systems. Complete phytochemical profile of Ns leaf is unavailable, hence comparative TLC was used to identify and quantify chemical constituents. The quantity of gallic acid, β-carotene, lupeol and β-sitosterol were found to be 0.094679, 0.01045, 0.013016 and 0.047703 %w/w respectively. Brine shrimp lethality assay is a very useful bench-top method for drug discovery process. Hence methanolic extract, 50% methanolic extract, aqueous extract were screened along with the first timed identified gallic acid, β-carotene, lupeol and β-sitosterol. β-carotene and β-sitosterol showed LC 50 of 520 and 750 µg/ml respectively in brine shrimp
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ANTI ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS, FRACTIONS AND COMPOUNDS OF NYMPHAEA STELLATA WILLD  LEAVES

ANTI ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS, FRACTIONS AND COMPOUNDS OF NYMPHAEA STELLATA WILLD LEAVES

Regulating the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has become an important research focus in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Nymphaea stellata Willd. (Nymphaeaceae) is a well known medicinal plant traditionally claimed for various uses including narcotic effect, mild sedative, mind-altering property and inflammatory diseases of the brain. Hence, this work was planned to investigate the various extracts, fractions and reported compounds of N. stellata leaves for acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity.

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QUANTIFICATION OF OLEANOLIC ACID AND BETULINIC ACID BY TLC AND BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY ASSAY OF NYMPHAEA STELLATA WILLD. LEAVES

QUANTIFICATION OF OLEANOLIC ACID AND BETULINIC ACID BY TLC AND BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY ASSAY OF NYMPHAEA STELLATA WILLD. LEAVES

Preparation of extracts and fractions Coarsely powdered leaves of Ns were extracted with methanol, 50% methanol and chloroform water in soxhlet apparatus until exhaustion; the extract was concentrated in vacuo by rotary evaporator and dried in desiccator. Further the methanol extract was successively fractioned with petroleum ether and chloroform. The dried petroleum ether fraction of methanol extract was saponified to obtain the unsaponifiable matter 17 . The

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Evaluation of Anti-Ulcer and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of  Ethanolic Extract of Solanum Pubescens Willd Leaves on  Experimental Animals.

Evaluation of Anti-Ulcer and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Solanum Pubescens Willd Leaves on Experimental Animals.

List of Anti-ulcer plants Plant Family Plant part used Alpinia allughas Zingiberaceae Rhizome Alpinia galangal Zingiberaceae Rhizome Alpinia calcarata Zingiberaceae Rhizome Glycyrrhiza g[r]

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EVALUATION OF ANTI  HYPERGLYCAEMIC ACTIVITY OF MAYTENUS EMARGINATUS WILLD LEAVES EXTRACT ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETES IN WISTAR RATS

EVALUATION OF ANTI HYPERGLYCAEMIC ACTIVITY OF MAYTENUS EMARGINATUS WILLD LEAVES EXTRACT ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETES IN WISTAR RATS

ABSTRACT: Maytenus emarginatus Willd. Celeastraceae, popularly known as “Kankeri or kankero”, is a Thorny staff evergreen tree that is rich in various chemical constituents that determine the medicinal potential of this species. Diabetes mellitus is a disease that is affecting major population of the world. This study aimed to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Maytenus emarginatus plant which is widely found in dry and arid regions of India mainly in Rajasthan. The hydroalcholic extract of the leaves of M. emarginata (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) were administered orally to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n = 6/group) for 21 days. Changes in body weight, food and water intake, biochemical markers, fasting glucose levels and oral glucose tolerance test were evaluated. The results showed that the M. emarginatus dried extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) reduced significantly the level of blood glucose comparable to glibenclamide (10mg/kg) throughout the evaluation period and improved metabolic status of the animals and ameliorate the oral tolerance glucose test. Thus, we conclude that the extract of the leaves of M.emarginatus has antihyperglycemic activity.
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Antiviral Effect of Pterocarpus indicus Willd Leaves Extract Against Replication of Dengue Virus (DENV) In Vitro

Antiviral Effect of Pterocarpus indicus Willd Leaves Extract Against Replication of Dengue Virus (DENV) In Vitro

Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is major public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas of the world with lack of approved vaccines and effective antiviral therapies. With no current treatment for illness attributed to dengue virus (DENV) infection other than supportive care, therapeutic strategies that use natural extract was developed. Indonesia have many plants that potential for antiviral drµgs such as Pterocarpus indicus Willd ( P. indicus ). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of P. indicus to inhibit DENV replication. We used a well- differentiated hepatocytes-derived cellular carcinoma cell line (Huh-7 it-1 cells) to determine and select antiviral activity. The toxicity effects were determined by MTT assay. Then, the suppression of DENV replication was determined by Focus assay. Dengue infected cells with DMSO were used as control. We found that crude extract (Pi), hexane (Pi.1) and ethyl acetate (Pi.2) extract showed strong inhibition with high selectivity index (SI) of 1,392; 285.36 and 168.56 respectively. Sub fraction of Pi.1 and Pi.2 still showed strong inhibition with high SI. Further sub-sub fraction of Pi.2 such as Pi.2.12 and Pi.2.12.1 still showed inhibition of DENV replication but there was reduction of SI value. The mechanism experiment of Pi.2.12, we found that Pi 2.12 more profound to inhibit in the post infection stage that entry or pre-infection. We conclude that the sub-fraction of Pi.2.12 has potential antiviral activity against DV infection in vitro. Further studies are still needed to investigate the pure compound of Pi.2.12 that inhibit and have advantages in the future as alternative for treatment of DENV infection.
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Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant activity, and hepatoprotective effects of Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz.) Willd leaves extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in in vitro and in vivo models

Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant activity, and hepatoprotective effects of Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz.) Willd leaves extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in in vitro and in vivo models

O 2 ˉ (IC 50 62.03 ± 2.78 µg/mL), and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (110.05 ± 2.96 µg/mL). Treatment with EAE significantly increased the cell viability (IC 50 80.93 ± 1.02 µg/mL) by preventing CCl 4 induced cell damage in in-vitro HepG2 cell line. In case of both prophylactic and curative study, EAE extract significantly (P < 0.001) decreased CCl 4 -induced increased serum liver enzymes activities in CCl 4 -intoxicated rats, comparable to silymarin. Hepatoprotective potential further supported by pentobarbitone induced sleeping time and improved hepatic tissue histopathology. Study results suggest that antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effect of EAE might be due to presence of polyphehols, viz., TFC (43.76 ± 0.78 Quercetin equivalent [QE] mg/g extract), TPC (194.16 ± 0.74 gallic acid equivalent [GAE] mg/g extract), and TTC (20.45 ± 2.31 GAE mg/g extract). Reversed-phase high- performance liquid chromatography analysis results showed highest quercetin content (32.8 ± 0.24 mg/g) in EAE. Conclusion: This study advocated that due to the presence of flavonoids, Z. xylopyrus leaves exhibited marked antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities.
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Evaluation of the antiinflammatory activity of field grown plant and Callus Extracts of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook.F.Thoms under in vitro conditions.

Evaluation of the antiinflammatory activity of field grown plant and Callus Extracts of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook.F.Thoms under in vitro conditions.

of ethanol extracts of field allus of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook.F.Thoms nts of Tinospora cordifolia cultured on and in combinations. In the case of D, NAA and BAP a[r]

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Induction of Carrageenan Paw Oedema with Anti-Inflammatory Serum Enzymes of Diospyros Ferrea Leaf Extract

Induction of Carrageenan Paw Oedema with Anti-Inflammatory Serum Enzymes of Diospyros Ferrea Leaf Extract

The present study was employed to evaluate the probable anti- inflammatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Diospyros ferrea (willd.) Bakh, using Carrageenan (0.1 ml of 0.1%) induced inflammation and with serum acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes. The paw volume in experimental rats increased steadily for 2 hours after carrageenan administration and Indomethacin (0.5mg/kg bw), the standard drug significantly reduced paw volume. The methanolic leaf extracts at 200mg & 400mg/kg bw (1.631±0.248 &1.390±0.226) also exhibited similar effect on paw oedema comparable with Indomethacin (1.805±0.139 & 1.690±0.168). The 400mg/kg extract exhibited significantly greater activity than it was noticed with 200mg/kg leaf extract at all tested intervals when compared with control. The two enzymes, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase (2.189±0.149 & 1.843±0.139) present in elevated levels in inflammation-induced rats were significantly brought down by Indomethacin drug and leaf extracts respectively. Hence, the methanolic leaf extracts of D.ferrea plant is responsible for reduced inflammation and show similarity in action with drug Indomethacin.
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EFFECTS OF FERTILIZATION AND TILLAGE SYSTEM ON GROWTH AND CRUDE PROTEIN CONTENT OF QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD.): AN ALTERNATIVE FORAGE CROP

EFFECTS OF FERTILIZATION AND TILLAGE SYSTEM ON GROWTH AND CRUDE PROTEIN CONTENT OF QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD.): AN ALTERNATIVE FORAGE CROP

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), is an Amaranthacean, stress-tolerant plant, cultivated along the Andes, for the last 7000 years. Its grains have higher nutritive value than traditional cereals and it is a promising worldwide plant for human consumption and nutrition (Vega-Gálvez et al., 2010). Quinoa is one of the main food crops in the Andean mountains, but during recent times there has been increased interest for the product in the

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Seasonal variations of sulphur, phosphorus and magnesium in the leaves and current-year twigs of hemiparasitic mistletoe Loranthus europaeus Jacq. and its host Quercus pubescens Willd.

Seasonal variations of sulphur, phosphorus and magnesium in the leaves and current-year twigs of hemiparasitic mistletoe Loranthus europaeus Jacq. and its host Quercus pubescens Willd.

Statistical analysis. Nutrient analysis of leaves and current-year twigs was done on composite samples taken from eight oak trees and eight mistletoe plants (n = 1). We used Pearson’s correlation coefficient to analyse the relationships during studied period: (i) between nutrients within the host and within the hemiparasite, (ii) between the host and hemipara- site. Moreover, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate (iii) the relationship between nutri- ent concentrations in host and hemiparasite and the day of the year. Separate correlation matrices with correlation coefficients and scatterplots were set up for leaves and current-year twigs. We also included a significance test for the correlation coefficients. Sta- tistical analyses were carried out using the R statisti- cal program (Version 3.1.3, 2015).
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Introduction to the quinoa dilemma

Introduction to the quinoa dilemma

important to shelter, but even more diversified quinoa qualities can be developed. The potencial of quinoa has not reached what it could be. Spillovers like saponins could for instance be used to control the plagues (Martin et.al., 2008; Stuardo and Martin, 2008), or use the color agents for other items (Jacobsen and Mujica, 2001) or use the leaves for food (´Swieca et.al., 2014). Another innovative effort is presented in the panel with adding quinoa to corn-based snacks. Please turn to respective paper for more details.

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Toxic Effects of Sapium indicum (Willd.) Fruits on Animal Model

Toxic Effects of Sapium indicum (Willd.) Fruits on Animal Model

Organochlorine compounds were reported to be toxic to the experimental animals at various doses (Table 4). Although the experimental condition is not similar to the present study, a comparative study can be made with the findings of Gaines [33]. It becomes evident that the PSE is more toxic to mice and rats than some organochlorine compounds. Therefore, the fruits of S. indicum (Willd.) may be a useful source of bio-pesticide for reducing the use of long persisting, non-biodegradable organochlorne pesticides, which are harmful for all the components of our environment. Further study in this instance is necessary to evaluate its potential aspects at the field level.
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Arthopod Fauna Associated With Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata Willd) In North Carolina

Arthopod Fauna Associated With Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata Willd) In North Carolina

Kudzu, Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. Var. lobata (Willd) Maesen and S. Almeida (Ward 1998), is an invasive exotic weed of primary concern in the southeastern United States, but with a range that spans from Massachusetts to Florida, and west to Oklahoma and Texas (Frankel 1989, Mitich 2000). Kudzu infestations have also recently been discovered in Oregon (Coste 2000). This perennial, semi-woody, climbing, leguminous vine is native to China but was subsequently introduced to Japan, and from there was first introduced to the United States in a display at the Japanese pavilion in the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition of 1876 (McKee and Stevens, 1943). Kudzu was first used as an ornamental “porch” vine during the late 19 th century in the southeastern United States (Winberry and Jones, 1973), then was found to be nutritionally sound and palatable as a forage crop at the beginning of the 20 th century (Piper, 1920). Widespread distribution of kudzu did not occur until the 1930’s and 40’s when the USDA Soil Conservation Service provided approximately 84 million seedlings for planting on roughly 120,000 acres of eroded or erodable land in the southeast (Tabor and Sussot, 1941).
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TRADITIONAL USES AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF CLAMMY CHERRY – A REVIEW

TRADITIONAL USES AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF CLAMMY CHERRY – A REVIEW

About 300 species of genus Cordia have been identified worldwide. There are 13 species of this genus found in India [1,2]. One of them is Cordia obliqua Willd. [3,4] belonging to the family Boraginaceae family consists of about 2,700 species, which are distributed in tropical, sub-tropical and warmer regions around the world. It is a medium size deciduous tree, 10.5 meters high, the girth of trunk full bearing tree being 75.5 cm, branchlets glabrous, wood soft, light grey, no heartwood, leaves are alternate, flowers are bisexual and fruit is drupe. There are two forms of Cordia obliqua Willd., which are found in Himachal Pradesh and the major difference in between these two forms is the size of their fruits, one have smaller fruit than other. Traditionally Cordia obliqua has been used for different ways and mainly used for medicine of cough suppressant, astringent, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antimalarial, diuretic, febrifuge, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, respiratory stimulant, appetite suppressants and to treat ulcers, head-ache, urinary tract infections, lung disease, spleen, urethera and leprosy. Chemical compounds isolated from various parts of cordia obliqua are Hesperetin-7-rhamnoside from roots, betulin and betasitosterol from seeds[5], natural gums and mucilage from fruits and flavonoids from stem bark, all these have high potential therapeutic value.
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TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT, TOTAL FLAVONOID & ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC ACACIA CATECHU (L.F.) WILLD ROOTS EXTRACTS FOR TREATMENT OF MOUTH ULCER

TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT, TOTAL FLAVONOID & ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC ACACIA CATECHU (L.F.) WILLD ROOTS EXTRACTS FOR TREATMENT OF MOUTH ULCER

The percentage yield value of hydroalcoholic extract obtained by maceration is presented in table 1. Study revealed that hydroalcoholic solvent commonly used for extraction of antibacterial compounds [18, 19]. The phyto-chemical screenings was performed on hydro alcoholic extracts of Acacia catechu (L.F.) Willd. The results are presented in table 2.These tests reveal the presence of various bioactive secondary metabolites which might be responsible for their medicinal attributes. Preliminary phytochemical screening experiments are commonly performed to promote a guidance of substantial phytochemicals that may be involved in the antibacterial activity of plant extracts. TLC indicated the presence of different types of secondary metabolites, namely gallic acid and quercetin. The results are presented in table 3 and fig 1&2. The content of total phenolic compounds (TPC) was expressed as mg/100mg of gallic acid equivalent of dry extract sample using the equation obtained from the calibration curve: Y = 0.011X+0.011, R 2 = 0.998, where X is the gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and Y is the absorbance table 4 & fig 3. Total flavonoids content was calculated as quercetin equivalent (mg/g) using the equation based on the calibration curve: Y=0.040X + 0.009, R 2 =0.999, where X is the quercetin equivalent (QE) and Y is the absorbance table5 & fig 4. Total phenolic content and total flavonoids content was found to be 6.19 and 2.84 mg/100gm respectively table 6. In present investigation the antibacterial activity of extract obtained from the Acacia catechu (L.F.) willd were evaluated against pathogens. The fresh pure 100% extracts obtained from plant used to suitably dilute upto the concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 mg per ml and applied on to the test
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 PHARMACOVIGILANCE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS: CONTRIBUTION OF THE HERBALISTS IN ABIDJAN

 PHARMACOVIGILANCE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS: CONTRIBUTION OF THE HERBALISTS IN ABIDJAN

This survey also revealed that, taking a bath with the leaves of Jatropha curcas seems not to be toxic (n°43). But, when Jatropha curcas is associated either to Gossipuim hirsutum and Parquetina nigrescens (n°28) or to Cassia alata, Citrus aurantifolia and Anogeissus leicarpus (n°34) or to Gossipuim hirsutum, Anogeissus leicarpus, Ricinus communus, and Ocimum gratissimum (n°48), it had an abortive effect. Probably the synergistic effect of these plants is also required. The abortive effect of Momordica charantia, was due to Alpha momorcharin. The mechanism may be related to the ribosome-inhibiting activity of the protein (Leung et al., 1997).
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Evaluation of antimicrobial potential of root extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. and bark extract of Juglans regia L. against pathogenic bacterial isolates

Evaluation of antimicrobial potential of root extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. and bark extract of Juglans regia L. against pathogenic bacterial isolates

The minimum concentration of 0.6 mg/100 µl of acetone extract of J. regia was required to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. Darmani et al. (2006) have also reported the inhibition of growth of various cariogenic bacteria (S. mutans, S. salivarius, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces viscosus) by walnut aqueous extract. Allaie et al. (2018) observed the activity of J. regia against various pathogenic isolates such as E. coli (22 mm), P. aeruginosa (12 mm), K. pneumonia (16 mm), P. mirabilis (17 mm), and minimum activity was observed against S. saprophyticus (07 mm). The results were comparative with the present study. Earlier reports have also showed that walnut leaves could be used as an easily available source of natural compounds to inhibit the growth of different Gram-positive bacteria, responsible for dental plaques and oral hygiene problems (Sharafati et al., 2011). Acetone extract of J. regia has been reported to be more effective as an antimicrobial agent against pathogenic bacteria (Deshpande et al., 2011). 5. Conclusion
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