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An Indonesian Child Learning Sentence Construction

An Indonesian Child Learning Sentence Construction

Ray’s development of English complex sentences is significant since within 18 months he could produce various sentence constructions (infinitival and sentential and also conjoined clauses) accordingly. The findings of the study have proven that the acquisition of his English is similar if not the same as that of English children. Ray is a native Indonesian who learns English in a foreign setting, yet the process of English development follows the same path as that of English children. This is because there are liable universal principles apparently underlying this condition: innate capacity in a child’s brain to learn any language in his environment, a child’s prime time in learning language, sufficient exposure to and opportunities to the use language; and this is apparently applicable to the learning of language.
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Adaptive medial axis approximation for sphere tree construction

Adaptive medial axis approximation for sphere tree construction

The third sphere is constructed using White’s minimum volume enclosing ball al- gorithm [White www]. This scheme allows the sphere to remain close to the medial axis unless it is beneficial to move it,which allows for a tighter approximation. As the merging of a pair of spheres produces a new sphere,the set of merges must be updated. The neighbors of each of the merged spheres will become neighbors of each other,resulting in new potential merges. In order to ensure that we are always able to reduce the sphere set,any spheres that end up with no neighboring spheres are given a new set of neighbors,containing any of the remaining spheres it intersects. In the event that this results in an empty set of neighbors,the sphere is made a neighbor of all the remaining spheres in the set. The reason for limiting the pairs of spheres that may be combined is to reduce the computational cost of the reduction process. As the number of pairs is O ( n 2 ) it would be very expensive to consider every pair. However,when the number of spheres becomes sufficiently low,it becomes feasible to consider every pair for merging. This is typically done when we reach 2 or 3 times the target number of spheres.
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Sphere tree construction using dynamic medial axis approximation

Sphere tree construction using dynamic medial axis approximation

There are a number of interesting areas of research that can build upon this work. To date, we have concentrated on fitting tight hier- archies of spheres to rigid bodies. This can, of course, be used for articulated objects too. However, further work would be required to make the algorithms suitable for use with deformable objects. Also, many objects contain large flat areas which are not well approxi- mated by spheres, e.g. buildings. For general purpose simulation it would be nice to be able to use other collision detection strategies for these areas while using sphere-trees where applicable. Sphere- trees have also recently been used for visibility culling and level- of-detail rendering [Rusinkiewicz and Levoy 2000; Rusinkiewicz and Levoy 2001]. It would be extremely interesting to combine this technique with level-of-detail collision detection so that the same sphere-trees could be used for both. Finally, another interesting re- search area would be the construction of more generic bounding volume hierarchies containing many different types of primitive, each one being used where it is best suited.
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Evaluating Automatic Extraction of Rules for Sentence Plan Construction

Evaluating Automatic Extraction of Rules for Sentence Plan Construction

7 Revised SPaRKy One way to use these results would be to model the sentence planning task as a cascade of classifiers, but this method does not permit the system devel- oper to add his or her own rules. So we continue to use SPaRKy, which is rule-based. We have made several changes to the Java version of SPaRKy to support application of our sentence plan construc- tion rules. We modified the classes for storing and managing rules to read our XML rule format and process rule conditions and patterns. We stripped out the dependence on RealPro and added hooks for SimpleNLG (Gatt and Reiter, 2009). We modi- fied the rule application algorithm so that users can choose to use a single rule set with patterns cov- ering all three sentence planning tasks, or one rule set for each sentence planning task. Also, since there are now many rules, we give the user the option to specify which relations jSPaRKy should load rules for at each run.
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Modal particles and sentence type restrictions: A construction grammar perspective

Modal particles and sentence type restrictions: A construction grammar perspective

There are thus no specific formal or functional properties that determine class member- ship in the middle-field particle construction; this means that for particles that can be used in the same position with other meanings than the mp function, for instance as focus particles or adverbs, the form-side alone is not sufficiently distinctive, but constitutes only one of several possible interpretations. The general middle-field particle construction is thus rather schematic, basically describing only the particular grammatical slot for the kinds of items that can occur. In contrast, the mp construction, one level down in the hierarchy, is informative particularly for those particles whose function as mps is indeed defined by their grammatical position. That is, for ja, also or denn, for instance, which also occur independently or utterance-initially and thus in different constructions, the mp construction unambiguously contributes meaning components and disambiguates their uses. Consequently, like for the relationship between verbs and argument-structure constructions (Stefanowitsch 2011), we need to assume two processes at work: On the one hand, constructions express generalizations over particular items; on the other hand, category membership may have to be dynamically defined in an item-based manner.
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Analysis of Influence of L2 English Speakers’ Fluency on Occurrence and Duration of Sentence medial Pauses in English Readout Speech

Analysis of Influence of L2 English Speakers’ Fluency on Occurrence and Duration of Sentence medial Pauses in English Readout Speech

5 Conclusions From this study, it is seen that there was significant effect of L2 English (L1 Bengali) speakers’ fluen- cy on occurrence probability as well as duration of sentence-medial pause. Result of this comparative study reveals that, for each phrase type, each phrase length level, and each distance level, occur- rence probability and duration of sentence-medial pause were increased as fluency level of L2 Eng- lish speakers was decreased. In particular, occur- rence probability and duration of sentence-medial pause of every L2 English speaker group except excellent L2 English speaker group for each phrase type, each phrase length level, each distance level, were higher than L1 English speaker group, but occurrence probability and duration of pause after each respective phrase type, each phrase length level, and each distance level for excellent L2 Eng- lish speaker group were almost equal to that of L1 English speakers. Moreover, occurrence probabili- ty and duration of sentence-medial pause were in- creased almost linearly with phrase length as well
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Declarative Sentence By Sentence

Declarative Sentence By Sentence

The declarative of a pattern of changing declarative in written by simply declares her husband sent me of changing declarative question what are two different punctuation. What is by holmes to notice is a good boy who or do you eaten dinner with a very important to show what is also totally acceptable to! Tabby Responsive Tabs: cubecolour. It makes a stop! Have a need even a fuller description. Examples of this website in a text help of google iframe as and a person or a person to be freely distributed under different types of sentence by! Teach Grammar Declarative Sentences Thanks to its partnership with publisher Eye on Education EducationWorld is pleased to decorate these instruction tips. Would you agree to establish the other reasons one of a bit of nouns singular or provides some towns in their thoughts and form. Have done up or down! Clearer and interesting. In daily life. Indirect questions end with periods. The four kinds of sentences and the end your flow 1 a declarative sentence makes a statement It is labeled with a D Example Larry played basketball. Declarative Sentences Examples SoftSchools. Difference between the statement or two fact most end building a discount however.
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ADVANCE. Medial-Pivot and Stemmed Medial-Pivot Knee Systems

ADVANCE. Medial-Pivot and Stemmed Medial-Pivot Knee Systems

The A D VANCEfi Medial-Pivot and Stemmed Medial-Pivot vertical jumping distance is a constant 11mm through ROM. In addition, the A D VA N C E fi horizontal jumping distance is 23 to 32mm, depending on component size. This stability is achieved without a spine and the related complications that may occur with a traditional cam/spine mechanism. | FIGURE 7 and | FIGURE 8 The lowest point of the A D VANCEfi Medial-Pivot insert articular surface is

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ILP-based Opinion Sentence Extraction from User Reviews for Question DB Construction

ILP-based Opinion Sentence Extraction from User Reviews for Question DB Construction

{koji.murakami,keiji.shinzato}@rakuten.com Abstract Typical systems for analyzing users’ opinions from online product reviews have been re- searched and developed successfully. How- ever, it is still hard to obtain sufficient user opinions when many reviews consist of short messages. This problem can be solved with an active opinion acquisition (AOA) framework that has an interactive interface and can elicit additional opinions from users. In this paper, we propose a method for automatically con- structing a question database (QDB) essential for an AOA. In particular, to eliminate noisy sentences, we discuss a model for extracting opinion sentences that is formulated as a max- imum coverage problem. Our proposed model has two advantages: (1) excluding redundant questions from a QDB while keeping varia- tions of questions and (2) preferring simple sentence structures suitable for the question generation process. Our experimental results show that the proposed method achieved a pre- cision of 0.88. We also give details on the op- timal combination of model parameters.
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Sentence Blocks. Sentence Focus Activity. Contents

Sentence Blocks. Sentence Focus Activity. Contents

2.1 Designed specifically for the Talk a Lot course, the sentence block method is a brand new way to teach English grammar with speaking practice. The main benefit of this method is that the students have to do all of the work. They must listen, think hard, and remember. They must produce eight sentences, both positive and negative, using a given verb form, and two different question forms, using wh- questions and questions with auxiliary verbs. They must produce the eight sentences based on a given starting sentence and a given wh- question word, using a pre-agreed set of rules. When they are working on the sentence blocks students are speaking and memorising correct English. They are learning to use key verb forms in English, forming questions and responses organically as they focus all their attention on making the sentence blocks successfully. They are also learning new vocabulary and have to produce their own ideas to make the last two negative sentences work.
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Arthroscopic Release of the Medial Femoropatellar Ligament for Canine Medial Patellar Luxation

Arthroscopic Release of the Medial Femoropatellar Ligament for Canine Medial Patellar Luxation

Arthroscopic transection of the medial femoropatellar liga- ment provides medial release of the patella, and lateral imbrication can be achieved by arthroscopic thermal shrink- age of the lateral joint capsule. With the surgical technique employed in this report, tibial tuberosity transposition is performed as previously described, but without a standard arthrotomy. 13 Based upon results in the five cases reported here, the advantages of this procedure included less tissue trauma, a quicker healing time, and a more rapid return to function. However, prospective studies are required to quan- tify and compare postoperative pain and limb functionality in dogs treated with this procedure versus conventional techniques requiring an arthrotomy.
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Medial Axis Local Planner: Local Planning for Medial Axis Roadmaps

Medial Axis Local Planner: Local Planning for Medial Axis Roadmaps

for a peaking trend in the learan e values. This helps approximations with lower ray ounts by trying to ompensate for the noisy learan e data olle ted. When retra t- ing onto the medial axis we would expe t to see a unimodal sequen e, an in rease in learan e till the medial axis was rea hed, then a de rease. Noti e in Figure 6 the third

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MEDIAL CANTHAL LIGAment

MEDIAL CANTHAL LIGAment

To address the functional need to restore posterior and superior support of eyelids with symptomatic medial can- thal ligament laxity, we developed and applied a transca- runcular approach for MCL plication. 1 This technique dem- onstrated promise in our initial study 1 by resolving symptoms in 23 eyelids of 15 patients during a mean fol- low-up period of 12 months. In this study, we report the results using this method on 176 eyelids of 125 patients followed up for an average of 2 years. Our present results confirm our initial findings and show significant improve- ment in virtually all symptoms and signs while demon- strating that the benefits remain stable over time. Trans- caruncular MCL plication was equally effective whether performed alone or in conjunction with other proce- dures to repair symptomatic lower eyelid malposition.
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THE USE OF COLORFUL SEMANTICS TO IMPROVE SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION IN WRITING SENTENCES AMONG YEAR FOUR PUPILS

THE USE OF COLORFUL SEMANTICS TO IMPROVE SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION IN WRITING SENTENCES AMONG YEAR FOUR PUPILS

attempted to write during group activity and handed in writing task sheets with prolonged length of sentences. These were excellent indicators of pupils’ increased levels of motivation which might drive them to learn more about sentence writing in the future. On top of that, I had also unexpectedly improved on my reflective thinking. As I needed to jot down the strengths and weaknesses in reflective journals, I reflected on my teaching methods critically after each lesson. Soon I found that self-reflection had become my habit when I related the use of the nursery rhyme ‘London Bridge’ to teaching subject verb agreement in present continuous tense once I encountered the video clip online. Besides, I also tried to think of other effective solutions to reinforce this grammar point in my pupils. Other than that, I reflected on the level of difficulty of my teaching content so that it suited my pupils better. At this point, I found out not only that I became self-reflective, I perceived myself as a more passionate teacher too.
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Google Docs: Step by Step Sentence Construction for Primary School Marginal Passing Rate Pupils

Google Docs: Step by Step Sentence Construction for Primary School Marginal Passing Rate Pupils

feedbacks and correspondingly for pupils to review on their peers’ work. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of using Google Docs as a tool to carry out the 4-step sentence construction activities, which leads pupils progres- sively to expand their note from a word to a complete sentence based on the given title. It is specifically designed for the primary school pupils with mar- ginal passing rate, which are categorised as the pupils with marginal passing grades. An action research based on Kemmis and Mc Tagart model was car- ried out with 30 GALUS pupils by gathering documents, survey question- naires, interviews and assessments. The findings showed increase of 16 per- cent in the sentence construction skills among the pupils via the 4-step sen- tence construction activities conducted in Google Docs. The results also show that this approach clearly promotes the participation of pupils in writing ac- tivities. In conclusion, the 4-step sentence construction activities are effective in teaching sentence construction.
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The Use of Colorful Semantics to Improve Sentence Construction in Writing Sentences Among Year Four Pupils

The Use of Colorful Semantics to Improve Sentence Construction in Writing Sentences Among Year Four Pupils

attempted to write during group activity and handed in writing task sheets with prolonged length of sentences. These were excellent indicators of pupils’ increased levels of motivation which might drive them to learn more about sentence writing in the future. On top of that, I had also unexpectedly improved on my reflective thinking. As I needed to jot down the strengths and weaknesses in reflective journals, I reflected on my teaching methods critically after each lesson. Soon I found that self-reflection had become my habit when I related the use of the nursery rhyme ‘London Bridge’ to teaching subject verb agreement in present continuous tense once I encountered the video clip online. Besides, I also tried to think of other effective solutions to reinforce this grammar point in my pupils. Other than that, I reflected on the level of difficulty of my teaching content so that it suited my pupils better. At this point, I found out not only that I became self-reflective, I perceived myself as a more passionate teacher too.
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A Sentence Construction Intervention for Elementary-Aged Spanish-Speaking Language-Minority Students with Writing Difficulties

A Sentence Construction Intervention for Elementary-Aged Spanish-Speaking Language-Minority Students with Writing Difficulties

Investigators measured four variables in the five-minute paragraph probes: total number of words written, CWS, IWS, and percent of CWS. Nini was the only participant whose paragraph writing skills may have improved due to sentence instruction. Her total words, CWS, and percent of CWS all increased from the first to the second probe. Her number of IWS also increased, but that would be expected since she wrote more total words during the second probe. One explanation for the improvement in her paragraph writing could be that her inclination to write more complex sentences following the intervention may lend itself better to paragraph writing than the simple sentence structure that the other participants used. However, it could also be that she was more interested in the topic of the second CBM that she chose than the first, leading her to write more about it. Investigators did not administer an interest inventory to determine what the participants preferred to write about.
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TomoFix Medial High Tibial Plate (MHT). For Medial High Tibial Osteotomies.

TomoFix Medial High Tibial Plate (MHT). For Medial High Tibial Osteotomies.

Note: This incision runs essentially in line with the skin lines and the saphenous nerve. First, divide the subcutaneous tissues and the fascia at the cranial border of the pes anserinus. Retract the pes tendons distally. The anterior border of the superficial layer of the me- dial collateral ligament now comes into view (2). Pass a pe- riosteal elevator under the ligament that is then lifted from the tibia. Detach the long fibers of the superficial part of this ligament from the tibia with a scalpel until the posterior ridge of the tibia is exposed. Insert a Hohmann retractor be- hind the tibia (3). Expose the insertion of the patellar tendon into the tibial tuberosity at the anterior edge of the incision and the medial border of the patellar ligament.
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SENTENCES Sentence Subject Object Command Exclamation Question Statement Simple sentence Compound sentence Complex sentence First person Second

SENTENCES Sentence Subject Object Command Exclamation Question Statement Simple sentence Compound sentence Complex sentence First person Second

The object of a sentence is involved in the action but does not carry it out. For example, ‘I dropped my cup on the floor’. Command A type of sentence which instructs or orders an action to take place. Contains an imperative verb which does not need a subject. Often a command will begin with this imperative verb or with a time connective.

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AMR Beyond the Sentence: the Multi sentence AMR corpus

AMR Beyond the Sentence: the Multi sentence AMR corpus

The Multi-Sentence Abstract Meaning Representation (MS-AMR) corpus is a corpus annotated on top of existing gold AMRs, extending them with this additional information. By linking those AMRs together, it presents an integrated representation of the meaning of an entire document or discourse, as the addition of the coreference, implicit role reference and bridging relations across each AMR helps to build a larger representation of the entire propositional content of the document. Because these MS- AMR representations are annotated directly onto the variables within an AMR semantic representation, it is also a different task from traditional coreference, event coreference or implicit role coreference tasks, and results in a fundamentally different kind of data. We present a baseline system and inter- annotator agreement scores, which we hope will illuminate the nature and quality of the dataset, and outline methods for how to score MS-AMR system outputs.
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