witness indistinguishable protocol

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Proofs  of  Ignorance   and  Applications  to 2-Message  Witness  Hiding

Proofs of Ignorance and Applications to 2-Message Witness Hiding

There have been several works on witness hiding protocols for languages where each instance has a unique witness. Haitner, Rosen and Shaltiel [26] showed that such languages do not have constant round public-coin witness hiding protocols which are based on standard assumptions via some restricted types of black-box reductions. Deng et al. [16] showed that for any such language L, and for any distribution D over L that has an indistinguishable counterpart distribution over a relation with multiple witnesses, it holds that any witness indistinguishable protocol is witness hiding with respect to D. Bellare and Palacio [4] showed that the Schnorr and Guillou-Quisquater 3-message identification protocols are witness hiding under the assumptions of one-more Discrete Log and one-more RSA.
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Indistinguishable  Proofs  of  Work  or  Knowledge

Indistinguishable Proofs of Work or Knowledge

Our formalization entails two definitions, f -soundness and (statistical) indistinguishability. In f - soundness we require that any prover that has running time (in number of steps) less than a specified parameter calibrated according to the function f of the running time of the puzzle solver, it is guaran- teed to lead to a knowledge extractor. The importance of the function f is to provide a safe running time upper bound under which the complete protocol execution is successful only via an (a-priori) knowledge of the witness. Indistinguishability on the other hand, ensures that a malicious verifier is incapable of discerning whether the prover performs the proof of work or possesses the knowledge of the witness. We note that timing issues are not taken into account in our model (i.e., we assume that the prover always takes the same amount of time to finish no matter which one of the two strate- gies it follows). What we do care about though, is that the prover who performs a proof of work spends at least a certain amount of computational resources. Note that indistinguishability easily im- plies witness indistinguishability [FS90], and thus any PoWorK is also a witness indistinguishable protocol.
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Indistinguishable proofs of work or knowledge

Indistinguishable proofs of work or knowledge

Definition of PoWorKs. Our formalization entails two definitions, f -soundness and (statistical) indistinguishability. In f -soundness we require that any prover that has run- ning time (in number of steps) less than a specified parameter calibrated according to the function f of the running time of the puzzle solver, it is guaranteed to lead to a knowledge extractor. The importance of the function f is to provide a safe running time upper bound under which the complete protocol execution is successful only via an (a-priori) knowledge of the witness. Indistinguishability on the other hand, ensures that a malicious verifier is incapable of discerning whether the prover performs the proof of work or possesses the knowledge of the witness. We note that timing issues are not taken into account in our model (i.e., we assume that the prover always takes the same amount of time to finish no matter which one of the two strategies it follows). What we do care about though, is that the prover who performs a proof of work spends at least a certain amount of computational resources. Note that indistinguishability eas- ily implies witness indistinguishability [FS90], and thus any PoWorK is also a witness indistinguishable protocol.
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Pragmatic identification of the witness sets

Pragmatic identification of the witness sets

To summarize, in (Robaldo, 2011) witness sets are firstly identified on pragmatic grounds, then they are locally max- imized. It is important to understand that, in Robaldo’s, Maximality conditions are not thought as “constraints that must be satisfied in order to judge the formula as true in the context”. Rather, they must be thought as “asserted knowl- edge needed to draw the appropriate inferences from the sentences’ meaning”. Conversely, the evaluation of the for- mula, i.e. the task of deciding whether a sentence is true or false in a certain model, is totally devolved upon the inter- pretation function g.
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Expert Witness Fees

Expert Witness Fees

5 Some of these courts even hold that any agreement to pay more than the ordinary witness fees is invalid for lack of consideration." This approach enables the indigent party to obtain e[r]

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Offline  Witness  Encryption

Offline Witness Encryption

Functional witness encryption. Functional witness encryption was proposed by Boyle et al. [BCP14] and its encryption algorithm takes as input a circuit f in addition to instance x and message m. A party knowing a witness w for x now does not learn m itself, but only the function f (m, w). For example, x could be a labeled graph and a party knowing a t-clique in x can learn the labels of this clique (but no other labels). Indistinguishability-based security (there is also an extractability-based notion) requires that, even when x ∈ L, encryptions of (x, m 0 , f 0 ) and

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The Child Witness in the Courtroom

The Child Witness in the Courtroom

allow victims and witnesses younger than 13 years to testify by alternative (closed-circuit) methods, which, to date, has only been enacted in a small number of states. However, all states have laws to minimize the impact on children of appearing in court through allowing support people or comfort objects or provisions for excluding the press. However, some states, such as California, have codes that apply only to victims of physical and sexual abuse and exclude children who witness violence; these children are covered by the federal statute.

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Witness Identification in Twitter

Witness Identification in Twitter

In this section, we evaluate the hypothesis of whether detecting a witness accounts indicates that an event has taken place. We apply our wit- ness identification model on streaming real-time Twitter data. For the time period that we tested in, the number of real-time tweets were 7,517,654 tweets. In the entire tweet collection, 47,254 tweets were identified as witness tweets. Based on a simple similarity measure, we clustered the tweets. If less than 3 tweets were found in a clus- ter, we eliminated that cluster. This led to 49,906 clusters or events. Of the 47,254 witness tweets, 1782 were from the clusters. Note that the pro- portion of witness tweets is 3.57% in the cluster events and only 0.63% in the streaming 1% sam- ple. This suggests that there is a relationship be- tween statistically finding more witness accounts and detection of events. In future, we aim to study this relationship in more detail.
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The Reluctant Witness for the Prosecution

The Reluctant Witness for the Prosecution

It is submitted that the occurrence wherein the witness refuses to testify on a valid claim of his privilege against 72 self-incrimination will always be prejudicial, while his refusal t[r]

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Growing Up a Witness

Growing Up a Witness

We see that the Jehovah Witness faith has clear boundaries when it comes to understanding, and condemning, sexuality. It is important to gain further knowledge of Jehovah’s Witness beliefs in order to make inferences on the effects of credence within women’s lives. Sociologist Andrew Holden (2002), completed an ethnographic study on the faith, immersing himself within the culture and beliefs. Holden works to break down the complex ideas and offer a public understanding of the religion. One aspect that proves to be passionately taught is the idea that our world has been swallowed by evil. Holden (2002) states that to Jehovah’s Witnesses, the time we live in is:
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Self-homodyne-enabled generation of indistinguishable photons

Self-homodyne-enabled generation of indistinguishable photons

For off-chip applications a high photon-extraction effi- ciency is desirable, which can be achieved by embedding the QD into a resonator with strong vertical emission. For example, QDs have been embedded in micropillar cavities [6, 7] that also Purcell enhance the emission rate for fast photon extraction. Utilizing resonant excitation of such structures, highly indistinguishable photon gen- eration has recently been demonstrated [18–20]. Impor- tantly, resonant excitation enables a high degree of in- distinguishability due to the absence of excitation tim- ing jitter and electric field noise that typically results from charge fluctuations in the semiconductor environ- ment under non-resonant excitation [8, 9].
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When are description logic knowledge bases indistinguishable?

When are description logic knowledge bases indistinguishable?

Note that even for Σ containing all concept and role names in the KBs, Σ-query inseparability does not necessarily imply logical equivalence: e.g., (∅, {A(a)}) is {A, B}-query insep- arable from ({B v A}, {A(a)}) but the two KBs are clearly not logically equivalent. Thus, if KBs are used for purposes other than querying data via CQs, then different notions of inseparability are required. We now discuss the applications of Σ-query inseparability for the tasks above in more detail. Versioning. Version control systems for KBs provide a range of operations including, for example, computing the relevant differences between KBs, merging KBs and recovering KBs. All these operations rely on checking whether two versions, K 1 and K 2 , of a KB are indistinguishable from the application
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Multilinear  Maps  Using  Ideal  Lattices  without  Encodings  of  Zero

Multilinear Maps Using Ideal Lattices without Encodings of Zero

Garg, Gentry, Sahai, and Waters [GGSW13] constructed an instance of witness encryption based on the NP-complete 3-exact cover problem and the GGH map. However, Hu and Jia [HJ15a] have broken the GGH-based WE. Furthermore, one cannot construct a witness encryption scheme by directly using our construction according to a comment [HJ15b]. Thus, in this section, we present an instance of WE based on a variant of our multilinear map.

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Recovery Based Low Storage Clone Detection for Secure Data Transmission in Wireless Sensor Network

Recovery Based Low Storage Clone Detection for Secure Data Transmission in Wireless Sensor Network

The Randomized Multicast (RM) performs clone detection using a signature authenticating code is broadcasted along with the location claim. Each node forwards those claims to randomly chosen set of witness nodes. If any witness receives two different location claims for same node ID it can revoke the replicated node in the network [12].The Line Selected Multicast (LSM) protocol [11] allows a node to announce its location to all its neighboring nodes. Each node in the network has a unique signature assigned to it. When a location claim travels from source to location, it has to pass several intermediate nodes which form a claim message path. Cloned nodes are detected by the node on the intersection of two different paths that are formed by claims carrying the same ID to two different destination nodes.
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12-18-2014 12:00 AM The Christian as Witness in View of the True Witness

12-18-2014 12:00 AM The Christian as Witness in View of the True Witness

If the Christian can never capture, possess, or perfectly communicate the Word of God in his or her witness, then particular cultural or historical understandings of the “Christian message” ought not to be considered ultimate. John Franke sees this relativization of human theological language as important for addressing the problem of “sectarianism in Christian community as different expressions of the church conclude that they have arrived at the one true system of doctrine.” 123 Of course, the witness can never escape his or her cultural historical context and so must witness from the standpoint of his or her own particularity. However, Barth’s emphasis on divine action and divine freedom seems to recommend a certain openness on the part of Christians with respect to what “true Christianity” might look like and cautions against making one’s own understanding normative. Franke writes, “No single community, tradition, or perspective can speak for the whole church.” 124 As noted above, when this happens, Christians often become self- glorifying and egocentric, rather than attesting to Jesus Christ’s lordship.
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Going to Court: Information for the Witness

Going to Court: Information for the Witness

perpetrator will continue the serious anti- social behaviour, despite the injunction, the Judge will attach a power of arrest. This will allow the police to arrest the Perpetrator and bring them before the court. If you have witnessed this incident, you will be required to attend in person as a witness.

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On Handling Inaccurate Witness Reports

On Handling Inaccurate Witness Reports

Abstract. Witness reports are a key building block for reputation systems in open multi-agent systems in which agents, that are owned by a variety of stake- holders, continuously enter and leave the system. However, in such open and dynamic environments, these reports can be inaccurate because of the differing views of the reporters. Moreover, due to the conflicting interests that stem from the multiple stakeholders, some witnesses may deliberately provide false infor- mation to serve their own interests. Now, in either case, if such inaccuracy is not recognised and dealt with, it will adversely affect the function of the reputation model. To this end, this paper presents a generic method that detects inaccuracy in witness reports and updates the witness’s credibility accordingly so that less credence is placed on its future reports. Our method is empirically evaluated and is shown to help agents effectively detect inaccurate witness reports in a variety of scenarios where various degrees of inaccuracy in witness reports are introduced.
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Peter as Witness to Easter

Peter as Witness to Easter

The Gospels converge in presenting Mary Magdalene as the primary and preeminent witness to the discovery of the empty tomb. What of her being the recipient of the first appearance of the risen Christ (Mt 28:9–10; Jn 20:11–18)—something explicitly asserted by Mark 16:9, apparently depending on John 20:11–18? 65 Any answer here must reckon with the fact that neither Mary Magdalene nor any other women are mentioned by Paul in the list of three individuals to whom the risen Jesus appeared (1 Cor 15:5–8): Cephas, James, and Paul himself. Paul also lists three groups: “the Twelve,” more than 500 “brothers,” and “all the apostles.” While women did not belong to the first group, they were presumably represented in the crowd of over 500 “brothers and sisters” or “fellow Christians,” and could well have numbered among “all the apostles.” At the end of Romans, Paul names among his collaborators Andronicus and Junia (a married couple?) as “distinguished among the apostles” (Rom 16:7). 66 Understanding “apos- tles” to extend beyond “the Twelve,” Paul makes room for women among the apostles for two reasons: they could be witnesses to the risen Christ (for this qualification of apostleship see, e.g., 1 Cor 9:1) and sent on mission for Christ, like Epaphroditus (Phil 2:25; 4:18). 67 The concluding chapter of Romans opens by praising Phoebe and Prisca, includes further positive remarks about other women, and shows how comfortable Paul is with the prestige and leadership roles of women (Rom 16:1–16).
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Study of Women Witness Edict about Proving Claim

Study of Women Witness Edict about Proving Claim

accept two women witness and a man witness in proving financial claim. (Najafi, v 40, p 432,433) additional to several narratives, the verse of Quran is the document of this edict (Baqareh, 282).Of course, Islamic jurists do not define financial affairs definitely. So they have divergence view in some evidence. Some of commentators cited this verse of Quran” if one of them forget the witness, another one remember it “in respond to this question why two women witness is necessary in financial affairs. Some of commentators believe that word” remember” is against the “for gotten”. Late Feiz Kashani says about this holy verse:” forgotten is the reason of plurality of woman witnesses”. Late Tabarsi who is one of the well-known commentators of Shiite, says about this verse:” women are forgetful more than men”.
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Testamentary Rights of a Beneficiary Witness

Testamentary Rights of a Beneficiary Witness

Testamentary Rights of a Beneficiary Witness SMU Law Review Volume 7 | Issue 4 Article 6 1953 Testamentary Rights of a Beneficiary Witness Bob Price Robert W Pack Jr Follow this and additional works a[.]

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