An IEEE 802.15.4 standard ZIGBEE is used for data communications with business and consumer devices in free frequency band. It is designed around low-power consumption allowing the batteries to essentially last forever. Operating on Top of the IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control (MAC)and Physical Layer (PHY) wireless standard the ZIGBEE standard provides network security and application support services. Employing a suite of technologies it enables scalable, self-organizing, self-healing networks that can manage various data traffic patterns. ZIGBEE is a low-cost, low-power, wireless mesh networking standard. The low cost allows the technology to be widely deployed in wireless control applications; the low power-usage allows longer life with smaller batteries, while the mesh network provides high reliability and larger range of operation. ZIGBEE has been developed to meet the growing demand for capable wireless networking between various low power consuming devices. The ZIGBEE alliance is working with the IEEE to ensure an integrated, complete, and interoperable network for the competitive market. The ZIGBEE Alliance will also serve as the official test and certification group for ZIGBEE devices. ZIGBEE is the only standards based technology that addresses the needs of most remote monitoring and control and sensory network applications. The 802.15.4 specification only covers the lower networking layers (MAC and PHY). To achieve inter-operability over a wide range of ZIGBEE module it follows wireless mesh network topology. It’s low cost made this to be widely deployed in wireless control and monitoring application worldwide. It uses very low power and hence has a very long battery life. It uses unlicensed 2.4 GHz ISM band which is available worldwide.
Zig-bee is a communication device used for the data transfer between the controllers, computers, systems, really anything with a serial port. As it works with low power consumption, the transmission distances are limited to 10–100 meters line-of-sight. Zig-bee devices can transmit data over long distances by passing data through a mesh network of intermediate devices to reach more distant ones. Zigbee is typically used in low data rate applications that require long battery life and secure networking. Its main applications are in the field of wireless sensor network based on industries as it requires short-range low-rate wireless data transfer. The technology defined by the Zig-bee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other wireless networks.
The successful development of the automatic meter reading system described in this paper is based on the high performance, extremely low power consumption, high level of integration, and low price technology.The technology has strong market competitiveness. Meter reading system uses short-range wireless communication and computer network technologies to read and process metering data automatically. Automatic meter reading technology can not only save human resources, but also improve the accuracy and instantaneity of the meter reading. It enables management sector to timely and accurately access power consumption messages. Moreover, no cabling is required with relatively economical investment. For the proposed automatic meter reading system, wireless communication links can be quickly built, engineering period significantly shortened, and it has better scalability compared to a wired system. In the present work Automatic Power Meter (APM) unit is designed to continuously monitor the meter reading. It avoids the human intervention, provides efficient meter reading and reduces the maintenance cost.
Advanced Electric Meter using ZigBee is a technique of reading and processing data automatically. The energy meter reading is a difficult job where the meter reader has to travel on foot and take the readings from each consumer manually to generate the bill. Also this method of collecting data becomes problematic and costly when readings have to be collected from vast and often scattered rural areas. For households at the top of huge buildings, individual housing plots etc. the traditional meter reading process is inefficient. There are chances for missing the bills, absence of consumer etc. Automating this manual system not only may relieve reading person's labor intensity, reduce the reading mistake, but also has the advantage of high speed and good real-time, with the project of the wireless Energy Meter reading for wireless communication technology, complete the design of smart Energy Meter reading system. Through researching the characteristic of main wireless communication protocol, ZigBee is chosen as lower layer communication protocol. With these applications, the standard is optimized for data rate, low power consumption, security and reliability. Here describes the functional requirements to solve the technical issues related to the market applications .
GPRS and GSM Modules are one of the commonly used communication modules in embedded systems. A GSM GPRS Module is used to enable communication between a microcontroller and the GSM / GPRS Network. The GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communication and GPRS stands for General Packet Radio Service. A GPRS GSM MODEM comprises of a GPRS GSM Module along with some other components like communication interface power supply and some indicators. With the help of this communication interface, we can connect the GPRS GSM Module on the GPRS GSM MODEM with an external computer. GPRS/GSM / Modules allow microcontrollers to have a wireless communication with other devices and instruments. Microcontrollers Wireless communication system opens up with a wide range of applications like Medical Assistance Home Automation Systems, Disaster Management, E – Commerce Vehicle Tracking, Online Banking, etc. Before going in to the details about the GSM/GPRS Module, we will first see a few basic things like GSM, GPRS, MODEM, Module and System.
Abstract:- ZigBee is a new global standard for wireless communications with the characteristics of low-cost, low power consumption, and low data rate. The design and implementation of a ZigBee- based wirelesstheftmonitoring are proposed in this paper. The experimental results show that the design can meet the basic needs of automatic theftmonitoring and expansibility. It can act as a platform of wireless monitor system and supplies a new hardware design approach for wireless ZigBee networks. In here the theft can be identified and also send message though GSM and capture the camera at the same time of theft deduction.
We are proposed the project to give the notification to the consumer side how much power they consumed depend upon the units once the units is reach above 50 automatically give the notification to the consumer side and depend upon the consumption LED indication is also present below 50 means GREEN LED is On, above 50 to 90 units means YELLOW LED IS ON, and once reach above 90 units means RED LED is ON.Fig A. Shown the energy saving system.
However, this rapid increase is pronounced in the current value of the refrigerator (Figure 6a) when it was switched ON. This was due to the single phase induction motor that drives the compressor and it is the major component in the refrigerator that consumes energy. It takes six to ten times it running current value at starting point . Figure 7 illustrates the graph of the total load connected to the prototype and switch ON at 15 minute interval for about one hour 15miniute. It was observed that the time for electric kettle was shorter and fixed, this is because it is controlled automatically by the control switch which goes OFF when the water boils and corresponds to the time it took to boil 1.5liter of water. These observations suggest that the energy consumed by the loads connected to the prototype representing a typical consumer can be measured, monitored, studied and detected in real time. Furthermore, the consumer behaviour with respect to illegal activities such as electricity theft on the distribution network can be detected based on the consumer load pattern which is acquired through the sensors. Hence this could assists in the development of new algorithm for real time electricity theft detection and monitoring.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------*****-------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract: Thermal Power Plant has to operate regularly. It is difficult to monitor the parameters at each and every moment manually. In order to increase the reliability of thermal power plant, then to reduce maintenance and operating cost, remote monitoring is necessary. This paper develops IoT based monitoring system. It consists of Temperature, Vibration, Pressure and Level sensor. These sensor’s data are processed by ATmega 328 controller which is transmitted through IoT module to remote place. It provides current updates through SMS anywhere in the plant and outside of the plant.
ABSTRACT: The paper proposes design and development of a powermonitoring system for monitoring electrical parameters such as voltage, current and consumed power by household appliances. The system consists of smart sensing units that detects and controls the electrical home appliances. PowerMonitoring is well suited for managing energy cost and efficiency thereby improve utility of the home appliances. A developed prototype has been extensively tested. Monitoring system can limit the exposure of personnel to potentially hazardous environment. This study also aims to assess consumer’s response towards perceptions of smart grid technologies, their advantages and disadvantages, possible concerns and overall perceived utility.
Fig. 1 describes the architecture of the proposed low power mesh network wireless sensor system. This system is designed to monitor the water level in gully pots connected to the sewer network. Zigbee based short ranged WSN was selected for this application because of its low cost, low data rate, low power consumption, simple communication infrastructure, low latency and capability to support one master and up to 65000 slave control units [15-17]. The system consists of sensor nodes, a data gatherer and a remote user terminal. Each sensor node comprises of a radio transceiver, data acquisition board and acoustic sensor probe. Communication between the sensor nodes and the data gatherer is via the Zigbee protocol. The data gatherer communicates with the remote user terminal via either the Ethernet connection or WiFi/GPRS access, depending on the type of user terminal being used. Apart from providing the interface between the sensor nodes and the user terminal, the data gatherer also acts as a web-server. Once the sensor nodes received the digital sensor signal via the interface circuit board, by implementing a mesh network communication configuration, this WSN allows for continuous connections and reconfigurations around blocked paths. This results in hopping from sensor node to node until a connection can be established with the data gatherer. It should be noted that the mesh networks posses the self-healing capability that will operate even when a node breaks down or a connection fails. As a result, it forms a very reliable network. As soon as the data arrived at data gatherer, it is stored in the web-server database. The data is then retrieved by the user terminal and a graphical output of the water level and the battery level are displayed through an application interface.
In the paper , they said that wireless electricity theft detection system using Zigbee technology present an efficient and less costly way to adulterate the wireless technique used in this research paper. This wireless system is used to overcome the theft of electricity via bypassing the energy meter and hence it also controls the revenue losses and utility of the electricity authorized agency. In the paper , they provide insight into the illegal use or abstraction of electricity in the Netherlands. The importance and the economic aspects of theft detection are presented and the current practices and experiences are discussed. The paper also proposes a novel methodology for automated detection of illegal utilization of electricity in the future distribution networks equipped with smart metering infrastructure. The necessary data requirements for smart meters and distribution substations are defined, in order to unlock this feature in distribution network.
Here we use 89S52 microcontroller. The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmel‟s high-density non volatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non volatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset.
ABSTRACT: Electrical energy is very essential for everyday life and is spine for the industry. Electricity is indiscipline to our daily life with the increasing need of electricity the powertheft is also increasing. This paper deals with the powertheft detection system, used to detect unauthorized tapping on transmission line and also able to identify the exact consumer where the theft is occurred. Data is transferred using RF network. This will provide an additional facility of wireless meter reading with the similar technique and in same cost using GSM. The implementation of this system will minimize the losses, and thereby electricity will be available for more consumers than earlier, in highly populated country such as INDIA.
Electricity is one of the most popular forms of energy used in the modern society. Nowadays, electricity energy demands are increasing constantly. The availability electrical energy is also serious issue since demand is greater than generation. This paper proposes the Automatic energy meter reading with indication using GSM. It developed to decrease the electricity consumption bill by providing the energy meter reading to the user with an alert message before increasing of unit charge. By using this system save the time required for conventional billing system and minimized human work load. User and service provider both are get correct reading and bill amount. Theft of electricity also avoids late bill payment. By apply this system data security improve. Due to this system service provider quickly find out illegal and late bill paying customer by accessing database. So GSM based AEMR system is more efficient that conventional billing system.
Our wireless turbidity, temperature and fire monitoring System is an automated version of manually measuring temperature and sending the information to a distant database wirelessly via ZigBee. Our system has got almost all things automated so that we get an advantage of this concept ie the real time direct measurement of the parameters (here temperature, Forest Fire and Lake water Monitoring) through ZigBee. Maintaining backup of sent data is easy and can be done within a few seconds. This project uses an LM35, SIL CONN3, ACS712, ZigBee module, LCDJHD 162A and ATMEGA-32 microcontroller (AVR trainer Board). The ZigBee transceiver is connected to PC/Notebook through RS232 cable .Windows has built in serial monitoring software called HyperTerminal to read the messages sent by modem. The system model is shown in Figure 4.1 which says about the connectivity of all mentioned devices. The
In this we used the step up transforms and step down transforms for the house hold purposed we are using 230v supply unit  but the analog circuit unit which means the ARM controller unit it supports only the 12v supply for the purpose we used the three transforms. We have written the code for the GSM technology to send the billing information to SIM card only for the register mobile number at the same time it send the information of powertheft identification
2.1.1 Anti-Cable Theft System with Adjustable Capacitance and Adjustable Inductance 6 2.1.2 Anti-Cable Theft System with Alarm System 8 2.1.3 Installation of Conductors and Ground Bars to Copper 8 2.1.4 Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) 12 2.1.5 Sensor 14
Electrical energy consist of generation, transmission and distribution system. And these generation, transmission, a distribution of electrical energy consist of many non technical losses. While, losses occurred in generation can be technically defined, but T&D losses cannot be precisely identified with the sending end information. This solves the involvement of nontechnical parameters in T&D of electricity. In short technical losses occur naturally and are caused because of power dissipation in transmission lines, transformers, and other power system components. Technical losses in T&D are calculated with the information about total load and the total energy billed .NTL (non technical losses) cannot be precisely calculated but can be concluded from the difference between the total energy supplied to the consumers and the total energy billed. NTL are done due to factors external power system. In many developing countries, NTL are a serious problem for utility companies as they account to about 10 to 40% of their total generation capacity. Data related NTL is unpredictable and it is very hard to resolve theft in terms of actions that cause these losses. Electricity theft produce a great role of the NTL. Electricity theft includes bypassing, tampering with the energy meter and other physical methods to dodge payment. Illegal tapping of electricity from the buses and tampering with the meter are the most popular and accounted ways of theft. Electricity theft can also be termed as, using electricity from the utility company without any payable charges or valid obligation to change its measurement is called electricity theft.
The rapid growth of wide urban residential areas imposes the expansion as well as modernization of water supply facilities and theft .Along with this one more problem is identified in the water supply channels, some people use ½ HP to 1 HP pump to suck the water directly from the channel of their home street.In many papers many authors used PLC and Sensors systems for water distribution network. Their system included remote terminal units, specific transducers and actuators distributed on a wide geographical area and control and power panels for the pump stations. And also improved the earlier work by using GSM modules to send message regarding theft or leakage to responsible officer ‟ s in the control room. In our work we have implemented the system using Atmega controller. The solenoid valve is driven using TRIAC and the controller was responsible for signal to intimate to water supply.